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  • 1. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Youth Ministry Internship Scheme Diploma of Youth Work (CHC50502) UNIT FOUR Learning & Assessment Portfolio Manage Service Response to Young People in Crisis (CHCYTH8B) & Respond to Critical Situations (CHCYTH7C) This portfolio belongs to: DELTRY DICKIE Due Date: Monday, 6th October, 2008 Extension granted to 20th October, 2008 Page 1
  • 2. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Student Details Student Name: Deltry Dickie Home Phone: 4151 1605 Work Phone: 4127 6333 Mobile Phone: 0414 992553 Email Address: geodel5@bigpond.net.au Postal Address: 5 Baldwin Crescent, Bundaberg 4670 Workplace Details Name of Organisation: Biggenden SS , Burnett Heads SS, Rosedale SS Your Role Description: School Chaplain Phone: 4127 6333; 4130 2333: 4156 5777 Mob: 0414 992 553 Fax: Email Address: ddick25@eq.edu.au Postal Address: Frederick Street, Biggenden 52 Burnett Heads Road, Burnett Heads 21 James Street, Rosedale Page 2
  • 3. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 CONTENTS What is a Learning and Assessment Portfolio? 4 CHCYTH8B Unit Descriptor 6 CHCYTH7C Unit Descriptor 8 UNIT FOUR Suggested Unit Study Guide 12 Student Checklist 13 Assessment Task AT1 Online Tasks 14 AT2 Risk Management for Activities 15 AT3 Critical Incident Management Planning 21 AT4 The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention 27 Assessor’s Marking Sheet 34 Page 3
  • 4. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 What is a Learning and Assessment Portfolio? The Learning and Assessment Portfolio is a central recording tool for you as a student to collate and record components of this course, which will serve as evidence in a judgment of your competence in the various aspects of this course. The material recorded and compiled in this document will be drawn from your experiences across all aspects of this course, from your workplace through to in-class activities and homework tasks. It also serves as a structured and reflective journal for your various experiences throughout your youth work training. Each Unit within the course has a related Portfolio to serve as a record; therefore, by the end of your training you will have completed all the required portfolios. This is an important document that should be kept safe and you as the trainee are responsible for the care of this document and all material that is recorded in it. In short the answer to this question is ‘a collection of an extensive range of tasks’. Each Portfolio is quite different and will contain activities that are relevant to the various knowledge and skills focused on in each Unit. Some of the components of the portfolios include:  Personal diary like entries about your place of work and other training experiences  Planning or Report forms for you to complete in relation to specified tasks  Self-assessment or Peer assessment recordings  Case-studies  Homework tasks  Examples of work or materials collected  Third Party Reports for your work peers or senior staff to complete It will be very clear for each page of the portfolio what is required of you so there should be little confusion as to what you are required to complete and when. How do I use this Portfolio? Page 4
  • 5. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 At times you may be directed to your portfolio by a specific lecture requiring you to complete a task or a homework exercise that is contained within the portfolio. At other times you will be completing personal entries in reflection on experiences from everyday aspects of your training. Though there will be some clearly dictated activities at prescribed times throughout the term of your training, you are alone responsible for directing the completion of each component of the portfolio and its safe handling. It is highly recommended that you read through this portfolio in detail when you receive it and plan how it will be completed, especially when there are specified activities that require organisation within the period of your training for the given Unit. Beyond that, the best way to ensure its completion is to weekly peruse the portfolio, reflect and write about your experiences, and of course complete relevant reports and tasks. Additionally, you should plan a regular time to reflect with your peers, senior staff and trainers and give them opportunity to also write in the sections that are relevant to them. Important Note – Completion of all activities, questions, reports and reflections in this portfolio is mandatory. You may not select to complete some pages and not others. If you do not submit a completed portfolio you cannot be deemed Competent for this unit. CHCYTH8B Unit Descriptor Page 5
  • 6. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Developing an agency approach to young people in crisis: ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Implement a framework for 1.1 A framework which addresses prevention and preventing crisis situations response to critical situations is developed and reflects consideration of beliefs, rights and needs of the client and responsibilities of the organisation within a legislative and statutory context 1.2 Appropriate resources and mechanisms are established to assist workers deal with crisis situations 1.3 Details of the organisation’s responsiveness to crisis situations is defined and articulated to relevant personnel 1.4 All information related to crisis situations is stored and maintained to maximise accessibility, accuracy, currency and legibility 1.5 Procedures are implemented to ensure clients have ready access to information which may assist in resolving crisis situations 2. Support staff in responding to 2.1 Appropriate protocols are established for a crisis managing potential and actual crisis situations 2.2 Procedures for the management of crises are drafted, regularly updated and communicated to staff and other relevant personnel 2.3 Crisis management procedures which are developed are consistent with legal and organisational obligations and constraints 2.4 Resources are allocated for the prompt and effective response to crisis situations 2.5 Appropriate crisis response training and update briefings are provided to workers on a regular basis Page 6
  • 7. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 2.6 Appropriate advice is formulated for the upgrade of organisational procedures including those related to occupational health and safety and other industrial and legislative requirements 3. Follow up crisis situations 3.1 All required reporting is completed and is comprehensive, accurate and consistent with the organisation’s policies and procedures 3.2 Debriefing procedures are defined and implemented routinely 3.3 Opportunity is provide for participation in review and evaluation of organisational responsiveness 3.4 Needs of all specific parties which arise from a crisis situation are identified and strategies developed to ensure they are addressed CHCYTH7C Unit Descriptor This unit is concerned with the competencies required to provide guidance and role models to young people and their families to maintain positive and supportive relationships while identifying problems and establishing goals for change based on maintaining support from family and the general community Page 7
