Rick Hall: Place & Mobility

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Presentation by Rick Hall, PE at Great Streets-Healthy Communities program hosted by ULI Memphis and the University of Memphis Partnership for Active Community Environments in Memphis, TN on April 21, 2010.

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  • Home of 1 st place team - regional 2009 Concrete Canoe Comp. Grad. Stephen Edwards (CIVL ’10).  What next?
  • … .. roundabouts. Agree with people that traffic circles are being pulled out and “ Guess what they are being replaced with – roundabouts” Explain that the large traffic circles have very high speed entry speeds, high speed merge and high speed exit. Get people to focus on the two lane roundabout in the center and note how much smaller it is. I have no idea why they are building the very high speed right turn on the left and the high-speed through lane on the right
  • The reasons roundabouts are safer.
  • Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, March 2000 report.
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  • Rick Hall: Place & Mobility

    1. 1. Place & Mobility: 21 st Century Planning & Design Great Streets; Healthy Communities University of Memphis PACE Partnership for Active Community Environments Urban Land Institute Memphis April 21st 2010 Richard A. Hall, P.E. HPE Hall Planning & Engineering, Inc.
    2. 3. The industrial, pre-motor vehicle city saw severe congestion. It became something to escape and shun.
    3. 4. Solutions included network differentiation, residential relocation, multi-level designs, and later, sound barriers and a general turning of our backs to the major thoroughfares.   Drawing by H.W.Corbett, “ The city of the future: an innovative solution to the traffic problem” Scientific American, 1913  
    4. 5. Today’s commuters, in long lines, are on individual life support systems. We survive in the environment through which we drive, having overcome physical attributes of speed, air quality and weather, especially temperature, that would otherwise be intolerable. Social attributes of personal safety are very significant to us.
    5. 6. fine old places are being rediscovered
    6. 7. fine new places are being developed
    7. 8. books <ul><li>Power Broker – Robert Caro </li></ul><ul><li>Boulevard Book – Alan Jacobs </li></ul><ul><li>Option of Urbanism – Chris Leinberger </li></ul>
    8. 9. content <ul><li>place </li></ul><ul><li>mobility </li></ul><ul><li>modal equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>design recommendations - thoroughfares & transit systems </li></ul><ul><li>planning recommendations – community, corridor & region </li></ul>
    9. 10. renaissance of place
    10. 11. renaissance of place
    11. 12. renaissance of place
    12. 13. The Transect – A Classification System T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
    13. 14. place defined SmartCode v. 10 CNU 2010
    14. 15. place defined - SmartCode v. 10 CNU 2010
    15. 16. place defined Sarasota Co. – PMI Ordinance A form based code
    16. 17. place defined Sarasota Co. – PMI Ord. Planned Mixed-use & Infill zoning district
    17. 19. <ul><li>more modes available, </li></ul><ul><li>not just more lanes </li></ul><ul><li>balance the modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>walk, bike, transit & motor vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>walkability = all 3 forgotten modes </li></ul>mobility?
    18. 20. multiway boulevard
    19. 21. principle 1. urban form first LU1 – TR2 plan the urban structure 1 st the transportation 2nd
    20. 22. top 10 walkability factors <ul><li>10. Street Trees </li></ul><ul><li>9. Traffic Volumes </li></ul><ul><li>8. Sidewalks </li></ul><ul><li>7. Narrow Streets </li></ul><ul><li>6. Interconnected Streets </li></ul><ul><li>5. On Street Parking </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lower Traffic Speeds </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mixed Land Use </li></ul><ul><li>2. Buildings Fronting St. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Small Block Size! </li></ul>
    21. 24. <ul><li>TND </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Neighborhood Development </li></ul><ul><li>CSD </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Suburban Development </li></ul><ul><li>MPO work </li></ul>LU 1 TR 2
    22. 28. Steve Price, 510 486-0427 www.urban-advantage.com Draft, 3/28/2007
    23. 29. Fairfax, VA Fairfax Boulevard
    24. 30. Fairfax, VA Fairfax Boulevard
    25. 31. Fairfax, VA Fairfax Boulevard
    26. 32. pedestrian fatalities & speed
    27. 33. inquiring minds…
    28. 34. early engineering training programs
    29. 35. Key West, FL 16 feet Avg. Free Flow Speed = 28 mph
    30. 37. AASHTO <ul><li>The DNA of SPRAWL </li></ul><ul><li>All the information necessary </li></ul>
    31. 38. the possible hourly flow at intersections corridor capacity?
