Spring Pres For Eaf
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Spring Pres For Eaf Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States By: Joel Spring Presented by: Heather Nast, Lauren Finelli and Andrew Reder
  • 2. Racial Violence
    • Throughout history...
    • US Civil War
    • Trail of Death
    • 19 th century Chinese
    • Enslaved Africans
    • Race riots in 19 th and 20 th centuries
    • Zoot Suit riots
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • In Education
    • Protestants and Catholics in 1840’s
    • Punishment of enslaved Africans
    • Racial clashes
    • School integration riots
    • Current debates
  • 3. Globalization
    • Globalization- begins when Columbus arrives in the Americas in 1492 and links the world trade routes
    • Civilized v. uncivilized- Christian v. Pagan
  • 4. Religious Superiority
    • Catholics
    • Religious heretics
    • Catholics schools developed the private school sect
    • Protestant
    • The superior belief
    • Referred to as “public” schools
    • Mostly anti-Catholic (obvious in government life)
    *** Lead to the Catholic/Protestant school riots over religious doctrines
  • 5. Race, Racism and Citizenship
    • Race- primarily a social construction
    • Racism- prejudice plus power
  • 6. Educational Methods for Global Cultural Encounters
    • Cultural Genocide
    • Deculturalization
    • Assimilation
    • Cultural Pluralism
    • Denial of Education
    • Hybridity
  • 7. Educational and Cultural Differences
    • Colonists
    • Child-rearing- discipline, authority and memorization (break the will of the child)
    • School- formal setting
    • Work- activity provided protection against sin
    • Political power- only men
    • Native Americans
    • Child-rearing- quite dismissive
    • School- informal, educated by stories told by the elders
    • Work- only for what they needed
    • Political power- held by some women
  • 8. Early Native American Educational Programs
    • Failed establishment of Henrico College
    • Praying towns
    • Dartmouth College
    • Moor’s Charity School
  • 9. 5 Civilized Tribes
    • Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole tribes
    • Government wanted their land
    • Felt like the nuclear family and the establishment of a formal government was leaked to the need for a nuclear family
    • Hoped for a cash economy to develop
  • 10. Native Americans: Deculturalization, Schooling, and Globalization
    • Native Americans as Indigenous people
    • The Naturalization Act of 1790 excluded them from citizenship of the U.S.
  • 11. Schooling
    • Thomas McKenney thought schooling would socially control Native Americans and improve their society
    • He introduced schools to Indian tribes as “experiments”
      • White Missionary teachers- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM)
      • 1819 Civilization Fund Act
  • 12. Native American language and culture
    • Sequoyah created a written language to preserve their history, religions, and culture
      • Elias Boudinot created Cherokee Phoenix in 1828
  • 13. Indian Removal
    • Andrew Jackson worried that education was giving Indians the power to resist the U.S. government
    • Indian Removal Act of 1830
      • Trail of Tears
  • 14.
    • Once settled they began setting up schools and governments
      • The Spencer, Armstrong, & New Hope Academies
    • Cherokees were almost 100% literate!
  • 15. Reservations and Boarding Schools
    • Charles E. Mix said that the U.S. had made great errors when dealing with the tribes
    • 1867 Indian Peace Commission
    • Boarding schools take children to strip away their native culture
      • Carlisle Indian School &Hampton- Richard Pratt
  • 16.
    • Poor conditions- how are they to learn?
    • Meriam Report in 1928
  • 17. African Americans: Deculturalization, Transformation, and Segregation
    • “ Diaspora”
    • British, Spanish, and Portuguese imperialists moved enslaved Africans to North American and other locations
    • North - societies with the slaves
    • South - slave societies (plantation life)
    • Two ways denial of education laws can be used
  • 18.
    • “ Creole”
    • Increase demand of slaves
      • Devastating tolls on newly arrived slaves
      • Free slaves still had restrictions
    • Petitions to gradually abolish slavery in the North
  • 19. Educational Segregation
    • Freedom vs. Equality
    • Segregated schools
      • Reading and writing in English
      • Unequal funding
    • Discrimination
  • 20. Boston Fights for Equal Education
    • Massachusetts Education Act of 1789
      • Funding
    • Benjamin Robert’s daughter- First separate-but-equal ruling in judicial history
    • 1855 Massachusetts governor signed a law that said no child can be denied admission based on race/religion
  • 21.
    • Slaves were not allowed to read
    • Although many of them learned
      • Helped the slaves learn about what was happening in the Civil War
    • “ Darky act” or “trickers”
  • 22.