  • 8. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Establish effective 1.1 Use interaction with young people to encourage personal rapport with young reflection on relationships and personal responsibility people and families 1.2 Use a range of communication strategies to gather information about the background and circumstances of young people and their families 1.3 Information provided to young people and their families is factual, clear and designed to promote positive responses 1.4 Identify issues arising from the circumstances of young people and their families and the need for changes to behaviour and relationships 1.5 Maintain clear, ethical and honest relationships with young people and their families 1.6 All information relevant to intervention contact with young people and their families is recorded and reported according to the organisation's procedures and consideration of confidentiality and discretion 2. Assess the needs 2.1 Identify and respond to the immediate needs of young and circumstances people according to nature and degree of urgency of young people 2.2 Provide young people and their families with information which is tailored to their capacity to absorb and which is designed to calm and reassure 2.3 Observe and note any signs of distress, anxiety, aggression and apathy 2.4 Observe and note signs of impairment of functioning in individuals and relationships Page 8
  • 9. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3. Facilitate goal 3.1 Emphasise and negotiate clients' responsibility for setting and action determining and achieving their goals planning 3.2 Assess options for clients' goals and outcomes for change and negotiate agreements based on realistic goals and purpose 3.3 Check and confirm the information and resources required by clients to set their goals 3.4 Negotiate suitable and available resources and support 3.5 Encourage clients to identify and prioritise long and short term goals based on individual responsibility and personal choice 3.6 Encourage clients to identify and analyse the factors which have contributed to past behaviour and the obstacles to achieving individual and family goals 3.7 Identify unrealistic expectations challenge negative attitudes and unacceptable objectives and re-negotiate plans when required 4. Provide targeted assistance and 4.1 The type and nature of services available to clients are referral identified and clearly communicated 4.2 Appropriate work is undertaken to ensure assistance provided: Is in an appropriate manner Meets client needs Is consistent with legal and statutory provisions Meets resource and time constraints Complies with organisational policy Encourages young people to access alternative services and resources and to be self managing as possible Page 9
  • 10. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.3 Systems are established to ensure information and referral sources within the organisation are up to date, comprehensive, accurate, accessible and relevant to clients 4.4 Procedures are implemented to ensure workers have access to additional advice, expertise and support from others as required 4.5 The effectiveness of service delivery is continually monitored and problems of access, services or resources are resolved as appropriate 4.6 All reporting is in accordance with organisational procedures 5. Minimise the 5.1 Respond to incidents confidently, effectively, appropriately impact of critical and in accordance with agreed processes incidents 5.2 Identify the possible causes of incidents and assess these for relevance to the safety and welfare of young people and the service environment 5.3 Identify and provide information on potential responses to the appropriate team members for action and support 5.4 Request assistance clearly and promptly 5.5 Use protective strategies according to instructions and procedures 6. Prevent escalation 6.1 The persons behaviour pattern is routinely monitored to of violent ensure aggressive or abusive behaviour is minimised behaviour 6.2 A plan of care outlining ways to prevent, and respond to clients expressions of violence against self or others, is developed, communicated to relevant personnel, and implemented 6.3 Individual response to crisis situations promotes calm and reassurance 6.4 Procedures used to protect clients from endangering themselves or others, are consistent with legal, ethical and organisation requirements, and safety considerations 6.5 Appropriate judgements, in relation to physical restraint, based on the balance of risk and the safety of all, are enacted 6.6 First aid and other assistance is administered as necessary Page 10
  • 11. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 7. Secure the safety 7.1 Anticipate potential causes of conflict and harmful of clients behaviour and make appropriate responses to prevent escalation 7.2 Use calm, confident and assertive communication to establish positive personal interaction and exchange information 7.3 Provide information designed to promote positive decision making based on the relationship between actions and consequences 7.4 Provide information to all relevant individuals in a clear, accurate and comprehensive manner. 7.5 Select response and action designed to minimise risk, prevent escalation and to preserve the safety and security of all involved 7.6 Responses and emergency action give priority to the protection of individuals from severe harm. 7.7 Use of force for the maintenance of safety complies with procedures and is applied with minimum force to establish control Page 11
  • 12. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 UNIT FOUR Suggested Unit Study Guide Week One  Online Task One.  Reading for Assessment Task Two Week Two  Online Task Two.  Complete Assessment Task Two Week Three  Online Task Three.  Reading for Assessment Task Three Week Four  Online Task Four.  Complete Assessment Task Three Week Five  Online Task Five.  Reading for Assignment Task Four Week Six  No Online Task  Complete Assignment Task Four School Holidays  No Online Task  Complete any Outstanding Assessment Tasks  Submit Unit Portfolio for Assessment Page 12
  • 13. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Student Checklist This page has been provided for student use only as desired. It provides you with a guide to help you manage the completion of the portfolio. As you plan and Assessment Planned date to complete Complete complete each assessment task in the portfolioactivities use this document to you can track your progress; it should provide a useful organizational tool for you.  & details of any AT1 - Online Tasks AT2 – Risk Management for Activities AT3 – Critical Incident Management Planning AT4 – The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention Page 13
  • 14. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task One Online Tasks OLT1 – SU Qld Chaplaincy and Suicide Prevention Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT2 – Crises Come in All Shapes and Sizes Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT3 – Does Debriefing Trauma Victims Really Work? Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT4 – Negotiation Skills for Crises Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C – 6.1; 6.2; 6.3; 6.4; 6.5; 6.6; 7.2; 7.3; 7.4; 7.5; 7.6; 7.7 OLT5 – Funerals and Memorial Services Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various Task Two Risk Management for Activities Page 14