    32. 39. traffic flow in one lane <ul><li>a vehicle every 2 seconds (max.) </li></ul><ul><li>equals ≈ 30 vehicles per minute (60/2=30) </li></ul><ul><li>yields 1,800 vehicles per hour! (30x60=1,800) </li></ul>
    33. 40. traffic flow at signals <ul><li>if green all the time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,800 vehicles per hour of green time per lane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>if green 1/3 the time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 vehicles per hour, per lane! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>if green 1/2 the time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>900 vehicles per hour, per lane! </li></ul></ul>
    34. 42. peak hour traffic East Parkway @ Poplar 3,420 veh/hr.
    35. 43. peak hour traffic Sam Cooper @ E Parkway 3,159 Veh/hr.
    36. 44. peak hour traffic Broad @ Hollywood 385 veh/hr.
    37. 45. peak hour traffic Hollywood @ Summer 1,053 veh/hr.
    38. 46. peak hour traffic Sam Cooper @ Tillman 3,978 veh/hr.
    39. 47. peak hour traffic Pershing @ Scott 179 Veh/hr.
    40. 48. By Allan Jacobs, Elizabeth Macdonald and Yodan Rofe
    41. 53. what if: Creating a true boulevard Dover Kohl & Partners, HPE & Steve Price
    42. 54. what if:
    43. 55. what if:
    44. 56. what if:
    45. 57. what if:
    46. 58. what if:
    47. 59. what if:
    48. 60. what if:
    49. 61. <ul><li>large (300’ to 800’) </li></ul><ul><li>fast 30 to 50 mph </li></ul><ul><li>scary </li></ul><ul><li>high speed merge </li></ul><ul><li>dangerous 6x more crashes </li></ul>traffic circles vs. roundabouts <ul><li>smaller < 180’ </li></ul><ul><li>slower 10 – 25 mph </li></ul><ul><li>friendly </li></ul><ul><li>yield at entry </li></ul><ul><li>safer </li></ul>
    50. 62. not traffic circles! kingston, ny roundabout traffic circle
    51. 63. 18 mph Cross pedestrians behind the first entering vehicle 18 mph roundabouts are pedestrian friendly
    52. 64. <ul><li>low speeds allow drivers </li></ul><ul><li>to see </li></ul><ul><li>to stop </li></ul>roundabouts are safer because:
    53. 65. <ul><li>decrease in crashes: </li></ul><ul><li>overall: 39% </li></ul><ul><li>injury-producing: 76% </li></ul><ul><li>fatal or incapacitating: 90% </li></ul>roundabout safety &quot;crash reductions following installation of (40) roundabouts in the united states&quot; insurance institute for highway safety, march 2000
    54. 67. <ul><ul><li>achieve unanimity w/ specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish vision based plans for place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish context areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>update functional classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>finish form based codes, context based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design matching walkable thoroughfares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nurture your transit spine </li></ul></ul>strategies & solutions
    55. 68. Indian History Shelby County Nonconnah Wolf
    56. 70. Form and Land Uses Followed theTerrain Shelby County
    57. 74. <ul><ul><li>achieve unanimity w/ specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish vision based plans for place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish context areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>update functional classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>finish form based codes, context based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design matching walkable thoroughfares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nurture your transit spine </li></ul></ul>strategies & solutions
    58. 75. functional classification <ul><li>Arterials - Connecting major areas, long trips for mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Collectors - Connecting arterials, intermediate trips </li></ul><ul><li>Locals - Serving local access & connecting to collectors, short trips </li></ul><ul><li>All trips by auto or truck, no pedestrians in the critical functional definition </li></ul><ul><li>Areas = rural or urbanized, only two major areas </li></ul><ul><li>Add a third major area type – Compact Urban </li></ul>
