This ppt would explain about the types of organ transplantion and the ethical aprasal. It encourages others to go for organ donation. "Mannil puthaipathai vida perar udalil vithaipom". Be charitable even after death.
E:\Alex Thesis\Organ Donation And Transplantion Fr Alexander
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION By BR. P. ALEXANDER OFM. Cap., Moderator REV.FR. SATHIAN OFM. Cap., Reader REV.FR. JOHN PETER Paper presentation 21-02-2008 Capuchin Theological College, Trichy-620006. (Catholic-Ethical Appraisal)
The moving of a whole or partial ORGAN from one body to another or moving of TISSUES from one part of body to another part of body. ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
VARIOUS KINDS OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Autograft It is the transplantation of an organ within the same individual. Homograft It is the transplantation of an organ from one individual to another of the same species. Heterograft It is the transfer of organs or tissues between individuals of different species. Xenograft It is a transplant of organs or tissue from one species to another. Split Transplants It is a deceased-donor’s organ (specifically the liver) divided between two recipients,
<ul><li>1905: First successful cornea transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1954: First successful kidney transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1966: First successful liver transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1967: First successful heart transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1970: First successful monkey head transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1981: First successful heart/lung transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1983: First successful lung lobe transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1986: First successful double-lung transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1987: First successful whole lung transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1998: First successful live-donor partial pancreas transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1998: First successful head transplant . </li></ul><ul><li>2005: First successful partial face transplant . </li></ul><ul><li>2006: First successful penis transplant . </li></ul>Timeline of Successful Transplants
Living Related Donors Paired-Exchange Altruistic Types of Donors Living Cadaver
CADAVER DONOR organ donors are people who are brain dead, which mean the brain shows absolutely no signs of life and the person's body is kept alive by machines which breathe for them to keep their heart beating <ul><ul><ul><li>LIVING DONOR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In living donors, the donor remains alive and donates a renewable tissue, cell, or fluid (e.g. blood, skin); or donates an organ or part of an organ in which the remaining organ can regenerate or take on the workload of the rest of the organ </li></ul>THE RECIPIENT Recipients are the persons who receive organ from the donors.
The historical development of Organ Transplantation shows that there is no intrinsic objection to Organ Transplantation. Each one is created out of love to accomplish a particular purpose. Fulfilling this purpose always needs love, self-love and love for others. That is to say it involves lot of sacrifices. Thus it is impossible to accomplish the purpose without self sacrifice. Self sacrifice is always not of self motive rather other oriented. So, love for others is the basic quality one needs to accomplish. No other way to show our love than giving. This giving could be of giving property, wealth, talents or our body or organs. So, organ donation is not something to be discouraged rather it has to be encouraged, because it is the expression of other’s love by one who has the self-love. Is the love shared with out selfishness? The next chapter may answer this valuable question.
THE PRESENT STATE OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN INDIA One of the greatest achievements of modern medical science is the successful transfer of tissue and organs from one person to another. Basically the Organ Transplantation is good in itself. The misuse of Organ Transplantation takes place all over the world and obviously in India. Organ Transplantation is done illegally at the cost of the life of the poor. This chapter would deal about human organ trade, stealing organs and commercialization of human organs in India.
HUMAN ORGAN TRADE Selling Human Organs Illegal Organ Transplantation A Kidney to Buy a Better Life
STEALING ORGANS FROM THE POOR Kidney Racket in India India- International Centre for Kidney Transplantation
COMMERCIALIZATION ORGAN BAZAAR SPARE ORGANS Transplantation Tourism
LEGISLATION BANNING ORGAN TRADE Enactment of the Human Organ Transplant Act Action against stealing of human organs
The organ trade in India carries with it many issues, which make it difficult to ascertain whether organ transplantation is to save another’s life. However, what is unmistakable is that the procurement and sale of kidneys from the unknown poor. It is a violation of the fundamental right that every individual is implicitly granted at birth and this being the right to one’s body. The battle needs to be fought at two levels. Besides law and monitoring agencies, there is a need for an ideological battle against what are essentially a human right violation and a form of social exploitation. This is only possible when one has love for himself and love for the other. The following chapter would help one to have clear understanding about organ transplantation as the best form of sharing one’s love with others in need CONCLUSION
CATHOLIC-ETHICAL APPRAISAL OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Introduction Each development of medical science brings with it a fresh range of moral problems. The problems raised by the procedure of transplantation increase according to the importance of the operation. With a skin graft there is no problem, and with a corneal graft there is no major problem, since the cornea may be taken from the donor after death and stored for a time. Therefore, the ethical and legal issues related to organ and tissue procurement and transplantation are often discussed in light of such principles as autonomy, benevolence, free and informed consent, integrity and equality of human beings, and the common good.