  • 15. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Introduction to the Task For an organisation like SU Qld, it is important that safe environments for children and young people are created in all activities (EG - through chaplaincy services, camps or community outreach programs etc). If SU Qld is not able to do this, it will not be able to achieve its vision and mission with children and young people; will lose the confidence of the parents and caregivers of children and young people; as well as lose its reputation in the community for providing high quality child and youth programs and services. Having said that, all activities carry some kind of risk and not all risks can be controlled. But the aim of any organisation, particularly those that work with children and young people, should be to minimize the risks and to manage them as best as they can. Risk Management then, is the process by which an organisation identifies, analyses, evaluates and treats the potential and actual risks they face in their activities. The goal of risk management is to avoid a critical incident; to make the levels of risk acceptable so that the organisation can carry out its functions, and achieve its vision and mission. The Task In this task, you are to design a Risk Management Plan for the activity outlined in the scenario below, by following the process outlined below. This will involve:  Reading the scenario  Reading up on Risk Management Planning processes  Responding to the questions in the various planning stages outlined below 2.1 Read the Following Scenario: Day Trip Bush Walk: You are the SU Qld school chaplain in the local high school and you have been asked to run a program that supports the year 9 and 10 boys in the school who are “at risk” of disengaging from school (eg they have been either truanting or receiving suspensions from school for various behaviour issues). The group has been meeting weekly with you over the last four weeks during Wednesday afternoon sport time, and you think its time for the group to do a novel team building activity. The activity is aimed to be fun, but challenging, with an emphasis on learning individual skills and working cooperatively as a group. You have decided to take the boys on a day trip bush walk, with the boys back packing 5 km up to the higher reaches of the YMIS River. The terrain around this river system often has occasional drops of 100 metres down steep slopes (cliffs) and into gorges where the river runs. The walk is an off track expedition that requires each student to follow a compass bearing given to them by the leader. To limit rock hopping, the group will follow a course that keeps them up off the river for most of the hike. The bush walk also includes swimming in a water hole along the river. The boys need to supply and carry their own supplies and lunch. 2.2 Read Up on Risk Management Processes (all readings on Moodle): Page 15
  • 16. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 1. “CCYPCG Safe Environments for Young People – Child Protection – Managing the Risks Resource Book”: (Part A: Section 3 – Risk Management & Part B: 3.2 Activities; 3.3 Special Events; 3.6.5 Sample Risk Management Template 2. “CCYPCG Safe Environments for Young People – Child Protection – Managing the Risks (Fact Sheet)” 3. “Queensland Government Risk Management Training Program” (8 Booklets including Introduction; Steps 1 to 5; Review; and Summary) 2.3 Risk Management Planning Process Write your responses to the bullet pointed questions in the boxes provided at each stage of the Risk Management Process. You can respond to each bullet point specifically or by writing in your own words. 2.3.1 - Step One: Establish the Context The first step in the risk management process is to focus on the environment in which your event operates. Consider this environment to establish the boundaries within which the risks must be managed, and to guide your decisions on managing the risks:  What is the youth work context of this event?  What are the objectives or proposed outcomes of the event?  What is the actual environment that the event takes place in?  What are the strengths of the young people involved?  What are the needs of the young people involved?  Who are the stakeholders who need to be involved?  What activities make up the event? 1. 14 to 15 year old boys at risk of disengaging from school 2. Personal challenges and encouraging team work through group cooperation. Building self esteem by working through personal achievement. 3. Day hike / off track expedition; bush walk through upper reaches of the YMIS river. There are some cliffs of 100 meters dropping into river system. 4. Young and active. They have been meeting together with the chaplain for a month in preparation toward trip. 5. Need challenges to keep them involved. Taking responsibility. Need direction. Need to develop team spirit/ be supportive/ looking out for one another. Need support in encouraging good behavioural. Need to understand the expected outcomes. 6. SU Qld; Chaplain; volunteers; parents; EQ, school principal; Bronze medallion qualified leader; rangers; GO 7. Transporting students to and from area. Back packing. Reading a compass/orienteering. Swimming. Hiking over rough terrain. Eating BYO food. Page 16
  • 17. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 2.3.2 - Step Two: Identify the Risks The second step is to identify the risks of the event, and to consider when and where the risks may arise. A risk is anything that can cause harm, either physically, psychologically or emotionally. In this stage, it is recommended that key stakeholders get together to discuss the risks and the potential responses.  Brainstorm with stakeholders: What are the risks? What can happen? How can it happen?  Environmental Factors  Human Factors  Equipment Factors Environmental factors; Human factors; Equipment factors Risks: Car travel to and returning from venue. Rough terrain including steep slopes/cliffs, off track terrain, confusion of students following compass directions. Swimming: underwater hazards; Adverse weather conditions. Snakes/insects Inappropriate or faulty equipment; e.g. compasses, shoes, clothing, backpacks, vehicles What can happen: Accident travelling to activity. Students getting lost; injury falling down cliff into gorge; drowning; injury from underwater hazards; dehydration from heat; sunburn; fatigue; snake / insect bites; rain/storms How can it happen: Lack of attention by driver or accident caused by other driver. Lack of information to and preparation of the students, unqualified supervision and/or lack of supervision; poor behaviour of students not following directions/ ignoring supervisors. Low water intake. Poor physical condition of students. Inclement weather. Faulty compasses, incorrect foot wear, backpacks & food, vehicles 2.3.3 - Step Three: Analyse the Risks For the risks identified, assess the level of risk based on the likelihood they will occur and consequence for children, young people and the organization (see CCYPCG templates on p17 for help with last three boxes of template below / NOTE – these templates appear under the heading of “Evaluating the Risk”, not “Analyse the Risks”, but they belong here for our purposes)  List the activities making up the event  Description of Risks  Existing Controls  Likelihood of Risk Occurring – Almost Certain; Likely; Possible; Unlikely; or Rare  Consequences – Catastrophic; Major; Moderate; Minor; or Insignificant  Level of Risk – Extreme; High; Moderate; or Low Page 17
