Dublin’s Fair City  Dublin a Modern European City  and The Capital City of Ireland
Dublin  Presentation By C O Ghallchobhair How to Use: (in power-point) A.  Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to bring up...
Dublin   Presentation  The History of The City and Area Viking Period to Modern Times
 
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Dublin City <ul><li>The city can trace it’s origin back over 2000 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First settlement was called...
DUBLIN  <ul><ul><li>Dublin has often figured prominently in Irish history. </li></ul></ul>On your keyboard press the down ...
Christian Dublin  <ul><ul><li>Dublin’s early settlement inhabitants  were converted to Christianity about </li></ul></ul><...
St. Patrick
Early Medieval  &  Viking Dublin   <ul><li>The Danish Vikings captured the City of Dublin in  the 9 th  Century.  </li></u...
Viking Dublin <ul><li>The Vikings originally attempted to conquer the whole country. </li></ul><ul><li>The Celtic Chieftai...
The Viking Fleet   <ul><ul><li>In  914  the Vikings brought a huge Viking fleet which arrived in Waterford. </li></ul></ul...
The Viking Stronghold <ul><li>They attacked all of  Leinster and Munster from their settlements in the eastern costal area...
Chieftain Brian Boru <ul><li>The Vikings were first driven out of Dublin by Brian Boru, who became  High King of Ireland. ...
Brian Boru  Chieftain Brian Boru the last great High King of all Ireland
The Chieftain Clan Wars <ul><li>The Boru Clan lost their status as High King’s shortly after the Vikings had been driven o...
Chieftain O’Connor  &  Chieftain McMurrough   <ul><ul><li>After the Irish Clan wars, eventually Rory O’Connor and Dermot M...
Chieftain Dermot McMurrough <ul><li>The manipulative Chieftain McMurrough, who did a deal with Strongbow to re-gain power ...
Chieftains O’Connor  &  McMurrough   <ul><li>Chieftain Rory O’Connor had a Castle in Castlerea in Connacht. </li></ul><ul>...
The Rock of Cashel On the main Dublin-Cork road, you are transported back 1,500 years. This was the seat of Kings and medi...
High King  Ruairi O’Connor  <ul><li>O’Connor Coat of Arms –  Chieftains of Connacht, Clare & Sligo   </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Strongbow   <ul><li>Strongbow, a very powerful knight arrived in Ireland from Anglo~Norman England with a very skilled and...
Strongbow   <ul><li>Richard de Clare – the 2 nd  Earl of Pembroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard was King Henry II of England’...
Strongbow’s Castle in Wales <ul><li>Pembroke Castle – Norman home and Stronghold of  </li></ul><ul><li>Richard de Clare  2...
Strongbow  <ul><li>Lord Strongbow arrived in Waterford and proceeded to attack north with a large force and with the help ...
Strongbow & Aoife
Strongbow  <ul><li>Strongbow duly married McMurrough’s daughter Aoife, as agreed. </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly he marri...
Strongbow’s Chieftain ~ Norman Wedding  <ul><li>Strongbow’s marriage to Chieftain McMurrough’s Daughter Aoife in Waterford...
Strongbow King of Dublin & Leinster <ul><li>Lord Strongbow was now high regent and Lord of Norman (Anglo~French) rule in I...
Henry II
King  Henry II   <ul><li>Henry believed Strongbow would become too powerful in Ireland,  and Strongbow could easily  becom...
Henry II   <ul><li>Henry II did not trust Strongbow to remain loyal to the Crown.  </li></ul><ul><li>He believed Strongbow...
Henry II  &  Strongbow <ul><li>Henry II arrived in  1171  via Waterford and accepted loyalty directly from the Roman Catho...
Henry II   <ul><li>Henry II without any Battles had now conquered Ireland and he became: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Lord of I...
Strongbow & O’Connor <ul><li>Under Henry II, the High King Rory O’Connor was again the High Chieftain for the Island of Ir...
Strongbow’s Power  <ul><li>Strongbow – still a knight of the English realm, was now demoted to a Chieftain~Lord of Leinste...
Strongbow  <ul><li>Strongbow was summoned to England for the Treaty of Windsor in  1175  between King Henry II and Rory O'...
Waterford  to  Dublin   <ul><li>Ireland’s second port and staging post for the sieges and naval landings on Dublin and the...
Strongbow’s Dublin <ul><li>After Henry II came to establish overall power in Ireland, Strongbow and Aoife were still to re...
Strongbow at Dublin Castle <ul><li>Strongbow died in June  1176  of some type of infection in his leg or foot. </li></ul><...
Christ Church Cathedral <ul><li>Christ Church Cathedral – Church of Ireland Cathedral </li></ul>Strongbow’s burial tomb li...
Strongbow’s Aftermath <ul><li>King Henry II took all of Strongbow's lands after his death and castles into his own hands. ...
The Widowed Eve <ul><li>Aoife, Strongbow’s wife (Eve), was given her dower rights and possibly held Strigul Castle, later ...
“Eve at Chepstow Castle” <ul><li>Chepstow Castle, where Aoife MacMurchada (or Eve) may have resided after leaving Dublin C...
Sir William Marshall   <ul><li>William Marshall took over in Dublin as King Henry II’s Lord of Leinster after Strongbow’s ...
Norman Control   <ul><li>The Normans then took over the whole land leaving only a small Irish Kingdom in the west of the c...
Norman Control   <ul><li>Overlordship of Ireland had been established with Kilkenny Castle and Dublin Castle been the main...
 
Norman English Kings <ul><li>Richard I  “Richard the Lionheart”  </li></ul><ul><li>1189 ~1199 </li></ul>Richard I Coeur de...
Richard The Lionheart <ul><li>Richard I  statue Westminster Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Richard I ‘s  Tomb Effigy at Font...
King John <ul><li>Prince John ~ Lord of Ireland, the title granted to him by Richard the Lionheart. </li></ul><ul><li>Prin...
Norman English Kings of Ireland <ul><li>King John     1199 ~ 1216 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King John was regarded as a cr...
The Magna Carta   <ul><li>King John under great duress from his rebellious barons, was forced into introducing the Magna C...
King John’s Castle <ul><li>King John’s Castle at the mouth of the river Shannon at Limerick. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This Ca...
Medieval English Norman Kings in Ireland   <ul><li>Sir Richard de Clare  “Strongbow” 1170 ~ 1171   (ruled Leinster only – ...
Earlier Norman Kings of England   Following the Battle of Hastings 1066 . <ul><li>William I  The Conqueror   1066 ~ 1087 <...
Medieval Dublin Castle  <ul><li>The Castle in the 12 th  Century  later partly destroyed by fire. </li></ul>
Edward I  ~ “Longshanks” <ul><li>Edward I  - The English King and Norman Overlord who conducted the wars with Scotland and...
King Edward I  <ul><li>The Normans under Edward established a large English garrison the east of Ireland in particular Dub...
“The English Land”  <ul><li>This district was limited, roughly speaking, by the great mountain tract of Wicklow to the sou...