    59. 76. rural urbanized Update the functional classification system areas
    60. 77. rural suburban compact urban Update the functional classification system areas
    61. 78. rural suburban compact urban new compact urban Update the functional classification system areas
    62. 79. <ul><ul><li>achieve unanimity w/ specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish vision based plans for place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish context areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>update functional classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>finish form based codes, context based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design matching walkable thoroughfares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nurture your transit spine </li></ul></ul>strategies & solutions
    63. 80. . existing conditions East Stone Avenue
    64. 81. . removing overhead utilities East Stone Avenue
    65. 82. . “ road diet” East Stone Avenue
    66. 83. . East Stone Avenue making better streets
    67. 84. . making better streets East Stone Avenue
    68. 85. . place-making East Stone Avenue
    69. 86. . place-making East Stone Avenue
    70. 87. . at first: with or without overhead wires East Stone Avenue
    71. 88. . existing conditions East Stone Avenue
    72. 89. <ul><ul><li>achieve unanimity w/ specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish vision based plans for place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish context areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>update functional classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>finish form based codes, context based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design matching walkable thoroughfares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nurture your transit spine </li></ul></ul>strategies & solutions
    73. 90. <ul><li>“ The first step in the (thoroughfare) design process is to define the function that the facility is to serve.” </li></ul><ul><li>AASHTO </li></ul>
    74. 91. HPE’s Walkability Index
    75. 92. <ul><li>90 - 100 points </li></ul><ul><li>70 - 89 points </li></ul><ul><li>50 - 69 points </li></ul><ul><li>30 - 49 points </li></ul><ul><li>20 - 29 points </li></ul><ul><li>19 points or less </li></ul><ul><li>High Walkability (A)   </li></ul><ul><li>Very Walkable (B)   </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately Walkable (C)   </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Walkability (D)   </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Walkability (E)   </li></ul><ul><li>Uncomfortable/hazardous for Walking (F) </li></ul>walkability index grades
    76. 93. 10 walkability index measures <ul><li>1. off-peak free flow speed </li></ul><ul><li>2. pavement width </li></ul><ul><li>on-street parking </li></ul><ul><li>4. sidewalk width </li></ul><ul><li>connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>pedestrian features </li></ul><ul><li>7. street enclosure [w:h] </li></ul><ul><li>8. land use mix </li></ul><ul><li>façade design </li></ul><ul><li>10. bus stops, bike features </li></ul>ten points each for potential score of 100
    77. 94. walkability index application Stone Avenue – Existing Conditions (15 Blocks from Park/E North to Rutherford Street) 30 “ D” Basic Walkability
    78. 96. between Hilly St. & Spartanburg St. Walkability Score = 20
    79. 97. between Wade Hampton Blvd. & Bennett St. Walkability Score = 40
    80. 98. between Ivey St. & Rutherford St. Walkability Score = 26
    81. 99. Main Street – North St. to Coffee St. Walkability Score = 90
    82. 101. walkability index - future condition - 62 phase I: transportation only – 4 to 3 lane “diet”
    83. 102. walkability index - future condition - 73 p hase II: transportation & urban development
    84. 103. Existing Conditions: Stone Avenue at Bennett Street existing thoroughfare no trees 4 lane undivided 35 mph small sidewalks wide setbacks no parking
    85. 104. Proposed Streetscape: Stone Avenue at Bennett Street
    86. 105. stone & main

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