  • 18. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Description of Likelihood of risk Consequences risk Level of risk Almost certain, Catastrophic, Activity Source of risk Existing control Extreme, high, likely, possible, major, moderate, Likely effect of moderate, low unlikely, rare minor, insignificant problem Experienced, licensed drivers Car Breakdown Mechanically minor/moderate sound vehicles Travel to and from Car accident or following Possible Low venue breakdown Car accident designated route & Minor to road rule adhered Catastrophic to Seat belts worn Monitor camper’s progress and have Possible to Hiking Fatigue Moderate Low regular breaks as Unlikely needed First Aid bum bag (ensure has compressions bandages for snake bites and Injury, Snake bite, Hiking “rolled” ankles), Possible Major to Minor High to Low skin protection from insect bites and appropriate clothing; Qualified First Aider Heavy rain could Checking current Hiking contribute to Unlikely Moderate to Major Low weather forecasts slippery conditions Information & training session conducted, Bush walking off orienteering route track over rough designed for the Hiking Possible Major High terrain, safest path, Orienteering experienced leaders Pre checked equipment Leader with Bronze medallion Support staff with water competence Drowning, injury and appropriate Moderate to Swimming from underwater Unlikely to possible ratio to Catastrophic Low to Moderate hazard/s participants. Buddy system Clearly defined boundaries Sunscreen applied & reapplied at regular interval’s Sunburn, Hiking Appropriate hats & Possible Minor Low Dehydration shirts worn Monitor water intake Page 18
  • 19. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 2.3.4 - Step Four: Evaluate the Risks Prioritise the risks to minimise the impact, to focus efforts in treating identified risks and to guide action planning and allocation of resources  Is the risk acceptable or unacceptable?  What is the criteria for determining the risk’s acceptability?  What priority will be given to what risks and their management? Activity Level of Risk Acceptable / Unacceptable Travel to and from venue Low to moderate Acceptable Hiking: Fatigue/ adverse Low to moderate Acceptable weather Swimming Low to Moderate Acceptable Hiking: injury Moderate to Low Acceptable Hiking: Sunburn/Dehydration Low Acceptable Hiking: Orienteering High Unacceptable Criteria for Risk’s acceptability: • I would use an evaluation chart. If the risk is high or above then it is unacceptable and the activity would have to be reassessed. The Risks and their Management: By rating the risks on a highest to lowest scale, the risks that had the highest rating would be the first ones to be assessed. 2.3.5 - Step Five: Treat the Risks Consider the options for reducing the likelihood and / or consequences of each risk (EG - Stop the activity; Eliminate the risk; Minimise the harm; or Transfer the liability)  Brainstorm all possible solutions to treat the risks  Select the most feasible and cost effective solution  Develop and implement a strategy to implement that solution – What, How, Who, When? Brainstorm all possible solutions to treat the risks: The activity that has the highest risk is the orienteering, where the chance of a student having an accident is highly probable. Therefore because of the high risk due to cliffs and the rough and unknown terrain, transferring the risk to more highly qualified and insured organisation is the best option. Select the most feasible and cost effective solution Develop and implement a strategy to implement that solution – What, How, Who, When? I would therefore contact various adventure based organisations and have them assess the proposed activity. After receiving their assessment, I would consult with the other members of the team to choose and employ the best company to run the activity. It would be best to choose the time of year where the least possible injury could be caused through inclement weather conditions. Page 19
  • 20. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 2.3.6 - Step Six: Review and Revise Risks and Control Measures The strategies used to mange risks need to be constantly monitored and evaluated, as the factors that contribute to risks are constantly changing.  How might some of the risks change over time?  How could a review of the risks be best done? How might some of the risks change over time? Weather conditions; Experience of leaders on team; Numbers in group; experience of participants; general behaviour/personality of participants. How could a review of the risks be best done? Analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats – SWOT. I would also meet soon after the event with all leaders and run through what did or didn’t work. It would be necessary to review any incident/accident reports and to formulate a plan to ensure any mishaps could be minimised. I would conduct a SWOT of team and activities with all leaders and plan/document any improvement changes. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – 1.1; 1.5; 2.1; 2.2; 2.3; 2.6; 3.1; 3.3; 4.3;4.4; 4.5; 4.6  CHCYTH7C – 3.6; 4.2; 4.3; 4.4; 5.2; 5.3; 5.5; 6.2; 6.4; 7.1; 7.3; 7.4; 7.5 Page 20
  • 21. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task Three Critical Incident Management Planning Introduction to the Task A critical incident can be defined as a traumatic event which causes or is likely to cause extreme physical and/or emotional distress to the people involved and to the surrounding community and may be regarded as outside the normal range of experience of the people affected. It is any event or series of events that is sudden, overwhelming, threatening or protracted. Some examples of critical incidents that affect a community or school are:  Fire  Bomb threat or explosion  Gas or chemical hazard  Natural disaster – flood, earthquake, tsunami  Transport accident  Death  Destruction of the whole or part of the school, church, workplace or town  Break-in accompanied by major vandalism  Person lost or injured on an excursion or event  Person being taken hostage  Person witnessing serious injury or death  Robbery, violence or assault on a person  Child sexual assault  Suicide Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) or Critical Incident Management (CIM) is a comprehensive series of strategies that organizations can put in place to assist in the recovery of people experiencing distress after a critical incident. There are a number of stages to a CIM process and they can be outlined in a few different ways, but essentially, the stages of CIM involve:  Preparation and prevention of critical incidents  Managing a critical incident and the immediate response  Follow up of a critical incident (including – demobilization, debriefing and defusing)  Review of CIM At each stage, there are a number of important activities and tasks that need to be completed. The completion of these tasks at each stage increase the likelihood of a more positive response from people to a critical incident, although there are other factors involved in this that are difficult if not impossible to control. As in all Risk Management processes, it is important to go through the process of doing all that is possible to identify the risks and effectively respond to them. The Task In this task, you are being asked to:  Read up on CIM  Define the different stages of CIM and give 5 examples of strategies for each of these stages  Write a student journal account of your involvement in one of these stages of responding to a critical incident  Describe how that involvement fit into the other stages Page 21
