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Better learning thrustructtchng
 

Better learning thrustructtchng

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    Better learning thrustructtchng Better learning thrustructtchng Presentation Transcript

    • Better Learning Through Structured Teaching A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility © 2008 Iowa Department of Education 1
    • Learning, or Not Learning, in School  How do students move from ―Novice‖ to ―Expert‖ in any area of learning?  What is an effective structure for instruction that we know about? © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 2
    • Gradual Release of Responsibility  When teachers… • Model • Give feedback • Incorporate opportunities for peer support • Give students lots of practice  Then teachers gradually do less of the work and students gradually assume increased responsibility for their own learning. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 3
    • A Structure for Instruction that Works TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson ―I do it‖ Guided Instruction ―We do it‖ ―You do it Collaborative together‖ Independent ―You do it alone‖ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 4
    • When Learning Isn’t Occurring... © 2008 Iowa Department of Education 5
    • In Some Classrooms… TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson ―I do it‖ ―You do it Independent alone‖ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 6
    • In Some Classrooms… TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY ―You do it Independent alone‖ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 7
    • And in Some Classrooms… TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson ―I do it‖ Guided Instruction ―We do it‖ Independent ―You do it alone‖ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 8
    • A Structure for Instruction that Works TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson ―I do it‖ Guided Instruction ―We do it‖ ―You do it Collaborative together‖ Independent ―You do it alone‖ STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 9
    • What are some ways that the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model can help each student to reach the learning target? © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 10
    • Overview of Focus Lesson  Teacher introduces the concept, skill, or strategy the students are to learn  Teacher makes the learning transparent  Teacher demonstrates how decisions are made to complete the task  Students witness the teacher using the strategy being demonstrated  Brief (5–15 minutes) © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 11
    • What They Are Not…  Not a time for the teacher to ask students questions  Not a time for the teacher to ―tell‖ students things  Not a time for students to read out loud to the rest of the class © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 12
    • Key Features of Focus Lessons  Establish a purpose for the learning • Content • Language • Social  Modeling thinking © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 13
    • Instructional Strategies for Effective Focus Lessons  Three methods • Modeling • Metacognitive awareness • Think-alouds  Although closely related, these three techniques serve different purposes. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 14
    • Modeling  Modeling emphasized cognition—that is, how a skill, task, or strategy is accomplished. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 15
    • Modeling  The focus lesson is an opportunity to model a task or skill.  Modeling follows a precise pattern: • Name the strategy, skill, or task. • State the purpose of the strategy, skill, or task. • Explain when the strategy or skill is used. • Use analogies to link prior knowledge to new learning. • Demonstrate how the skill, strategy, or task is completed. • Alert learners about errors to avoid. • Access the use of the skill. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 16
    • Modeling  When learners have a skill or strategy modeled, and not just merely told, they gain a deeper understanding for when to apply it, what to watch out for, and how to analyze their success. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 17
    • Two Examples of Modeling…  Direct explanation  Demonstration © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 18
    • Direct Explanation  Requires the teacher to state explicitly what a process is and how it is to be used, including a model of how it looks or sounds  Accompanied by a clear sequence of instructions that feature consistent use of language and precise terminology  Moves into guided instruction with the whole class and then with small groups © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 19
    • Demonstration  Includes narration of an expert who explains what he or she is doing  The combination of verbal and visual elements reinforces the most salient features of the task  Includes not only the sequence of steps, but also insights into how decisions are made and when to go on to the next step as well as error to avoid when completing the task © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 20
    • Teaching for Metacognitive Awareness  Defined as the learner’s mindful acknowledgment of his or her own learning processes, the conditions under which he or she learns best, and a recognition that learning has occurred © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 21
    • Teaching for Metacognitive Awareness  Metacognitive awareness is truly a lifelong phenomenon and is therefore not taught in a handful of lessons. Instead, it is something that teachers must return to again and again.  Accomplished through focus lessons that provide students with time to recognize that learning has occurred and under what conditions. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 22
    • Teaching for Metacognitive Awareness  Focus lessons with a metacognitive component ask students to analyze how they are applying the strategy. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 23
    • Teaching for Metacognitive Awareness  Anderson (2002) developed a series of four questions that challenge learners to move from cognition to metacognition. • ―What am I trying to accomplish?‖ • ―What strategies am I using?‖ • ―How well am I using the strategies?‖ • ―What else could I do?‖ © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 24
    • Teaching for Metacognitive Awareness  Notice how the metacognitive awareness focus lesson differs from modeling and how it represents a gradual release of responsibility within this phase of instruction.  In the metacognition focus lesson, the emphasis shifts to direct instruction on a framework for making decisions about the use of the skill or strategy. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 25
    • Teaching for Metacognitive Awareness  Public problem solving  Think-alouds  Shared reading  Write-alouds © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 26
    • Public Problem Solving  Public problem solving is a demonstration of the metacognitive processes an expert engages in, as the teacher makes his or her thinking transparent to learners. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 27
    • Think-alouds  The key to an effective think-aloud is that the teacher is using the first person to describe how he or she makes decisions, implements skills, activates problem-solving protocols, and evaluates whether success has been achieved. • Keep the focus of the think-aloud tight and brief • Pay attention to your own thinking processes as you design your think-aloud • Find you authentic voice when you think aloud • Think like the expert you are • Name your cognitive and metacognitive processes © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 28
    • Think-aloud  Keep in mind that the goal of a think- aloud is to let novices in on how an expert synthesizes skills and habits of mind. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 29
    • Shared Reading  Shared reading is a practice that allows teachers to model how they apply reading comprehension strategies to text.  A key feature of a shared reading is the students’ access to the text.  The teacher pauses throughout the reading to think aloud about the information and to explain his or her own mental processes in understanding the text. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 30
    • Write-alouds  Write alouds capture the dynamics of writing by letting students witness the thinking processes used by the writer.  Writing aloud is essential for improving writing among students. © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 31
    • Formative Assessments in Focus Lessons  Checking for Understanding  Oral • Partner talk  Written • Ticket out the door © 2008 Iowa Department of Education Every Child Reads: Excellence in Teaching and Learning 32