Trim Castle  <ul><ul><li>The largest Anglo~Norman fortification in Ireland near Dublin in county Meath. </li></ul></ul><ul...
The Norman Castle
The Norman Castle Castle Banqueting Hall, Kitchen and With-drawing Room
Kilkenny Castle  Norman Lordship of Leinster and Ireland   <ul><li>The present Castle begun by William Marshall  1207  (He...
House of York <ul><li>King Richard II died  (he was possibly murdered!)   </li></ul><ul><li>His son Edward IV eventually a...
House of York <ul><li>English rule in Ireland by force alone was not working outside the “Pale” </li></ul><ul><li>The Engl...
Richard III
Henry VII
Sir Edward Poyning  <ul><li>Edward Poyning  (Poyning’s Law)   Poyning was  Henry VII   Lord Deputy of  Ireland   </li></ul...
‘ Poynings Law’  1494   <ul><li>Poyning convened a parliament at Drogheda in November,  1494 , the memorable parliament in...
‘ Poynings Law’  <ul><li>The following are the most important provisions of this law:  </li></ul><ul><li>l.   No parliamen...
Poynings Law  <ul><li>2.  All the laws lately made in England affecting the. public weal should hold good in Ireland.  Thi...
Poynings Law  <ul><li>4.   For the purpose of protecting the settlement, it was made a felony to permit enemies or rebels ...
Poynings Law  <ul><li>In this parliament the Earl of Kildare was attainted for high treason, mainly on account of his supp...
The War of the Roses  <ul><li>Henry VII  the new Tudor King of England took power after the War of the Roses.  </li></ul><...
Henry VIII  &  The Vatican  <ul><li>His departure from the Roman Catholic Church was over the disallowed divorce from his ...
Henry VIII   <ul><li>Henry VIII   when he gained power thought about taking Ireland by force. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earl o...
Henry VIII   <ul><li>The Crown would also have to follow this up with forced colonisation or plantation of English people....
Henry VIII
Henry VIII <ul><li>The problem for Henry was that the previously loyal Irish Earls did not support the new Tudor Kings fol...
Cardinal Wolsey  <ul><li>Prior to excommunication, Henry’s trusted Roman Catholic Cardinal from the Vatican in Rome,  Card...
Cardinal Wolsey <ul><li>The Roman Catholic Cardinal and senior religious advisor to King Henry VIII  of England, Ireland &...
Silken Thomas  <ul><li>Silken Tomas, Fitzgerald the Earl of Kildare and Chief~Governor of Ireland since  1496   </li></ul>...
Silken Thomas <ul><li>Thomas Fitzgerald, The Earl of Kildare </li></ul>
Silken Thomas  <ul><li>On arriving at the Irish Earls Council Chamber, he flung his sword of state across the council tabl...
Dublin Castle  1534 Silken Thomas Fitzgerald’s siege on Dublin Castle
Sir William Skeffington <ul><li>The young Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, was friendly with some of the Irish Archbishops who were...
Sir William Skeffington <ul><li>Skeffington had been ruthless in his killing of the Fitzgeralds, which struck fear in the ...
Tudor Loyalty Established <ul><li>Most of the the Anglo~Irish Earls were supportive of the Fitzgerald rebellion prior to i...
The Pale  <ul><li>The Pale which emanated outwards from Dublin, originally named “The English Land” by Edward I  (Longshan...
The Pale   <ul><li>In  1488  the English pale was formally introduced in an Act passed by a Anglo~Irish Parliamentary Stat...
The Pale  <ul><li>The Pale 1488 – Statute from the old Drogheda Parliament . </li></ul>
The Pale   <ul><li>In  1494   Sir Edward  Poyning   passed an Act allowing for new construction around the Pale consisting...
The Pale   <ul><li>The Area just outside the Pale became hinterland, and would be only occupied by old Irish or English so...
The Pale   <ul><li>These Dublin mountains and Wicklow mountains were not properly captured until much later, and therefore...
The Pale  <ul><li>The small Town of Dalkey still has a Tudor look about it today, with a small Tudor Castle at one end of ...
Dublin   <ul><li>The “Protestant Ascendancy” through “re-colonising” was a largely successful policy, shoring up military ...
Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I   <ul><li>Queen  Elizabeth after defeating the Spanish Armada in  1588 , now made sure that she controll...
Lord Mountjoy   <ul><li>Elizabeth’s Viceroy General Lord Mountjoy, a very clever tactician, was now put in charge of the E...
Chieftain O’Neill  <ul><li>Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster had originally shown loyalty to the Crown, but he later cast away h...
The Spanish Return   <ul><li>Elizabeth was now under a big challenge by Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster and Red Hugh O’Donnell...
The Battle of Kinsale   <ul><li>O’Neill’s hand was now forced, so he marched his Chieftain army south and west from Ulster...
The Battle of Kinsale   <ul><li>The English would have had superior forces in the west of Ireland and should have been abl...
The Battle of Kinsale   <ul><li>The battle now also became one of terrible trench warfare and attrition.  Mountjoy dug in ...
The Battle of Kinsale   <ul><li>The Spanish struggle in the town put pressure on O’Neill and O’Donnell to attack the Engli...
The Battle of Kinsale   <ul><li>Queen Elizabeth had sent a large Naval Fleet to defeat the small Spanish fleet that had be...
The Battle of Kinsale   <ul><li>Lord Mountjoy with a large mounted land force now ruthlessly defeated the Chieftain Armies...
Elizabeth I   <ul><li>The defeat of the Chieftain Armies enabled her to now capture Ulster completely. </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Elizabeth I   <ul><li>Elizabeth now very much consolidated her English Tudor Rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth I est...
Elizabeth I   <ul><li>Dublin was now the seat of control for the entire Irish Colony. </li></ul><ul><li>The  1610  plantat...
Dublin Castle 1600’s <ul><li>The Elizabethan (re-built) Dublin Castle   </li></ul>
Charles I   & The 1641 Rebellion. <ul><li>By  1641  King Charles I  tried to maintain control in Ireland and with his own ...
1641 Rebellion  and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>The name of the Rebellion of  1641 , was given to this protracted conf...
1641 Rebellion  and the Ulster Massacre   <ul><li>Started by the massacre of Protestants by Catholics, which was on a larg...
1641 Rebellion  and the Flight of the Earls   <ul><li>Protestant dominance in Ireland was in danger of been completely era...
1641 Rebellion  and the Flight of the Earls   <ul><li>Such was the acute sense of discontent by the native Irish Catholics...
1641 Rebellion  and the Flight of the Earls   <ul><li>At the time of the Ulster Plantation in  1610 , there was also a lar...
1641 Rebellion  and the Flight of the Earls   <ul><li>In the Early years of the Plantation, the Crown Authorities had done...
1641 Rebellion  and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>The Irish Earls also still wanted to maintain the monarchy in Ireland ...
Charles I   The 1641 Rebellion &  Civil War  <ul><li>In Dublin on the eve of a planned attack on Dublin Castle, the rising...
The Crown Defeated by Parliament <ul><li>King Charles   I  had an army in Ireland, which however he needed in England to f...