  • 22. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3.1 Read Up on CIM (all readings on Moodle) Essential Reading (you should read all of these): 1. Critical Incidents Management Guide for Newcastle University (Factsheet) 2. Workplace Health – Coping with a Critical Incident (Factsheet) 3. Resource Guide for Critical Incident Stress and Debriefing for Human Service Agencies 4. School Matters – pp 29 – 32 School Policy and Critical Incidents & pp 63 – 65 Tool 7 Critical Incident Management Plan 5. Educating for Life – pp 29 – 33 Critical Incident Management & pp 42 – 45 Responding to the Student who is Suicidal or Self Harming Going Deeper Reading (you should read at least one of these): 6. Traumatic Incidents Affecting Schools 7. Responding to Traumatic Incidents: Supporting Documentation for Schools 8. Emergency / Disaster Planning for Principals 9. Crisis Management – Student Services Competencies – Appendix XVI (p63) onwards 3.2 Stages and Activities of CIM Stages 3.2.1 Preparation & Prevention of Critical Incidents: Definition of Stage: This stage is where you would prepare the necessary strategies for managing a critical incident. The designated organisations and supporting networks would be listed with all pertinent contact details and how they would be attained. Prevention would involve strategies to help people in times of stress; to recognize these symptoms and provide the necessary emotional support. Another important aspect would be to establish a supportive working environment. The forming of a CIM team from the administration and other relevant personnel. 5 examples of what can happen at this stage and a brief description of each example Page 22
  • 23. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Form a critical incident team: this should be comprised of senior administration staff, e.g. deputy principal and senior teaching staff members, trained for their particular roles. Identify tasks required & roles to be filled by each member: each member would have set tasks, e.g. Identification of the persons affected by the critical incident. Recommend the response in regard to the required personnel and resources Arrange for the necessary pastoral care contact to victims and others affected Arrange for a private area for those affected by incident Provide accurate information to all parties Check that the required paper work has been completed Write up procedure document: These should be very clear guidelines of how to manage a critical incident and would incorporate the debriefing process. Communicate procedures to all staff: Raise staff awareness of procedures and provide the any necessary training. Fire drill emergency evacuation and lock downs: Practice procedures with whole school. Liaise with welfare organizations: Have the necessary contact details of all support organizations and relevant personnel. 3.2.2 Managing a Critical Incident and the Immediate Response Definition of Stage Page 23
  • 24. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 This would be the first response and implementation of the Critical Incident Management plan to minimize further harm. 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example Follow the set procedures: Follow the pre discussed and agreed guidelines Contact emergency services: This would be dependent on the particular CI The CIM Team to start coordinating in their identified roles: All team personnel would follow the previously identified procedures. Start communication process: Ensure that all parties are aware of what has happened and the steps that have been put in progress to handle the situation efficiently and appropriately. Support the staff: reassure their right to be affected by CI and use the available support services. 3.2.3 Follow Up (including demobilization, defusing and debriefing) Definition of Stage • Appropriate care and debriefing with all affected by the critical incident. 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example Page 24
  • 25. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 • Set up quiet space/care room : It is important to have an area where those affected can feel comfortable and supported • Facilitate appropriate discussion of the event just past Be there to answer any questions; acknowledge their confusion/emotions in relation to the event • Information sharing/available Have brochures and website addresses that are appropriate to help people process what they have experienced. • Badges for easy identification of coordinators: It is important for those affected to be able to easily recognize those to whom they can talk about their experience. • Communicate with parents: Letting parents know what is or has happened is a priority in order to allay any fears, to defuse any situation that may have occurred through misunderstandings. 3.2.4 Review of CIM Procedures Definition of Stage • Analyse all that took place during the critical incident and the responses to it and look to see if there are areas that need improving and make the appropriate changes to those areas Page 25
  • 26. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example • Meet with emergency services involved in the CI Liaise with all those involved • Examine our processes to see if they were effective or not Reassess our procedures for future reference • Ensure all those involved had accurate information about the incident Get feedback from all parties as to see if they had received and were able to act on all the necessary information. Check if there were areas that need to be improved • Provide all those involved with established coping mechanisms on managing future incidents Improve the training and education of personnel in recognizing the after effects of stress • Organize the debriefing counselling and support for those in need This may take the form of short or long term support. Initially, working with trained counsellors and ensuring ongoing training, support and acceptance. 3.2.5 – Student Journal Account of Participating in a Response to a Critical Incident Write 250 words on a time when you participated in a response to a critical incident, with particular reference to your involvement in one of the 4 CIM stages outlined. (If you haven’t participated in a critical incident then consider how you might be involved in your current role as SU Qld Chaplain in your school and community) The critical incident I was involved in related to the death of one of the student’s grandfather. The young boy, Year 4, was the first to find his grandfather when he had gone to visit him after school, the previous day. The principal had asked if they would like to speak to some support personnel and the principal asked if I would assist the Youth Services Coordinator in speaking with them both. His mother brought him with her to school the next day. I had not previously seen the young boy by himself however; I had been in his classroom on a number of occasions and worked with him and some other students on their class work. The Youth Services Coordinator was appreciative of my support as I would be able to continue seeing the student on a regular basis. It was good being able to sit in on her interview with the student and his mother. This part of the CI would come under the heading of ‘Follow up’ which was part of ‘defusing and debriefing’ – 3.2.3. The YSC led the debriefing process through gentle questioning and then allowed the student to talk about his experience. His mother was also grateful to talk openly about her relationship with her father and what he meant to them both. Where initially her son was reticent to talk about his experience, he began to feel more comfortable and was able to talk about his grandfather and be more accepting of what he saw. We allowed the mother and her son to choose when to end the session. She was extremely grateful to have been able to process her experience and said she felt more at peace. Her son seemed to be more settled and was keen to return to school the next day. Page 26
