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    Spring Pres For Eaf Spring Pres For Eaf Presentation Transcript

    • Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States By: Joel Spring Presented by: Heather Nast, Lauren Finelli and Andrew Reder
    • Racial Violence
      • Throughout history...
      • US Civil War
      • Trail of Death
      • 19 th century Chinese
      • Enslaved Africans
      • Race riots in 19 th and 20 th centuries
      • Zoot Suit riots
      • Civil Rights Movement
      • In Education
      • Protestants and Catholics in 1840’s
      • Punishment of enslaved Africans
      • Racial clashes
      • School integration riots
      • Current debates
    • Globalization
      • Globalization- begins when Columbus arrives in the Americas in 1492 and links the world trade routes
      • Civilized v. uncivilized- Christian v. Pagan
    • Religious Superiority
      • Catholics
      • Religious heretics
      • Catholics schools developed the private school sect
      • Protestant
      • The superior belief
      • Referred to as “public” schools
      • Mostly anti-Catholic (obvious in government life)
      *** Lead to the Catholic/Protestant school riots over religious doctrines
    • Race, Racism and Citizenship
      • Race- primarily a social construction
      • Racism- prejudice plus power
    • Educational Methods for Global Cultural Encounters
      • Cultural Genocide
      • Deculturalization
      • Assimilation
      • Cultural Pluralism
      • Denial of Education
      • Hybridity
    • Educational and Cultural Differences
      • Colonists
      • Child-rearing- discipline, authority and memorization (break the will of the child)
      • School- formal setting
      • Work- activity provided protection against sin
      • Political power- only men
      • Native Americans
      • Child-rearing- quite dismissive
      • School- informal, educated by stories told by the elders
      • Work- only for what they needed
      • Political power- held by some women
    • Early Native American Educational Programs
      • Failed establishment of Henrico College
      • Praying towns
      • Dartmouth College
      • Moor’s Charity School
    • 5 Civilized Tribes
      • Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole tribes
      • Government wanted their land
      • Felt like the nuclear family and the establishment of a formal government was leaked to the need for a nuclear family
      • Hoped for a cash economy to develop
    • Native Americans: Deculturalization, Schooling, and Globalization
      • Native Americans as Indigenous people
      • The Naturalization Act of 1790 excluded them from citizenship of the U.S.
    • Schooling
      • Thomas McKenney thought schooling would socially control Native Americans and improve their society
      • He introduced schools to Indian tribes as “experiments”
        • White Missionary teachers- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM)
        • 1819 Civilization Fund Act
    • Native American language and culture
      • Sequoyah created a written language to preserve their history, religions, and culture
        • Elias Boudinot created Cherokee Phoenix in 1828
    • Indian Removal
      • Andrew Jackson worried that education was giving Indians the power to resist the U.S. government
      • Indian Removal Act of 1830
        • Trail of Tears
      • Once settled they began setting up schools and governments
        • The Spencer, Armstrong, & New Hope Academies
      • Cherokees were almost 100% literate!
    • Reservations and Boarding Schools
      • Charles E. Mix said that the U.S. had made great errors when dealing with the tribes
      • 1867 Indian Peace Commission
      • Boarding schools take children to strip away their native culture
        • Carlisle Indian School &Hampton- Richard Pratt
      • Poor conditions- how are they to learn?
      • Meriam Report in 1928
    • African Americans: Deculturalization, Transformation, and Segregation
      • “ Diaspora”
      • British, Spanish, and Portuguese imperialists moved enslaved Africans to North American and other locations
      • North - societies with the slaves
      • South - slave societies (plantation life)
      • Two ways denial of education laws can be used
      • “ Creole”
      • Increase demand of slaves
        • Devastating tolls on newly arrived slaves
        • Free slaves still had restrictions
      • Petitions to gradually abolish slavery in the North
    • Educational Segregation
      • Freedom vs. Equality
      • Segregated schools
        • Reading and writing in English
        • Unequal funding
      • Discrimination
    • Boston Fights for Equal Education
      • Massachusetts Education Act of 1789
        • Funding
      • Benjamin Robert’s daughter- First separate-but-equal ruling in judicial history
      • 1855 Massachusetts governor signed a law that said no child can be denied admission based on race/religion
      • Slaves were not allowed to read
      • Although many of them learned
        • Helped the slaves learn about what was happening in the Civil War
      • “ Darky act” or “trickers”
      • African Americans had to obey the government, but was not allowed to have a say in it
      • The Fourteenth Amendment Section 1
        • Homer Plessy
    • First Crusade
      • First: literacy
        • Former slaves established schools
        • Trying to improve political and economic standings
        • Booker T. Washington
          • “ cast down its buckets and use black workers”
        • W.E.B. Du Bois
          • NAACP
        • General Samuel Armstrong
          • Hampton and segregated industrial education
    • Second Crusade
      • 1910- 1930s, Expansion of segregated schools paid by individual supporters and government
      • The Anna T. Jeanes Fund & The Julius Rosenwald Fund
    • Asians: From Horde to Adored
      • Generally speaking, White efforts at deculturization focused on the denial of education and separation of Asian populations from White populations
      • The nature of Asian immigration caused treatment to shift much faster than any other group
    • Coming to America
      • Chinese: Moving around since 15 th century
        • First major wave was Gold Rush
          • 1850s in California
        • Paid their own way, not enough money to get back
        • Ended up working on railroads or in agriculture
      • Japanese: Late start
        • 1639 law forbade foreign travel