Sir Thomas Fairfax
Sir Thomas Fairfax  <ul><li>Sir Thomas Fairfax, knighted by King Charles I in  1641 . </li></ul><ul><li>When the English C...
Oliver Cromwell <ul><li>Cromwell’s Puritan Army landed at Dublin in August  1649 . </li></ul><ul><li>He had a huge 20,000 ...
Cromwell <ul><li>Cromwell burned his way through Ireland in a ruthless campaign.  </li></ul><ul><li>His Roundhead soldiers...
Cromwell <ul><li>Drogheda just north of Dublin was a heavily fortified walled town. </li></ul>Drogheda Town around Cromwel...
Cromwell  at  Drogheda <ul><li>However Cromwell’s artillery breached the walls of the town and it was captured Over 3,500 ...
Cromwell’s attack on the  Roman Catholic Church <ul><li>Cromwell then attacked the Catholic Church whose property was seiz...
Aftermath of Cromwell  <ul><li>In the provinces of Leinster and Munster, the policy now was to replace all the major Catho...
The Legacy of Cromwell  <ul><li>“ To hell  or Connacht”   became the dreaded Irish phrase meaning no choice at all ! </li>...
Charles I Under powers granted by Parliament and Self Appointment Cromwell had Charles I executed at the Tower of London, ...
Cromwell  <ul><li>Lord Lieutenant & Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth   1654 –1658 . </li></ul>
The Return of the Monarchy under Charles II   <ul><li>The restoration of the Crown with Charles II in  1660  brought littl...
King James II  <ul><li>Following Charles II, came James II  who had converted  (back)  to the direct Catholic Faith – loya...
James II
William of Orange  <ul><li>William of Orange became King and conquered James II at the Boyne River, troops still loyal to ...
King William III
Battle of the Boyne   <ul><ul><ul><li>King James II  was then later defeated at the Battle of the Boyne by the Dutch  King...
The Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne   <ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 1,500 soldiers were killed at the Boyne. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Regency Georgian  Dublin in the  1700’s  <ul><li>During the time of the French revolution and the new ideals of  “Liberty,...
Regency Georgian  Dublin in the  1700’s  <ul><li>The penal laws were now repealed (in part) and the land tenure laws chang...
Dublin Custom House
King George I  King George II
Castletown House  <ul><li>A fine example of a Large Georgian Stately Home near Dublin. </li></ul>
The Dublin Parliament in the  1700’s  <ul><li>In the 1770’s the  Irish Parliament was set up in Dublin which was loyal to ...
Regency Georgian  Dublin in the  1700’s  <ul><li>By  1782  Dublin had gained a measure of legislative independence, from W...
18 th  Century Dublin  By the end of the 17th century and the early 18 th  Century a remarkable growth began with Protesta...
Georgian Dublin  The Four Courts Georgian Town House
Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>The Protestant Aristocracy in Georgian Dublin truly had a golden era. The Landlords grew v...
Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>Ordinary Irish people held on to respect for learning and education and maintained their o...
Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>Some small rebellions occurred, but were quickly quelled, the ruling classes overall now e...
Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>Overall the native population now had to conform to the now extremely powerful British Emp...
Phoenix Park  1800 The very grand and splendid Phoenix park in Dublin. Europe’s largest walled park.
The formation of the United Kingdom   <ul><li>Before 1800 the United Kingdom comprised of the Principality of Wales and th...
The Union of  The English and Scottish Crowns  1603 and The Act of Union with Scotland  1707   James VI of Scotland  becam...
The Act of Union with Ireland   1800 <ul><li>The combination of the the blue flag with a white cross – the cross of St.And...
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1800 ~ 1921   <ul><li>In 1801 The Act of Union with Great Britain ~ this aboli...
United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Ireland   <ul><li>Relative peace did occur in the first half of the new 19 th  centur...
United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Ireland  <ul><li>Westminster was now able to pass new powerful coercion bills on its ...
United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Ireland  <ul><li>One Improvement did occur the corrupt old Dublin Parliament was no m...
United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Ireland  <ul><li>These laws  which were made by Westminster for the entire population...
United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Ireland  <ul><li>King George III  was the first King of this new United Kingdom.  Dub...
King George III George III  was known as a mad and extravagant King. King George III  also became quite popular after the ...
United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Ireland <ul><li>A Dublin protestant Robert Emmet attempted a rising in 1803 but it fa...
The Grand Duke of Wellington   <ul><li>The Duke of Wellington a fine General to King George III also a Irish man who won a...
Daniel O’Connell  MP  <ul><li>Daniel O’Connell was a successful Catholic Lawyer educated in France and he won the Clare bi...
Wellington & Daniel O’Connell  <ul><li>The Duke of Wellington, the Irish born General, was now Prime Minister of Great Bri...
The Catholic~Relief Bill  <ul><li>A Large quota of Irish Catholic Soldiers had also fought for Wellington at Waterloo, the...
Dublin and Ireland  in the 1800’s  <ul><li>Some voting-rights for the small 40shilling farmers were abolished, reducing th...
Dublin and Ireland  in the 1800’s  <ul><li>The King remember was the defender of the Protestant faith since Henry VIII and...
George IV
Dublin and Ireland  in the 1800’s  <ul><li>The National School System in the 1830’s was now possible, this made primary ed...
The English Education System  <ul><li>The system did bring good education to all of Ireland. This was maintained throughou...
The English Education System  <ul><li>Some changes were made later in the 20 th  Century when Ireland became a dominion st...
The Irish Language  <ul><li>The terrible famine to come, the emigration that followed and the National Schools System were...
Emblem of Ireland The Famous old Irish Harp, still used to this day as the emblem of Ireland. It has been in use for centu...
Dublin and Ireland by 1840 <ul><li>Between 1800 and 1840 the presence of coal and iron in Britain had led to the start of ...
Dublin and Ireland by 1840 <ul><li>Ireland could only live off the land alone and via her trade status within the British ...
Dublin and Ireland by 1840 <ul><li>Importantly the Irish population, partly due to the British Empire’s economic success w...
The Railway  <ul><li>Steam trains made it possible to travel quickly throughout Ireland by the middle of the 19 th  Centur...
Kings Bridge Station 1846 <ul><li>The very grand and imperial  Kings Bridge Station Dublin now known as Heuston Station, i...
Dublin and Ireland 1840 <ul><li>New Railways were built with Grand Central Victorian Stations in Dublin connecting the big...
St. Patrick’s Cathedral   <ul><li>The magnificent St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin originally built by the Normans  (thou...
Dublin and Ireland 1840 <ul><li>The Irish MP’s in Westminster lobbied for Home Rule so it could tackle some of it’s own pr...
Famine 1845 ~ 1846 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>The first response was to let the poor into Workhouses established  1838  by the...
Famine 1846 ~ 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>The Second government response was to provide outside relief with soup kitchens ...
Famine 1846 ~ 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>Religious organisations tried to help in particular Quakers helped and won a pla...
Famine 1847  ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>The potato crop failed again in  1847  and the crisis reached a terrible breaking poin...