  • 27. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Write 250 words on how your contribution fit in to what was going on or had gone on in the other 3 stages, making references to the other 3 stages of the CIM process. In relation to the first stage, 3.2.1 Preparation & Prevention of Critical Incidents, the school provided an environment where the mother and son felt confident of receiving support. This was evidenced by the fact that when the school administration contacted the mother, she was very grateful for the opportunity to speak to the Youth Support Coordinator and me. Our immediate concern was for the young student who had been quite traumatised by being the first to find his dead grandfather. This comes under the heading of 3.2.2 Managing a Critical Incident and the Immediate Response. The school administration made every effort to contact the family and provide the necessary emotional support by contacting the Youth Support Coordinator. It was fortunate that I happened to be at the school that day and the principal was grateful that I was prepared to assist the family where possible, under the guidance of the Youth Support Coordinator. The final stage, 3.2.4 Review of CIM Procedures: was followed up later that day by the principal, after the mother and her son had left. The Youth Support Coordinator and I discussed with the principal how we had managed the discussion and our assessment of the outcomes. We had previously discussed with the mother the possibility of me being an ongoing support for the boy after he returned to school. Both the mother and boy were happy with this proposal. In review, this was seen as a positive use of my services to the school. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – all criteria covered in this task  CHCYTH7C – 2.1; 2.3; 3.1; 3.2; 4.1; 4.2; 4.3; 4.4 Page 27
  • 28. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task Four The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention Introduction to the Task Suicidal behaviours are those that revolve around the desire and intention to end one’s own life. The reasons why people think suicidal thoughts and engage in suicidal behaviours are complex and interrelated with other broader societal factors. Many people who die by suicide are affected by mental disorders, often combined with an adverse family situation and / or other social disadvantage. Some suicides are impulsive and many who attempt it are not motivated by a desire to embrace death, but to escape pain in life. There are many, many good arguments for providing programs for the prevention and intervention of suicide, and the full scope and nature of these interventions need to be as broad and interrelated as the causal factors. The intervention strategies for suicidal behaviour can be divided into 5 stages: 1. Primary Prevention – General activities that enhance the protective factors and reduce the risk factors for children and young people in the area of suicidal behaviour 2. Early Intervention – Activities that identify and support children and young people who are “at risk” of engaging in suicidal behaviour 3. Intervention – Activities that assess the vulnerability of children and young people to suicidal behaviour and provide immediate crisis support to those exhibiting suicidal behaviours 4. Treatment – Activities that treat the underlying mental health issues associated with suicidal behaviours 5. Post-vention – Activities that provide support to those affected by a death by suicide or an attempted death by suicide, seeking to minimise the potential for suicide contagion and to support the personal and community grieving process Any effective prevention and intervention planning process in the area of suicidal thoughts and behaviours needs to take these 5 stages into consideration. The Task In this task, you will be reading up on suicidal behaviour and then writing a short paper (1000 words minimum) on how the 5 stages of intervention for suicidal behaviour apply in your role as an SU Qld Chaplain in a Queensland state school. The paper will include:  An introduction / overview on suicidal behaviour in children and young people  Your own definition of each of the 5 stages of intervention for suicidal behaviour, a description of each stage and 5 examples of activities that could take place at each of the stages  Your understanding on how these activities might relate to the CIM process in your school  A reflection on which stage or stages your SU Qld Chaplaincy role is most likely to be involved in during an intervention, and how this would fit into the work being done in the other stages of intervention Page 28
  • 29. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.1 Read Up on Suicidal Behaviours and the 5 Stages of Intervention 4.1.1 Websites on Suicide  Reach Out! - Wanting to End Your Life – A range of fact sheets: EG - “Wanting to Take Your Own Life”, “If a Friend Threatens to Take Their Own Life”, “If a Friend Has Taken Pills or Hurt Themselves” etc)  Rethink - Suicide – A range of fact sheets: EG – “Suicide and Mental Illness”, “Helping a Suicidal Friend or Relative”, “Myths about Suicide”, “If You Are Thinking of Suicide”  www.suicidehelpline.org.au – home – (A range of headings: EG – “Understanding Suicide”, “Helping Someone Who’s Suicidal”, “Coping with Suicidal Death” etc)  itsallright : The Facts : Suicide – “Suicide” fact sheet  www.kidshelpline.com.au – home – info about KHL – resources and research – info sheets – “Suicide-Related Issues 2006” AND / OR home – info about KHL – resources and research – publications – “Lives on the Line”  Ybblue: A youth depression awareness campaign – Click on “download now” for “Fact sheet 19 – Suicide” 4.1.2 Readings on Suicide (on Moodle under “Unit 4 / Resources / AT4”) Shorter Documents / Fact Sheets  LIFE – Australian Suicide Statistics, 2004 – Key Findings  Response-ability – (a range of fact sheets on suicidal behaviour and responses at the bottom of the page) (Essential Reading)  SANE – Suicide and Self Harm Fact Sheet  Lifeline - Just Ask – Tool Kit  Mind Your Mind – Suicide Fact Sheet Longer Documents / Research Papers and Reports  LIFE – Learnings About Suicide (Essential Reading)  Mind Matters – Educating for Life Resource (Essential Reading)  Understanding Youth Suicide – Information Kit  Qld State Government – Suicide Prevention Strategy for 2003 to 2008  Qld State Government – Reducing Suicide Action Plan 4.2 Short Paper on “The 5 Stages of Intervention for Suicidal Behaviours” Page 29