        • Immigration started in 1868 to Hawaii and California
    • Other Asian Populations
      • Small amounts (<10,000) from Korea and India
      • In 1907 a large Filipino migration began
      • Other Asians not significant until Immigration Act of 1965
    • White Views
      • Until 1960s, major views were:
        • “ Coolie”
          • low cost, servile labor
          • Born from railroad workers/farmhands
        • “ Deviant”
          • Immoral, sexually permissive
          • Born from opium dens and prostitution
        • Combined as “Yellow Peril”
    • Push and Pull
      • Asian immigration started relatively late, when big pushes for more equal rights were starting
      • “ Coolie” legislation often clashed with “Deviant” legislation
      • Many of most repressive laws were reversed soon after being enacted
    • Example: San Fransisco
      • 1872: All White students to be educated
      • 1884: Imperial Chinese Consulate complains
        • SF School board specifically bars “Mongolians”
      • 1885: Superior Court overrules SF
      • 1885: Segregated schools implemented
      • 1906: Forced integration to avoid international incident
    • A New Image
      • WWII
        • Japanese Internment
        • Asians differentiated
      • 1950s, the Model Minority
    • Latinos: Location, Location
      • Biggest Latino influxes came from conquest
        • 1848: End of Mexican-American War
          • US gained California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas
        • 1898: End of Spanish-American War
          • US gained Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and naval base in Cuba
    • Similar View, Different Treatment
      • Latinos: mix of Indian (not white) and Spanish (white on a technicality)
        • Generally regarded as Indians or worse
      • Mexicans valued as cheap labor
        • Education was denied/neglected/segregated
      • Puerto Ricans feared as too independent
        • Education was forced in order to “Americanize”
    • Puerto Rico: A dream snatched away
      • Strong independence movement since 1860s
      • Made “autonomous state” in 1897
        • Constitutional Republic with Spanish Governor
      • Conquered in 1898
    • Puerto Rico: Winning Hearts and Minds
      • “ Put an American schoolhouse in every valley and upon every hilltop”
      • Education used as a weapon to inspire loyalty
        • English-only past first grade
        • American History over Puerto Rican History
        • Celebration of American holidays
      • Biggest tension was over English Language
    • Mexicans: Kept poor and dumb
      • Similar Policies to Puerto Rico to inspire patriotism
      • Almost never enforced
        • “ Educating the Mexican is educating them away from the job, away from the dirt”
      • Those that did go to school were segregated
    • Globalization: The Great Civil Rights Movement and Wars of Liberation
      • Internationally
      • Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples
      • Domestically
      • Discrimination everywhere
      • Deculturalization and school segregation was part of a general global movement
    • School Desegregation
      • NAACP- desegregation and opportunity to participate in economic system
      • 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka
      • Public demonstrations to take action
      • Lack of supervision to make sure segregation ended
      • CORE, SNCC, SCLC
    • Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
      • King was born in 1929 into a family of Baptist Ministers
      • Introduction of nonviolent confrontation
      • 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • Martin Luther King, Jr. Continued…
      • Rosa Parks
      • 1957 “Give us the Ballot…” speech to Washington, DC
      • Civil Rights Act of 1964
        • Titles 4 & 6
      • In 1961, 450 Indians attended the American Indian Chicago Conference
        • End to termination policies
      • John F. Kennedy
        • More Indian participation in decisions involving federal policies
      • Struggle for self-determination
        • Pan-Indian Movement
    • Indian Education: A National Tragedy
      • Bilingual Education Act of 1968
      • Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975
      • Tribally Controlled Schools Act
      • Native American Languages Act of 1990
    • Bilingual Education
      • Boycotts in LA
      • Bilingual Education Act of 1968
      • Official language disputes
    • Multicultural Education, Immigration and the Cultural Wars
      • 1965 Immigration Act that abolished the 1924 Immigration Act (and the quota system)
      • Multicultural education rose
      • Ethnocentric schools (go back to segregation)
    • Cultural Wars cont. and NCLB
      • Mandatory standardized tests only measure one culture
      • Bilingual education be used as a vehicle for learning English
    • 21 ST Century: Post- Racial Society
      • Post-racial- a society where race is no longer important in determining social status and income
        • However, government agencies state that the concept of race has no scientific or anthropological meaning but persist in using racial categories in their reports
        • Socially constructed in contrast to legal or administrative definitions of race
    • In Comparison
      • Race and income
        • 1- all white
        • 2- white (Hispanic or Latino)
        • Least- Black or African American
      • Drop out rates (1972-2006)
        • 1- Hispanic
        • 2- Black
        • 3- Whites
    • Is the US a Post-Racial Society
      • YES
        • Racial categories are no longer recognized, by government agencies, as having scientific or anthropological meaning
        • Because race is a confusing term taking on many different meanings among post-1965 immigrants
        • Since post-1965 immigrants are not facing any overt attempts as Deculturalization and Americanization
      • NO
        • Many native-born whites and blacks still think in the racial categories created by law and judicial decisions from the 18 th century to the Civil Rights Movements
        • Since government agencies require the use of racial categories
        • The legacy of race-based laws and Deculturalization still contribute to educational and economic inequality
        • Since many immigrants from Mexico and Central America as assimilation into native-born Hispanic communities suffering from the legacy of the past