Famine 1847  ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>This episode now sparked huge Emigration.  </li></ul><ul><li>In  1847   3 million a da...
The Famine  1846 - 1847 <ul><li>A starving poverty stricken woman with her two children. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass departure ...
Emigration   1846 - 1847 <ul><li>After the Famine in  1846~49  emigration continued now to be a fact of life in rural Irel...
Emigration 1847-1849   <ul><li>The pattern of emigration established in the 1840’s was maintained right through the remain...
Emigration   1845 - 1847 <ul><li>The United States took a huge influx of emigrants who would famously go through the auste...
Emigration   1847 - 1849 <ul><li>Large British Cities such as Glasgow and  Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham now had l...
Emigration 1847 <ul><li>The Britannia Steamship 1847 ~ later steamships became  outstandingly more luxurious, faster and b...
Irish Famine Emigrant Ship “Jeanie Johnston”  1847  –  Replica (above) Launched 2003 Tralee Co.Kerry. Unlike other emigran...
Dublin 1845 - 1899 <ul><li>By the nineteenth century, Leinster was already the richest and most populous province. </li></...
Dublin 1845 - 1899 <ul><li>From 1838 there were large workhouses in Dublin where the destitute were fed and housed.  Durin...
Imperial  Dublin  1900 <ul><li>The Four Courts  and  Dublin Castle </li></ul>
Victorian Dublin 1900  <ul><li>A very turbulent century began in the aftermath of the famine, which was still been felt th...
Victorian Dublin  <ul><li>Victorian Ireland began to recover from this however. </li></ul><ul><li>Some public unrest post~...
Victorian Dublin  <ul><li>Queen Victoria’s Imperial Reign in Ireland had brought substantial peace again and Dublin again ...
Victorian Dublin  <ul><li>Imperial travel greatly swelled the numbers of foreign people from across the Empire and tourism...
Victorian Dublin  <ul><li>The Empire’s Industrial Revolution and new travel companies also helped develop the new British ...
Victorian Dublin  <ul><li>Dublin remained fashionable and rail travel increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Victoria visited ...
Queen Victoria  1837 - 1901
Queen Victoria’s  visit to Dublin 1900 Queen Victoria was not only Queen but also the Empress of a vast Empire now stretch...
Charles Stuart Parnell
Charles Stuart Parnell  <ul><li>Charles Stuart Parnell, Cambridge educated, was High Sheriff of Wicklow in 1874.  </li></u...
Prime Minister Gladstone  <ul><li>Gladstone introduced three Home Rule Bills, which  went before Westminster,  </li></ul><...
Prime Minister Gladstone  <ul><li>Vitally, in a historical context: The Third Home Rule Bill was then put on hold due the ...
Prime Minister Gladstone  <ul><li>It seamed to the Irish population that yet again Britain had reneged on yet another prom...
20 th  Century Dublin
20 th  Century Dublin  <ul><li>Emigration continued on a large scale as Irish workers were needed in the increasing indust...
Emigration to the USA  in the Early 1900’s <ul><li>Transatlantic Liner in Liverpool dock (above) </li></ul><ul><li>State L...
The  Famous Titanic   1912 <ul><li>Steamship Liner  RMS Titanic  </li></ul>Titanic, built at the Belfast Shipyard Harland ...
Dublin’s Famous Irish Writers  <ul><li>WB Yeats  Oscar Wilde  Samuel Beckett  George Bernard    Shaw  </li></ul>
Ulysses  James Joyce and Dublin
James Joyce <ul><li>Although Joyce only began writing Ulysses in 1914, he had been laying the plans for it since 1906. His...
Bloomsday <ul><li>The central parallel to Homer is that Bloom's wife Molly-- like Penelope in Homer-- is being courted by ...
Odyssey <ul><li>Homer’s Odyssey  -  Dublin </li></ul>
The Great War  1914 ~ 1918 <ul><li>In 1914  the first world war broke out and Lord Kitchener declared he would build a new...
The Great War  1914 ~ 1918 <ul><li>Home Rule was to be the reward for loyalty to the British Crown in war.  </li></ul><ul>...
Home Rule <ul><li>John Redmond from the Irish Home Rule Party also supported the War Effort.  He sought only limited Irish...
The Home Rule Bill <ul><ul><li>John Redmond  (left)  and  Sir Edward Carson  (right) </li></ul></ul>
Home Rule
Home Rule Opposition <ul><li>Sir Edward Carson’s campaign opposing home rule. </li></ul>Unionist Rally at the Ulster Hall ...
The Ulster Covenant  <ul><li>Sir Edward Carson and Sir James Craig sign the “Ulster Covenant” declaring complete oppositio...
 
Home Rule
Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Third Home Rule Act  (or  Bill ), and formally known as the  Government of Ireland Act 1914. </...
Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>The Act’s implementation was postponed however for at least 12 months after the outbreak of war...
Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>The King had signed the Act into law allowing it on to the Statute Book at Westminster.  The Ac...
Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Ireland would have remained a united entity with self~governance for itself, still remaining pa...
Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Unionist had reluctantly accepted Home Rule as now inevitable, but were now going to fight to k...
Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Instead of home rule, most of Ireland was to achieve independence in 1922 as the  “Irish Free S...
The Great War  1914 ~ 1918 <ul><li>The Great War   saw tragic   loss of life, Ulster had been given its own Division 36th ...
World War I <ul><li>Lord Kitchener’s  (middle)  War Recruitment Campaign in Ireland </li></ul>
World War I
Emigration and the RMS Lusitania   <ul><li>RMS Lusitania full of Irish emigrants indiscriminately torpedoed by a German U-...
Easter Monday 1916 <ul><li>Dublin before the Rising of 1916 </li></ul>
Dublin Easter 1916 <ul><li>In the midst of the Great  War  Dublin endured the long week of Easter of 1916,  a few voluntee...
GPO  ~ Dublin  <ul><li>Dublin’s General Post Office – symbolic of Irish Independence, the site of the declaration of a Rep...
Dublin Easter 1916 <ul><li>The British responded with heavy artillery and a Gun boat ! The Helga sailed up the River Liffe...
Easter 1916 <ul><li>Dublin in flames following the British gun ships onslaught of shelling in the city. </li></ul>Sackivil...
Dublin Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>Britain and Ireland were still engaged in a bitter and terrible war in the French trench...
Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>The Shelled out GPO on Sackville Street (now O’Connell Street) The gun boat Helga had orders to...
Dublin Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>Pearse the leader surrendered. An occupying navy sailing into a city and laying waste to...
Dublin Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>Most of the leaders were then executed by firing squad, at Kilmainham Jail the British g...
Kilmainham Gaol (Jail) <ul><li>Kilmainham Gaol Dublin, where members of the Easter Rising of 1916 were shot by firing squa...
Dublin Easter Rising  1916 <ul><li>Then unbelievably  though via judicial process this time more executions came right thr...
Dublin Easter 1916 <ul><li>The Easter Rising of  1916  was not supported by all in Ireland especially while many Irishmen ...
