Wildfire Hazards


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This is a presentation based off a fact sheet from the USGS on Wildfires.

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Wildfire Hazards

  1. 1. Wildfire Hazards USGS Science Helps Build Safer Communities
  2. 2. Locations with wildfires >250 acres from 1980 - 2003
  3. 3. USGS <ul><li>As an unbiased, multi-disciplinary science organization that focuses on biology, geography, geology, geospatial information, and water, we are dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the landscape, our natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten us. Learn more about our goals and priorities for the coming decade in our Science Strategy . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.usgs.gov/ </li></ul>
  4. 4. USGS <ul><li>… and Google Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHBzOxdb7Ko </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… .and Wildfires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbEEsDuNdu8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much much more on YouTube </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What’s the real threat? <ul><li>More people living in outskirts of society </li></ul><ul><li>Increased threat to life and property </li></ul><ul><li>Where in particular? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where native ecosystems meet developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Around Russellville, what does that mean? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mountainous Terrain – Marina Road, Lake Dardenelle, Mount Nebo State Park (any state park) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Mother Nature <ul><li>Suppressing Fires Bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can lead to worse fires due to the buildup of vegetation and plant communitites. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Secondary Effects <ul><li>Erosion from rain </li></ul><ul><li>Mudslides </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of invasive species </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in water quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can kill off aquatic wildlife – run off is toxic to water </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. US Geological Society <ul><li>USGS provides tools and information by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying wildfire risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to reduce wildfire hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing real-time firefighting support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing the aftermath of wildfires </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. USGS Science Priorities <ul><li>Conduct research on previous wildfires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignition sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burn severity patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Season of burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire size </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. USGS Science Priorities <ul><li>Study the effects of postfire runoff and erosion on aquatic ecosystems and species </li></ul>
  11. 11. USGS Science Priorities <ul><li>Expand the ability to monitor and provide early warnings using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensor webs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>satellite technology </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Why research historical fire patterns? <ul><li>Study their size </li></ul><ul><li>How they started </li></ul><ul><li>How hot they burned </li></ul><ul><li>What time of year they occurred </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other kewl research? <ul><li>Developing methods to monitor the effectiveness of treatments to reduce fuel buildup </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of wildfire on wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>The ecological effects of feul-reduction measures </li></ul><ul><li>Postfire rehabilitation treatments </li></ul>
  14. 14. Who Uses This Information? <ul><li>Land Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Managers in resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Community </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance Companies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Minimize Risks <ul><li>Use this information to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine fire risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan fuel treatments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop emergency response plans </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Fire Potential Index FPI <ul><li>To aid land managers in developing plans to minimize wildfire threats before they occur </li></ul><ul><li>FPI depicts the wildfire potential for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrublands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grasslands </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. FPI <ul><li>FPI maps use satellite-derived information to assess the impact of vegetation on fire danger </li></ul><ul><li>Updated daily to reflect changing weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Used in daily wildfire decision making </li></ul>
  18. 18. FPI <ul><li>WFAS developers have been working on a process to use seven day forecasts from the National Weather Service to estimate future fire danger. These fire danger forecasts are being produced at 6:00 AM Mountain Time each day for the current day and the next six days. Images of the forecast Energy Release Component for Fuel Model G are currently being provided and future enhancements will offer more indices, components and fuel moistures as well as more comprehensive analysis tools. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wfas.net/component/option,com_frontpage/Itemid,1/ </li></ul>
  19. 19. GeoMAC <ul><li>Monitors the risk of actively burning wildfires </li></ul><ul><li>Internet based mapping tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a national view of current wildfire situations to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Managers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Public </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. GeoMAC <ul><li>Provides the most current wildfire information available! </li></ul><ul><li>How important is real time data in decision making for emergency managers? </li></ul>
  21. 21. geoMAC <ul><li>The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping application originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current fire locations and perimeters in the conterminous 48 States and Alaska. Using a standard web browser, fire personnel can view this information to pinpoint the affected areas. With the growing concern of western wildland fires in the summer of 2000, this application has also become available to the public. We hope that you find this important information both timely and helpful. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.geomac.gov/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. LANDFIRE <ul><li>LANDFIRE is a multipartner wildfires, ecosystem, and fuel mapping projects. </li></ul><ul><li>LANDFIRE data support for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuels treatments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postfire recovery actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective monitoring </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. LANDFIRE <ul><li>LANDFIRE, also known as the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project, is a five-year, multi-partner project producing consistent and comprehensive maps and data describing vegetation, wildland fuel, and fire regimes across the United States. It is a shared project between the wildland fire management programs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior. The project has four components: the LANDFIRE Prototype, LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment, LANDFIRE National, and Training/Technology Transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.landfire.gov/ </li></ul>
  24. 24. FPI, GeoMAC, LANDFIRE <ul><li>How much information is needed? For What? </li></ul><ul><li>Does using multiple systems create confusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Any integration between the three? </li></ul><ul><li>Information Overload? </li></ul>
  25. 25. After the fire is gone <ul><li>Post fire disaster is devastating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landslides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debris flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>altered water quality </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Erosion <ul><li>The risk of floods and debris flows increases due to the exposure of bare ground and the loss of vegetation. </li></ul>
  27. 27. USGS Rapid Deployment Data-Collection Networks <ul><li>Provide critical information for postfire flood and debris flow warning </li></ul><ul><li>Provide critical information on the response of the eroded, burned areas </li></ul>
  28. 28. What does this do? <ul><li>This information helps emergency management officials with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postfire mitigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation planning </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. USGS Wildfire Science <ul><li>This is an integral part of the Federal Government mission to protect life , property and natural resources during all phases of a fire </li></ul><ul><li>BEFORE DURING AFTER </li></ul>
  30. 30. Field Exercise due Tues in lieu of class Thur <ul><li>You can do by yourself or with one other person – but no more. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the exact steps found on http://www.itm-info.com/lote/images/form.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what the number means </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend redirection actions to be taken to minimize fire risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Write-up 1 page report, Single spaced, font 12, Times New Roman due in class Tuesday Oct. 28. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Steps to follow for Assessment! <ul><li>Here is the link where the instructions can be located! </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.itm-info.com/lote/images/form.pdf </li></ul>