  • 30. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.2.1 Introduction to the Paper on Suicide Write 350 words (minimum) by way of introduction to your paper that includes:  A definition of suicidal behaviour  Suicide and young people in Australia  Individual and environmental risk factors  Individual and environmental protective factors  Why we need to understand the “5 stages of intervention” Definition of Suicidal Behaviour Suicidal behaviour can be defined as someone exhibiting an attitude of hopelessness and helplessness and exhibiting a continued state of depression. They may show no care, interest or concern in their own lives or the lives of others and may threaten to take their own lives.  Suicide and young people in Australia The Life fact sheet 1 states that over 2000 Australians commit suicide each year. The data shows that more males than females commit suicide each year and in relation to age, there is a wide variation in age groupings for males, with a steep rise in males aged in their 80’s. The information in ‘A framework for prevention of suicide and self-harm in Australia’ states the even though statistics indicate a general drop in the suicide rate since the 1990’s, suicide has ‘dramatically increased among younger people. Rates for males aged 15 to 24 have more than tripled over the past 40 years.’ Since 1973, there has been a similar rise in rates for men aged 25-35. The rates for female suicide remain steady at about ¼ of the male rate. In relation to statistics, there can be some variation in the accuracy of the data as the coroner’s report is the only guideline as to the number of suicides and does not take into account deaths undetermined deaths, single-vehicle accidents or accidental overdoses.  Individual and environmental risk factors Statistics show that there are certain groups in the community who may be more prone to suicide than others. Risk factors are those that increase the likelihood of someone committing suicide. It should be noted that risk factors can be associated with things we can or cannot change. Individual risk factors In relation to individual risk factors, a person’s mental and physical health, his/her lack of self-esteem, the inability to deal with difficult circumstances, manage emotions, or cope with stress can make him/her more vulnerable. Other risks can be genetic or linked to a mental disorder. Lack of support for someone who has already attempted suicide is another risk factor. The social risk factors can include the person’s relationships between family, friends, work colleagues, involvement in community groups and how that person relates those areas. Environmental risk factors These are more multi faceted and include the social aspects of a person’s life and the impact of the forces at work in the wider community. The broad based risk factors which may impact a person’ life includes the social, political, environmental, cultural and economic circumstances that can determine what options are available and quality of life people are experiencing. People suffering from mental illness are more vulnerable where they have no support and who are socially isolated. There is data that shows particular groups are more at risk than others, for example, men, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and those living in isolated and rural communities. Page 30
  • 31. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502  Individual and environmental protective factors Protective factors can reduce the likelihood of suicidal behaviour and can help someone cope through difficult circumstances. Support from family and friends is an important preventative factor in a person’s life as is strong connections with friends, extended family and social links, such as joining a church, sporting or other community groups. Other individual protective factors can be promoted through activities that help to build self-esteem, psychological strength and personal competence. Life Factsheet 4 explained that by teaching young people ‘social and emotional skills, fostering positive peer relationships and relationships with teachers and other adults and encouraging help-seeking behaviours’ were strong protective factors. The importance of community support cannot be underestimated so groups and organizations that are focused on helping someone who is struggling with their circumstances can assist someone in need. These groups and organizations are geared to respond to a person in need through personal counselling, providing the necessary links to health and care support. Effective links with other agencies that can respond quickly to a person in need is an important preventative factor, particularly at the local level. It should be noted that the absence or presence of the acknowledged risk or preventative factors do not determine whether or not a person will choose to end his/her life. The resiliency factor is appears to be more complex and everyone is different in the way they respond to the various influences and situations being experienced.  Why we need to understand the “5 stages of intervention” By understanding the “5 stages of intervention”, we would be able to put into place preventative measures that help address the risk factors and also be able to promote the acknowledged protective factors such as using strategies in building a person’s resilience in a supportive environment. We will be better able to respond to the signs and symptoms that someone might be contemplating suicide and take remedial action. We are more prepared to help someone in need and have the networks to link them to the appropriate support person or agency. We would be able to assist in the promotion of effective links and cooperation among support organisations and medical services. We would be aware of the need of providing ongoing care for those who in recovery from attempting suicide as well as understanding the support needed by the families and friends affected by someone either committing or attempting suicide. We would understand the importance of raising community awareness of how to assist those in need and to recognise the signs and symptoms and thereby helping to remove the stigma of those who attempt suicide. Another aspect involves knowing who the key people are to contact in an emergency and how the support services can be of immediate and ongoing assistance. 4.2.2 Primary Prevention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage Page 31
  • 32. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Primary prevention: Definition: Incorporating activities and programs that encourage children’s resilience to adverse circumstances in their lives and thereby help reduce the impact of other risk factors that could lead to self harm. 5 Activities: 1. Promote programs that build up feelings of self worth and identify personal strengths 2. Encourage connections to social groups that have a strong community base 3. Develop positive thinking approach to life 4. Encourage physical activity 5. Build strong family/community support systems How this relates to CIM process in school This first area of CIM process can be likened to the planning by relevant personnel, such key administration and staff to providing projects aimed at increasing the resilience of students. It would be a school wide initiative that promotes a safe and supportive learning environment. It would also incorporate a process for recognising students who may be at risk. The policies would include increasing the students’ connection to school and raising their self esteem. 4.2.3 Early Intervention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Early intervention: Definition: Preventative action to support the person who may be at risk of self harm. Five activities: 1. Provide a safe and secure environment 2. Develop programs to help a person to develop personal strengths 3. All staff would be aware of the procedure to follow if they felt a student was at risk 4. All staff would know the relevant personnel to contact if they felt a student was at risk. 5. Provide links to community organisations and activities that give a sense of involvement and belonging How this relates to CIM process in school The main activity would relate to having clear lines of communication so that the relevant personnel are aware of students at risk and know what action should be taken and who to contact in those circumstances. Page 32