The Helga <ul><li>Helga's  roles after Rising of 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>While the gunboat Helga is best-known as the ship ...
1918  ~  1922 <ul><li>The aftermath of The Great War  </li></ul><ul><li>The 1918  British General Election </li></ul><ul><...
1918  ~  1919 <ul><li>Great War finished   in 1918 causing a general election this time just Home Rule already voted for b...
The 1918  British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland   <ul><li>At this post war British general el...
The 1918  British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland   <ul><li>The executions and the deportations...
The 1918  British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland   <ul><li>Other aspects of the British govern...
The 1918  British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland   <ul><li>John Redmond’s old Home Rule Party ...
The 1918  British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland   <ul><li>The delay in the decline of Redmond...
The 1918  British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland   <ul><li>The process of forming a single coh...
The 1918  British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland   <ul><li>Sinn Féin was believed to be involv...
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Historic Tour of Ireland

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Presentation Ireland Special%2520 Nov08%2520%252708 3 1 %252525255 B2%252525255 D%2525255 B1%2525255 D%25255 B1%25255 D%255 B1%255 D%5 B1%5 D[1].Ppt.

  1. 1. Dublin’s Fair City Dublin a Modern European City and The Capital City of Ireland
  2. 2. Dublin Presentation By C O Ghallchobhair How to Use: (in power-point) A. Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to bring up the information on each slide. B. Use the on-screen arrow keys to move to the next slide. C. You can also use the on-screen arrow keys to move back to the previous slide. D. The Home Button will bring you back to the start of the presentation. E. There are also some links that you can click on; to go to relevant information from some slides. Click on the right arrow key to continue >>
  3. 3. Dublin Presentation The History of The City and Area Viking Period to Modern Times
  4. 5. Use the Down Arrow Key on your keyboard to obtain information on each slide Try it now! Thanks that’s great (press it again) You are ready to continue! (press it again) Now Click on the right hand on-screen arrow to continue >>>>> Click to return to last page viewed 
  5. 6. Dublin City <ul><li>The city can trace it’s origin back over 2000 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First settlement was called Eblana. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today's city was originally founded by the Vikings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the grand city seen today was later built by the British Empire from the 16 th to the 19 th Century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Dublin was built as a 2 nd Capital show, piece of Great Britain’s that vast Empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The town appears in history as Dubh-linn, which is Gaelic for (Blackpool) – AD 291 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baile Atha Cliath is the official name, which came from a settlement there at a later date. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Please use the down arrow key to move to next slide . </li></ul></ul>Don’t forget to use the down arrow key on your keyboard. Thanks XXXXXXXXXX
  6. 7. DUBLIN <ul><ul><li>Dublin has often figured prominently in Irish history. </li></ul></ul>On your keyboard press the down arrow key just once, the right hand arrow key will now take you to the next slide >>
  7. 8. Christian Dublin <ul><ul><li>Dublin’s early settlement inhabitants were converted to Christianity about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the year 450 by St. Patrick </li></ul></ul>On your keyboard press the down arrow key just once, the right hand arrow key will now take you to the next slide >>
  8. 9. St. Patrick
  9. 10. Early Medieval & Viking Dublin <ul><li>The Danish Vikings captured the City of Dublin in the 9 th Century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Celts gained control back in 1014, 1075 and 1124 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1171 the Danes were expelled by the Celt’s and the Anglo~Normans, who were led by The Earl of Pembroke Strongbow and King Henry II of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry held court in Dublin until 1172, he later made the town a dependency of the English City of Bristol. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Viking Dublin <ul><li>The Vikings originally attempted to conquer the whole country. </li></ul><ul><li>The Celtic Chieftains forced them to withdraw back to Dublin, Waterford, Wexford and Youghal. </li></ul><ul><li>These Viking settlements merged into a mosaic of small kingdoms. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Viking Fleet <ul><ul><li>In 914 the Vikings brought a huge Viking fleet which arrived in Waterford. </li></ul></ul>VIKING LONGBOATS IN HARBOUR Viking longboat
  12. 13. The Viking Stronghold <ul><li>They attacked all of Leinster and Munster from their settlements in the eastern costal areas of Dublin and Waterford. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vikings then kept raiding villages and Irish monasteries and making off with their booty to Scandinavia! </li></ul>
  13. 14. Chieftain Brian Boru <ul><li>The Vikings were first driven out of Dublin by Brian Boru, who became High King of Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>He was helped by his other fellow Chieftains. </li></ul><ul><li>He took to his throne; the throne of all Ireland, at the Rock of Cashel. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Brian Boru Chieftain Brian Boru the last great High King of all Ireland
  15. 16. The Chieftain Clan Wars <ul><li>The Boru Clan lost their status as High King’s shortly after the Vikings had been driven out. </li></ul><ul><li>The deals with other Chieftains had collapsed and Clan warfare ensued. </li></ul><ul><li>Much Chieftain feuding and battles between the clans then occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Now various Chieftain’s were wrestling with each other over all the land, with no High King in charge. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Chieftain O’Connor & Chieftain McMurrough <ul><ul><li>After the Irish Clan wars, eventually Rory O’Connor and Dermot McMurrough became contenders for overall control of the Island. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This included Dublin and Leinster of course, now that the Vikings had gone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McMurrough was defeated and Rory O’Connor gained control as High King Chieftain of Ireland. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Chieftain Dermot McMurrough <ul><li>The manipulative Chieftain McMurrough, who did a deal with Strongbow to re-gain power in Dublin amd Leinster. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Chieftains O’Connor & McMurrough <ul><li>Chieftain Rory O’Connor had a Castle in Castlerea in Connacht. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Connor now took the throne of Ireland at the formidable castle at Cashel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> “ The Rock of Cashel”. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. The Rock of Cashel On the main Dublin-Cork road, you are transported back 1,500 years. This was the seat of Kings and medieval bishops for 900 years and flourished until the early 17th century.
