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Presentation 06 - Human Digestion
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  • 1. Human digestion
  • 2. Human digestive system (General plan) Accessory digestive organs
  • 3. Sites of digestion Organ/s Mechanical digestion Carbohydrate digestion Protein digestion Nucleic Acid digestion Lipid digestion Oral cavity Esophagus Pharynx Chewing Peristalsis Stomach Churning Mixing Peristalsis Small intestine Lumen Peristalsis Mixing Small intestine Epithelium Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) Disaccharides (sucrose, lactose) Salivary amylase Smaller polysaccharides, maltose Polysaccharides Pancreatic amylase Maltose and other disaccharides Disaccharidases Monosaccharides Proteins Pepsin Small polypeptides Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin Smaller polypeptides Small peptides Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase Amino acids DNA, RNA Pancreatic nucleases Nucleotides Nucleotidases Nucleosides Nucleosidases, phosphatases Nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Fat globules Bile salts Fat droplets Pancreatic lipase Glycerol, fatty acids, glycerides
  • 4. Composition of the adult human body
  • 5.
    • Salivary glands
      • Produce saliva
        • Mostly water
        • Some enzymes
          • Salivary amylase
          • Lysozyme
        • Mucus or mucin
    • Teeth
    Digestion in the Mouth
  • 6. Swallowing: from mouth to stomach
  • 7.
    • Muscular sac
      • Churns & mixes food
    • Gastric glands
      • Parietal cells  HCl, intrinsic factor
      • Goblet cells  mucus
      • Chief cells  pepsinogen, weak gastric lipase
      • Gastrin
        • Hormone
        • Controls gastric juices
    • Comes out as chyme (2-6 hours)
    Digestion in the Stomach
  • 8.
    • Liver
    • Secretes bile
    • (stored in gall bladder)
    • Emulsifies fats
    • Gallbladder
    • Stores, concentrates, and releases bile into duodenum
    • Stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK)
  • 9.
    • Exocrine function
    • Acinar cells secrete pancreatic juice
      • Amylase
      • Lipase
      • Trypsin
      • Chymotrypsin
      • Carboxypeptidase
      • Nuclease
      • NaHCO 3 -
    • Secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) fr intestinal wall stimulates PJ production
    Pancreas
  • 10.  
  • 11. Chemical digestion in the duodenum (con’t.)
  • 12. Absorption in the small intestine
  • 13. Reabsorption and elimination in the large intestine
    • Areas of the colon
      • Cecum
      • Rectum
      • Anus
    • Absorption of water and electrolytes
    • Concentration & elimination of solids
    • Home for bacteria that produce biotin, folic acid, vitamin K, several B-vitamins, gases
  • 14. Hormones coordinate secretion of digestive juices Name Source Stimulant Target Organ Function Stomach Gastrin Pyloric mucosa Partially-digested food Gastric glands Secretion of gastric juice Intestinal Gastrin Intestinal mucosa Stomach Secretin Acidity of chyme Pancreas and liver Secretion of PJ rich in HCO 3 - and bile production Cholecystokinin (CCK) Fats or combination of acids and fats Pancreas and gallbladder (Sphincter of Oddi in CBD) Secretion of PJ, bile from gallbladder, opening of SO Enterocrinin Acidity of chyme Duodenum Secretion of intestinal juice Enterogastrone or Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) Fats Stomach Inhibits secretion of gastric juice and decreases gastric motility
  • 15. Liver Gall- bladder CCK Entero- gastrone Gastrin Stomach Pancreas Secretin CCK Duodenum Key Stimulation Inhibition