Cadaver Donor ETHICAL ISSUES REGARDING THE DONOR Respect to the Cadaver-Donor The Right of Relatives Feelings of Relatives Consent Voluntary or Expressed Consent Presumed Consent Requested Consent
ETHICAL CONCERNS REGARDING LIVING DONOR Principle of Fraternal Love Minors and Mentally Challenged From Anencephalic Infants
Ethical Issues Regarding the Recipient Criteria for Selection Ethical Issues Regarding Human Organ Trade The Church’s Response to the Organ Trade
THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Organ Transplantation in the Scriptures Critical Analysis Education Regarding Organ Transplantation The Need for Education
<ul><li>The Transplantation laws have to be formulated in order to prevent the commercialization of Human Organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty has to be eradicated from our nation in order to avoid the Human Organ Trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials could have a periodical visit to the Hospitals and institutions to control the agencies engaged in Organ Transplantation for commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>International co-operation could be promoted in living organ donation and transplantation. </li></ul><ul><li>The developing countries could be helped to have research on Organ Transplant Techniques. </li></ul>Instead of forcing people to donate they can be motivated to make free and voluntary donation. ‘Charity’ and love of neighbour makes Organ Transplantation virtuous. To increase human organ donation the following possible proposals could be of great help.
<ul><li>The developed countries shall not consider the third world countries as a warehouse for organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Organ Retrieval Banking Organisations (ORBO) could be put up in all major cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Education on Organ Transplantation could be of a great help for the potential donor and his/her family member to consent for Organ Transplantation. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The Human Organ Transplant Act’ could be promulgated to all the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal aid can be given freely on Organ Transplantation, so that people may donate organs without any hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>The encouragement of donation motivated by the virtue of charity will help increasing organ donation. </li></ul><ul><li>Value education on Organ Transplantation promoted by the religious groups and by secular agencies could be of a great help on increasing the organ donation. </li></ul><ul><li>Body Donation Awareness Session can be conducted in all cities, towns, villages, etc. </li></ul>
<ul><li>There can be a body donation movement in all the parishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Body donors’ identity card can be given to all people especially in all seminaries and convents. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood donation camp can be arranged in many places like parishes, colleges, schools, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood donation is a great sacrifice one can make during the Lenten season. </li></ul><ul><li>To donate organs one can get in touch with all Government Hospitals at district level and the following movements found in the Appendices. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, men/ women of goodwill should work for spreading the need for Organ Transplantation. Let us be our sisters’ and our brothers’ keepers by donating organs and tissues at all cost. </li></ul>
“ DONATE ORGANS TO BE CHARITABLE EVEN AFTER DEATH”. THANK YOU
THANKS TO… Rev. Fr. Sathian OFM. Cap ., Rev. Fr. John Peter , Rev. Fr. Arul Edward OFM. Cap. , Rev. Fr. Joe Sanjay OFM. Cap., Rev. Fr. Antonysamy Thomai OFM. Cap., Rev. Fr. Lawrence OFM. Cap., Rev. Fr. Raja OFM. Cap., Dr. Stephen Kumar , Rev. Fr. Damian OFM. Cap., Brs. Bernardshaw, Jesudass, Selvanayagam, Suresh and Thainis. Brs. Prabhu, Newton, Amalan, Sleeva, Mariakumar, David, Alice, Arul Dev , Nirmal Rev. Sr. Rosaline Jancy. Mr. L. Christopher Suresh