  20. 21. High King Ruairi O’Connor <ul><li>O’Connor Coat of Arms – Chieftains of Connacht, Clare & Sligo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( High Kings) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Strongbow <ul><li>Strongbow, a very powerful knight arrived in Ireland from Anglo~Norman England with a very skilled and professional army in 1170 . </li></ul>The famous Cider depicting the Norman Earl of Pembroke Strongbow. Richard de Clare
  22. 23. Strongbow <ul><li>Richard de Clare – the 2 nd Earl of Pembroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard was King Henry II of England’s trusted knight of the realm. </li></ul><ul><li>Strongbow, although fairly ruthless, was also a very fine soldier and knight. He was a superbly skilled archer * - hence the name. </li></ul><ul><li>*de Clare brought into effective military use; the strongbow, to his fellow archers. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Strongbow’s Castle in Wales <ul><li>Pembroke Castle – Norman home and Stronghold of </li></ul><ul><li>Richard de Clare 2 nd Earl of Pembroke </li></ul>
  24. 25. Strongbow <ul><li>Lord Strongbow arrived in Waterford and proceeded to attack north with a large force and with the help of McMurrough’s loyal clan supporters he quickly took Dublin. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Strongbow & Aoife
  26. 27. Strongbow <ul><li>Strongbow duly married McMurrough’s daughter Aoife, as agreed. </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly he married whilst Waterford still burned, and it is said that “the River Suir still ran red with the blood of the slain”, these were medieval times. </li></ul><ul><li>Marring Aoife thus, brought himself in line to the Chieftain throne of Leinster after McMurrough himself died. </li></ul><ul><li>(Strongbow thus also inherited divine right to rule Leinster) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Strongbow’s Chieftain ~ Norman Wedding <ul><li>Strongbow’s marriage to Chieftain McMurrough’s Daughter Aoife in Waterford. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Strongbow King of Dublin & Leinster <ul><li>Lord Strongbow was now high regent and Lord of Norman (Anglo~French) rule in Ireland for the English King, Henry II . </li></ul><ul><li>Strongbow, was also now King of Leinster and he took up court in Dublin in 1171 and he also built the first of the large Norman castles in Kilkenny in 1172 . </li></ul>
  29. 30. Henry II
  30. 31. King Henry II <ul><li>Henry believed Strongbow would become too powerful in Ireland, and Strongbow could easily become the King of Ireland as he was better equipped and stronger than Chief O’Connor. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Henry II <ul><li>Henry II did not trust Strongbow to remain loyal to the Crown. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed Strongbow wanted his own expanded Kingdom of Ireland, separate from the English Crown. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Henry II & Strongbow <ul><li>Henry II arrived in 1171 via Waterford and accepted loyalty directly from the Roman Catholic Bishops, who believed Henry had been sent by the Pope in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chieftains gave their loyalty and O’Connor had now been re-instated as High King of Ireland, and Strongbow in theory now had only as much power as O’Connor’s other subordinate Chieftains. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Henry II <ul><li>Henry II without any Battles had now conquered Ireland and he became: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Lord of Ireland.” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Strongbow & O’Connor <ul><li>Under Henry II, the High King Rory O’Connor was again the High Chieftain for the Island of Ireland; Connacht, Munster, Ulster and Leinster. </li></ul><ul><li>Strongbow & Aoife controlled the eastern part of Ireland from Dublin to Waterford, Leinster. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Strongbow’s Power <ul><li>Strongbow – still a knight of the English realm, was now demoted to a Chieftain~Lord of Leinster, (no longer a king) with O’Connor and King Henry II now his masters. </li></ul><ul><li>Strongbow still ruled in Leinster with great steal and consolidated his Norman rule in the East. </li></ul><ul><li>He built magnificent Castles and fortifications to protect Anglo~Norman Control. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Strongbow <ul><li>Strongbow was summoned to England for the Treaty of Windsor in 1175 between King Henry II and Rory O'Connor, high king of Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>He now had to also make peace and now work with Chieftain Rory O’Connor, as ordered to by Henry II. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Waterford to Dublin <ul><li>Ireland’s second port and staging post for the sieges and naval landings on Dublin and the East of Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Firstly by the Vikings, McMurrough & Strongbow & King Henry II himself. </li></ul>Waterford City on the River Suir
  38. 39. Strongbow’s Dublin <ul><li>After Henry II came to establish overall power in Ireland, Strongbow and Aoife were still to remain The Norman -Chieftain rulers of Leinster. </li></ul><ul><li>Strongbow took court at Dublin Castle and at Kilkenny Castle further south into Leinster. </li></ul><ul><li>He left a strong legacy behind in Anglo~ Norman Dublin and Leinster. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Strongbow at Dublin Castle <ul><li>Strongbow died in June 1176 of some type of infection in his leg or foot. </li></ul><ul><li>He was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Dublin, his tomb is now vaulted at Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin City. </li></ul><ul><li>He left a son and a daughter, Gilbert and Isabel, Isabel who later married; William Marshall. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Christ Church Cathedral <ul><li>Christ Church Cathedral – Church of Ireland Cathedral </li></ul>Strongbow’s burial tomb lies here.
  41. 42. Strongbow’s Aftermath <ul><li>King Henry II took all of Strongbow's lands after his death and castles into his own hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry then placed a royal official in charge of the land and installed a knight or lord commander at Dublin Castle. </li></ul>
  42. 43. The Widowed Eve <ul><li>Aoife, Strongbow’s wife (Eve), was given her dower rights and possibly held Strigul Castle, later called Chepstow Castle as part of those dower rights until the Welsh rebellion of 1184/85 . </li></ul><ul><li>There is a record of Eve confirming a charter in Ireland in 1188/89 as: </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;comtissa de Hibernia&quot;. </li></ul>
  43. 44. “Eve at Chepstow Castle” <ul><li>Chepstow Castle, where Aoife MacMurchada (or Eve) may have resided after leaving Dublin Castle in the wake of the death of Strongbow, and the loss of her lands in Ireland to Henry II </li></ul><ul><li>(In theory Aoife (Eve) would have inherited the lands because of her Chieftain Ladyship of Ireland (Leinster) as she was Strongbow’s widow and she, the daughter of Chieftain McMurrough.) </li></ul>
  44. 45. Sir William Marshall <ul><li>William Marshall took over in Dublin as King Henry II’s Lord of Leinster after Strongbow’s death. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall had also married into the de Clare estate trough Strongbow’s daughter Isabel. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall also later became Henry III regent – minder in 1216 , King John’s son was too young to become the English King on his own. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Norman Control <ul><li>The Normans then took over the whole land leaving only a small Irish Kingdom in the west of the country for King Henry’s loyal Celtic Cheiftain Rory O’Connor. </li></ul><ul><li>Earldoms were set up for the remaining loyal Chieftains in Munster, Ulster and parts of Connacht. These Cheiftains now became Anglo~Celt Earls loyal to the Crown of England. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Norman Control <ul><li>Overlordship of Ireland had been established with Kilkenny Castle and Dublin Castle been the main strongholds of English~Norman power, as it was under Strongbow earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Kilkenny Castle is not very far from Dublin. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Norman English Kings <ul><li>Richard I “Richard the Lionheart” </li></ul><ul><li>1189 ~1199 </li></ul>Richard I Coeur de Lion Leads the Crusade to Jerusalem (left), to fight against the Turks for the Pope and Frederick I, the Holy Roman Emperor with King Philip II of France .