    • African Americans had to obey the government, but was not allowed to have a say in it
    • The Fourteenth Amendment Section 1
      • Homer Plessy
  • 23. First Crusade
    • First: literacy
      • Former slaves established schools
      • Trying to improve political and economic standings
      • Booker T. Washington
        • “ cast down its buckets and use black workers”
      • W.E.B. Du Bois
        • NAACP
      • General Samuel Armstrong
        • Hampton and segregated industrial education
  • 24. Second Crusade
    • 1910- 1930s, Expansion of segregated schools paid by individual supporters and government
    • The Anna T. Jeanes Fund & The Julius Rosenwald Fund
  • 25. Asians: From Horde to Adored
    • Generally speaking, White efforts at deculturization focused on the denial of education and separation of Asian populations from White populations
    • The nature of Asian immigration caused treatment to shift much faster than any other group
  • 26. Coming to America
    • Chinese: Moving around since 15 th century
      • First major wave was Gold Rush
        • 1850s in California
      • Paid their own way, not enough money to get back
      • Ended up working on railroads or in agriculture
    • Japanese: Late start
      • 1639 law forbade foreign travel
      • Immigration started in 1868 to Hawaii and California
  • 27. Other Asian Populations
    • Small amounts (<10,000) from Korea and India
    • In 1907 a large Filipino migration began
    • Other Asians not significant until Immigration Act of 1965
  • 28. White Views
    • Until 1960s, major views were:
      • “ Coolie”
        • low cost, servile labor
        • Born from railroad workers/farmhands
      • “ Deviant”
        • Immoral, sexually permissive
        • Born from opium dens and prostitution
      • Combined as “Yellow Peril”
  • 29. Push and Pull
    • Asian immigration started relatively late, when big pushes for more equal rights were starting
    • “ Coolie” legislation often clashed with “Deviant” legislation
    • Many of most repressive laws were reversed soon after being enacted
  • 30. Example: San Fransisco
    • 1872: All White students to be educated
    • 1884: Imperial Chinese Consulate complains
      • SF School board specifically bars “Mongolians”
    • 1885: Superior Court overrules SF
    • 1885: Segregated schools implemented
    • 1906: Forced integration to avoid international incident
  • 31. A New Image
    • WWII
      • Japanese Internment
      • Asians differentiated
    • 1950s, the Model Minority
  • 32. Latinos: Location, Location
    • Biggest Latino influxes came from conquest
      • 1848: End of Mexican-American War
        • US gained California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas
      • 1898: End of Spanish-American War
        • US gained Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and naval base in Cuba
  • 33. Similar View, Different Treatment
    • Latinos: mix of Indian (not white) and Spanish (white on a technicality)
      • Generally regarded as Indians or worse
    • Mexicans valued as cheap labor
      • Education was denied/neglected/segregated
    • Puerto Ricans feared as too independent
      • Education was forced in order to “Americanize”
  • 34. Puerto Rico: A dream snatched away
    • Strong independence movement since 1860s
    • Made “autonomous state” in 1897
      • Constitutional Republic with Spanish Governor
    • Conquered in 1898
  • 35. Puerto Rico: Winning Hearts and Minds
    • “ Put an American schoolhouse in every valley and upon every hilltop”
    • Education used as a weapon to inspire loyalty
      • English-only past first grade
      • American History over Puerto Rican History
      • Celebration of American holidays
    • Biggest tension was over English Language
  • 36. Mexicans: Kept poor and dumb
    • Similar Policies to Puerto Rico to inspire patriotism
    • Almost never enforced
      • “ Educating the Mexican is educating them away from the job, away from the dirt”
    • Those that did go to school were segregated
  • 37. Globalization: The Great Civil Rights Movement and Wars of Liberation
    • Internationally
    • Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
    • Domestically
    • Discrimination everywhere
    • Deculturalization and school segregation was part of a general global movement
  • 38. School Desegregation
    • NAACP- desegregation and opportunity to participate in economic system
    • 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka
    • Public demonstrations to take action
    • Lack of supervision to make sure segregation ended
    • CORE, SNCC, SCLC
  • 39. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
    • King was born in 1929 into a family of Baptist Ministers
    • Introduction of nonviolent confrontation
    • 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  • 40. Martin Luther King, Jr. Continued…
    • Rosa Parks
    • 1957 “Give us the Ballot…” speech to Washington, DC
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
      • Titles 4 & 6
  • 41.
    • In 1961, 450 Indians attended the American Indian Chicago Conference
      • End to termination policies
    • John F. Kennedy
      • More Indian participation in decisions involving federal policies
    • Struggle for self-determination
      • Pan-Indian Movement
  • 42. Indian Education: A National Tragedy
    • Bilingual Education Act of 1968
    • Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975
    • Tribally Controlled Schools Act
    • Native American Languages Act of 1990
  • 43. Bilingual Education
    • Boycotts in LA
    • Bilingual Education Act of 1968
    • Official language disputes
  • 44. Multicultural Education, Immigration and the Cultural Wars
    • 1965 Immigration Act that abolished the 1924 Immigration Act (and the quota system)
    • Multicultural education rose
    • Ethnocentric schools (go back to segregation)
  • 45. Cultural Wars cont. and NCLB
    • Mandatory standardized tests only measure one culture
    • Bilingual education be used as a vehicle for learning English
  • 46. 21 ST Century: Post- Racial Society
    • Post-racial- a society where race is no longer important in determining social status and income
      • However, government agencies state that the concept of race has no scientific or anthropological meaning but persist in using racial categories in their reports
      • Socially constructed in contrast to legal or administrative definitions of race
  • 47. In Comparison
    • Race and income
      • 1- all white
      • 2- white (Hispanic or Latino)
      • Least- Black or African American
    • Drop out rates (1972-2006)
      • 1- Hispanic
      • 2- Black
      • 3- Whites
  • 48. Is the US a Post-Racial Society
    • YES
      • Racial categories are no longer recognized, by government agencies, as having scientific or anthropological meaning
      • Because race is a confusing term taking on many different meanings among post-1965 immigrants
      • Since post-1965 immigrants are not facing any overt attempts as Deculturalization and Americanization
    • NO
      • Many native-born whites and blacks still think in the racial categories created by law and judicial decisions from the 18 th century to the Civil Rights Movements
      • Since government agencies require the use of racial categories
      • The legacy of race-based laws and Deculturalization still contribute to educational and economic inequality
      • Since many immigrants from Mexico and Central America as assimilation into native-born Hispanic communities suffering from the legacy of the past