  • 33. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.2.4 Intervention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Intervention: Definition: Taking decisive action to ascertain a person’s vulnerability to self harm and providing immediate support. Five examples: 1. Ask if they are thinking of harming themselves 2. Ask if they have planned the way they would do that 3. Report to relevant authority, e.g. the principal, my concerns for this person’s safety 4. Stay with the person to ensure their immediate safety and to remove them from harm. 5. Reassure the person of your continued support and concern for their welfare and assure them that only those who need to know will be informed How this relates to CIM process in school This relates to the CIM process of following the procedures already agreed upon and taking immediate action. It also relates to supporting the people involved through acknowledging the impact this can have on them and the organisation. Page 33
  • 34. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Case Study: You are an SU Qld School Chaplain at the local primary school. A Year 7 girl comes to see you in your office and says to you that she can’t stop crying and she doesn’t know why. She says that if this doesn’t stop, then she doesn’t want to live any more… Think about this interaction: What knowledge and skills regarding suicidal behaviour will you need to be mindful of to help her? What counselling skills will you need to apply to encourage trust and safety? If her emotional pain is not acknowledged or is treated in a casual way, it could lead to her self harming. Her behaviour indicates a feeling of helplessness and hopelessness so it would be vital to assure her that you are there to help in whatever way you can. It would be important to acknowledge the pain and distress she is feeling so she can see that there is someone there who wants to support and help her. Reassure her that you are not judging her in any way accepting her no matter what the problem is or circumstances that are affecting her. It would be important to let her know that if there is something happening to her where you need to report to the principal, that you are there to support her through that. That you will only inform those people who need know; that her privacy will be respected. Assure her that there is help and support for her through the school and other agencies if she needs that. You will be an ongoing support for her. 4.2.5 Treatment  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Page 34
  • 35. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Treatment: Definition: The actions needed to improve a person’s mental approach to life’s problems and reduce the likelihood of self harm. Five examples: 1. Assess the situation and circumstances where the person feels vulnerable 2. Provide contacts of agencies and community networks that can provide ongoing support 3. Offer ongoing emotional support 4. Provide education and activities to promote resilience in managing the challenges of life 5. Encourage the various supporting organisations to establish closer links, share relevant information so that they can assess and respond quickly to a crisis. How this relates to CIM process in school This area relates to establishing strong counselling links and gaining the support of relevant agencies and community groups who can be contacted quickly. It is connected to longer term aims where a person is gaining skills to manage his life in a more positive way. 4.2.6 Post-vention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Post-vention: Definition. Providing help and follow up for people and communities affected by the trauma of suicide or attempted suicide and assessment of existing procedures. Five activities 1. Activities to aid the resilience of those affected by the trauma 2. Personal support and follow up and developing self help strategies 3. Connection to supporting social groups or agencies 4. Support for family and friends 5. Regular meetings of relevant agencies and community groups to assess the effectiveness of their strategies and how to improve immediate response. How this relates to CIM process in school This aligns with the evaluation of the strategies and follow-up procedures of all involved personnel and organisations to ensure the methods are effective and meet current needs. 4.2.7 Reflections on the Chaplaincy Role and the “5 Stages” Given the nature of your role as an SU Qld Chaplain, it is likely that you will be involved somewhere in a school’s response to the prevention and intervention of suicidal behaviours. In this last section, reflect on which stage or stages you think your chaplaincy service would make the most valuable contribution to and outline your thinking on behind that. Page 35
  • 36. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 How my chaplaincy service can relate to particular stages of the prevention and intervention process. I can see my chaplaincy service fitting into the 5 stages in the following ways: The Early Prevention stage is represented in my work through forming strong relationships and being supportive and encouraging to all students. It is involved in providing programs and activities for building the self esteem and resiliency of students and staff. Networking with other community groups would provide resource personnel for referrals and other program providers and it would also provide students and staff with relevant contact details. The Prevention stage is an area where I would be of definite assistance in providing personal support to students who could be at risk due to individual and also environmental risk factors. This would take the form of personal contact to provide ongoing emotional support. It would also incorporate working with students at risk through class room interaction and providing programs that instil self worth and explore ways to build on personal strengths. Intervention is being involved in the identification of students at risk and reporting the situation to the principal. It also involves being there and supporting the students in a current and on- going basis. Treatment This is a mixture of working with relevant personnel from community organisations and also with the students in providing activities to increase their feelings of self worth and resiliency to the adverse events in their lives. Post-vention The family may also need support, particularly if the student has attempted suicide. This would relate to the Post- vention stage. Post-vention is also the stage where I would support a student who was the victim of abuse. So I would again be helping the student build up qualities of resilience and personal strengths. This is the area where a student can be connected to outside community groups and agencies to gain further support and skills. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – 1.1; 2.3; 3.1; 3.4  CHCYTH7C – all criteria covered in this task UNIT FOUR Assessor’s Marking Sheet Assessor Name: Date: Page 36
  • 37. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Signature: Comments: Results Unit of Competency Outcome CHCNET4A CHCYTH3C Feedback Feedback given: yes no Feedback verbal mechanism: written Notes: Page 37