  48. 50. Richard The Lionheart <ul><li>Richard I statue Westminster Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Richard I ‘s Tomb Effigy at Fontevrault – L’abbaye France </li></ul>
  49. 51. King John <ul><li>Prince John ~ Lord of Ireland, the title granted to him by Richard the Lionheart. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince John held power on the throne of England, while King Richard was fighting in the crusades against the Turks and became therefore acting King of England. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince John (Acting as King) 1190 ~ 1199 </li></ul><ul><li>Richard I then died in 1199 leaving the crown to his brother King John, who now ruled on his own. </li></ul>
  50. 52. Norman English Kings of Ireland <ul><li>King John 1199 ~ 1216 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King John was regarded as a cruel King and the least successful, though some military success occurred in Ireland and Scotland. He was known for raising high taxes and for breaking his own treaty (The Magna Carta) generally not liked by his subjects, unlike Richard I. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*( Richard I who had maintained a small amount of control over his brother John until his death ). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 53. The Magna Carta <ul><li>King John under great duress from his rebellious barons, was forced into introducing the Magna Carta into Law, a principle in law that still stands on the British and Irish statute today: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Charter’s main changes: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody would now have the right to a fair trail before imprisonment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Archbishops and Cardinals could now appoint priests to positions of power without the King. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25 Barons would now scrutinise the King’s adherence to the Charter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The King would now have to consult the Barons on the issue of raising any taxes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 54. King John’s Castle <ul><li>King John’s Castle at the mouth of the river Shannon at Limerick. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This Castle was in effect an outpost of the English King’s Realm. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. Medieval English Norman Kings in Ireland <ul><li>Sir Richard de Clare “Strongbow” 1170 ~ 1171 (ruled Leinster only – Lord of Ireland until 1171 – lost power in Ireland to Henry II) </li></ul><ul><li>King Henry II (Curtmantle) 1154 ~ 1189 * (from 1171 “Lord of Ireland”) </li></ul><ul><li>Richard I (Coeur de Lion ) 1189 ~ 1199 </li></ul><ul><li>Prince John (Lackland) 1190 ~ 1199 </li></ul><ul><li>King John (Lackland) 1199 ~ 1216 </li></ul><ul><li>Sir William Marshall 1216 ~ 1227 (regent to Henry III) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry III 1227 ~ 1272 </li></ul><ul><li>King Edward I “Longshanks” 1272 ~ 1307 </li></ul><ul><li>Edward II 1307 ~ 1327 </li></ul><ul><li>Edward III 1327 ~ 1377 </li></ul><ul><li>Richard II 1377 ~ 1399 </li></ul>
  54. 56. Earlier Norman Kings of England Following the Battle of Hastings 1066 . <ul><li>William I The Conqueror 1066 ~ 1087 </li></ul><ul><li>William II Rufus 1087 ~ 1100 </li></ul><ul><li>King Henry I Beauclerc 1100 ~ 1135 </li></ul><ul><li>King Stephen 1135 ~ 1154 </li></ul><ul><li>Empress Matilda 1141 ~ 1141 </li></ul><ul><li>King Henry II Curtmantle 1154 ~ 1189 </li></ul>
  55. 57. Medieval Dublin Castle <ul><li>The Castle in the 12 th Century later partly destroyed by fire. </li></ul>
  56. 58. Edward I ~ “Longshanks” <ul><li>Edward I - The English King and Norman Overlord who conducted the wars with Scotland and France and asserted his authority in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward I or “Longshanks” was also known as the Hammer of the Scots. </li></ul><ul><li>*(Edward is referred to in the famous Scottish song: “Flower of Scotland”) </li></ul><ul><li>Image of Edward I at Westminster Abbey with King Alexander of Scotland on the right and Prince Llewellyn of Wales on the left from a 1520’s Manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of King Edward I </li></ul><ul><li>1272 - 1301 </li></ul>
  57. 59. King Edward I <ul><li>The Normans under Edward established a large English garrison the east of Ireland in particular Dublin & Kildare. </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the close of the reign of Edward I, the English settlers tended to congregate in the district around Dublin. </li></ul><ul><li>This area became known as &quot;The English Land”. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile those English who resided outside it were said to be &quot;inter Hibernicos,&quot; i.e., among the Irish, and were considered fraternisers. </li></ul>
  58. 60. “The English Land” <ul><li>This district was limited, roughly speaking, by the great mountain tract of Wicklow to the south and by the Carlingford and Mourne Mountains to the north in Ulster. </li></ul><ul><li>It also ran towards the shore of the Shannon in the West, whence the border ran by Edenderry, Rathangan, and Kildare down to the Barrow River. </li></ul><ul><li>This Norman “border” followed the course of the River Shannon to the west and altered direction towards the sea at the mouth of the Barrow River. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not until a full century after this, that the English land became known as “The Pale”. </li></ul>
  59. 61. Trim Castle <ul><ul><li>The largest Anglo~Norman fortification in Ireland near Dublin in county Meath. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Castle and moat structure using the River Boyne can be clearly seen, despite its part ruin. </li></ul></ul>Trim Castle is near an attractive little town called Trim on the banks of the River Boyne just north of Dublin. It has a very strong medieval heritage. This Norman castle was also the setting for the movie picture Braveheart.
  60. 62. The Norman Castle
  61. 63. The Norman Castle Castle Banqueting Hall, Kitchen and With-drawing Room
  62. 64. Kilkenny Castle Norman Lordship of Leinster and Ireland <ul><li>The present Castle begun by William Marshall 1207 (Henry III) </li></ul><ul><li>King Richard & King John, and later English Kings & Queens visited the Castle, including: King Edward VII (1901~1910) right up to King George V and Queen Mary (1910~1936) </li></ul><ul><li>Strongbow’s first earthwork and wood Castle was burned down by Donal Mor O’Brien </li></ul><ul><li>(O’Brien was the Chieftain King of Limerick) </li></ul>
  63. 65. House of York <ul><li>King Richard II died (he was possibly murdered!) </li></ul><ul><li>His son Edward IV eventually ascended to the throne in 1461 bringing Anglo~Irish relations closer even more. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Edward’s brother King Richard III became King and was the last English King to lead fully armoured knights into battle. </li></ul>Richard II Edward IV
  64. 66. House of York <ul><li>English rule in Ireland by force alone was not working outside the “Pale” </li></ul><ul><li>The English Pale was a fortified area surrounding Dublin and later stretching as far as Waterford. </li></ul><ul><li>English & Irish relations though, now became inextricably bound together during his reign. </li></ul><ul><li>The English now granted power to the “Anglo~Irish” Chiefs (former Norman Lords/Chieftains) granting very grand Earldoms in Ireland. </li></ul>
  65. 67. Richard III
  66. 68. Henry VII
  67. 69. Sir Edward Poyning <ul><li>Edward Poyning (Poyning’s Law) Poyning was Henry VII Lord Deputy of Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1459 ~ 1521 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was best known for introducing Poyning’s Law, making the Irish Parliament (originally just ruling the English Pale in Ireland) subordinate to the English Parliament and under direct control of the King’s Council and the Privy Council. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally this Irish Parliament held in Drogheda just ruled the King’s English Pale in Ireland, later the newer Irish Parliament however was to extend English rule over all of Ireland, with Poyning’s Law having direct consequences for the whole country. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Back to the Pale </li></ul><ul><li>Next to Poyning’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>Back to Henry VII </li></ul><ul><li>Go to Regency Dublin 1700 </li></ul><ul><li>Go to Dublin Parliament (1700) </li></ul><ul><li>Go to Act of Union 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Go to Elizabeth I </li></ul><ul><li>Go to Queen Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>Go to Henry VIII </li></ul>
  68. 70. ‘ Poynings Law’ 1494 <ul><li>Poyning convened a parliament at Drogheda in November, 1494 , the memorable parliament in which the act since known as &quot;Poynings' law&quot; was passed, removing all local power from the colonial Irish Parliament, which at the time only ruled for the pale, no native Irish person sat in this parliament, the later Irish Parliament set up in Dublin to rule for the Protestant ruling class, was to preside over all of Ireland, English law was extended over the whole country. “Poynings Law” would remain in force, establishing a grievance amongst the Irish population. </li></ul><ul><li>This new law was considered to be a very unfair measure. Poynings Law 1~6 </li></ul>Edward Poyning
  69. 71. ‘ Poynings Law’ <ul><li>The following are the most important provisions of this law: </li></ul><ul><li>l. No parliament was in future to be held in Ireland until the Irish Chief Governor and Privy Council had sent the King information of all the acts intended to be passed in it, with a full statement of the reasons why they were required, and until these acts had been approved and permission granted by the King and Privy Council of England. </li></ul><ul><li>This single provision is what is popularly known as &quot; Poynings' law.&quot; </li></ul>Poynings Law 2 ~ 6
  70. 72. Poynings Law <ul><li>2. All the laws lately made in England affecting the. public weal should hold good in Ireland. This referred only to English laws then existing; it gave no power to the English parliament to make laws for Ireland in the future, that remained unchanged until the Act of Union in 1800. The English Parliament was to gain greater control however following the English Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Statute of Kilkenny was revived and confirmed, except the part forbidding the use of the Irish tongue, which could not be carried out, as the Gaelic Language was now used everywhere, even throughout the English settlements . </li></ul>4 ~ 6
  71. 73. Poynings Law <ul><li>4. For the purpose of protecting the settlement, it was made a felony to permit enemies or rebels to pass through the marches; and the owners of march lands were obliged to reside on them or send proper deputies on pain of losing their estates. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The exaction of “coyne and livery” was forbidden in any shape or form. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Many of the Anglo-Irish families had adopted the Irish War Cries; the use of these war~cries was now strictly forbidden. </li></ul>More Information
  72. 74. Poynings Law <ul><li>In this parliament the Earl of Kildare was attainted for high treason, mainly on account of his supposed conspiracy with O'Hanlon to destroy the English Deputy; in consequence of which he was soon afterwards arrested and sent as prisoner to England. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Hanlon was a northern Anglo~Irish Chieftain ~ Earl. </li></ul><ul><li>He conspired with the Earl of Kildare to seize Carlow Castle - Poyning swiftly recaptured it. </li></ul>Return to Edward Poyning
  73. 75. The War of the Roses <ul><li>Henry VII the new Tudor King of England took power after the War of the Roses. </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Rose Tudor House of Lancaster had won the Crown from the House of York. </li></ul><ul><li>When Henry VII died Henry VIII ascended to the throne he was to bring religious strife to Ireland for the very first time. </li></ul>
  74. 76. Henry VIII & The Vatican <ul><li>His departure from the Roman Catholic Church was over the disallowed divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon and the marriage to Anne Boleyn his new love and mother to Elizabeth I. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vatican in Rome excommunicated him over the issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry had 6 wives in all – not all at the same time! </li></ul>Link: * Go back to Dublin 1800
  75. 77. Henry VIII <ul><li>Henry VIII when he gained power thought about taking Ireland by force. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earl of Surrey was sent to Ireland to assess the Irish situation, the Earl reported back that a draft of 6,000 men would be required to enforce the Crown’s rule. This army would have required material support from England and new castles would have to be built in each area as they conquered the land. </li></ul>
  76. 78. Henry VIII <ul><li>The Crown would also have to follow this up with forced colonisation or plantation of English people. </li></ul><ul><li>Military presence alone would not be sufficient to maintain control. It would have been a vast undertaking for the English Crown at this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII decided it was too expensive to attack Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>However events were to play into his hands. </li></ul>
  77. 79. Henry VIII
  78. 80. Henry VIII <ul><li>The problem for Henry was that the previously loyal Irish Earls did not support the new Tudor Kings following the war of the roses. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII now demanded loyalty to the Tudor Crown, but alas the new House of Lancaster remained unpopular with Irish lords. </li></ul>
  79. 81. Cardinal Wolsey <ul><li>Prior to excommunication, Henry’s trusted Roman Catholic Cardinal from the Vatican in Rome, Cardinal Wolsey suggested the English Roman Catholic Church should rule Ireland, from the established Catholic Church of England. </li></ul><ul><li>He also suggested taking control via the Archbishops in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>To force Ireland to accept Henry III by military means, castle construction and Church infiltration would be very costly indeed. </li></ul>
  80. 82. Cardinal Wolsey <ul><li>The Roman Catholic Cardinal and senior religious advisor to King Henry VIII of England, Ireland & Wales. </li></ul>
  81. 83. Silken Thomas <ul><li>Silken Tomas, Fitzgerald the Earl of Kildare and Chief~Governor of Ireland since 1496 </li></ul><ul><li>He was given the title by Henry VII to rule Ireland on his behalf. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed Silken Thomas because of his flashy cloak of state. </li></ul>
  82. 84. Silken Thomas <ul><li>Thomas Fitzgerald, The Earl of Kildare </li></ul>
  83. 85. Silken Thomas <ul><li>On arriving at the Irish Earls Council Chamber, he flung his sword of state across the council table, whilst also removing his robe of state and showing himself in complete mail. </li></ul><ul><li>At a stroke he renounced himself, Dublin and Ireland from he English Monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>English Overlordship set up by Strongbow and King Henry II now seamed to be at a amazing sudden end !! </li></ul>
  84. 86. Dublin Castle 1534 Silken Thomas Fitzgerald’s siege on Dublin Castle
  85. 87. Sir William Skeffington <ul><li>The young Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, was friendly with some of the Irish Archbishops who were mostly arch enemies of Cardinal Wolsey. The Archbishop of Dublin John Allen was one of Wolsey allies however. Wolsey had a great deal of influence over the bishops in Ireland at the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Silken Thomas then attempted to attack Dublin Castle. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII - outraged, sent the ruthless General Sir William Skeffington to quell the rebellion with 2,300 men, the Fitzgerald Castle was swifty taken and Thomas & his Clan executed. (a small baby of the clan was spared from this slaughter). </li></ul>
  86. 88. Sir William Skeffington <ul><li>Skeffington had been ruthless in his killing of the Fitzgeralds, which struck fear in the hearts of Irish Earls. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeffington then fortified Dublin Castle and also took the Fitzgerald Castle at Maynooth Co. Kildare. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pale already partially established by the Normans now consolidated the English control particularly in the East. </li></ul>
  87. 89. Tudor Loyalty Established <ul><li>Most of the the Anglo~Irish Earls were supportive of the Fitzgerald rebellion prior to its defeat. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earls now fearful of Henry’s methods, quickly passed laws in the old Drogheda Parliament as a display of loyalty to Henry VIII. Poynings Law </li></ul><ul><li>These were similar laws to those already passed in England. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII was now all powerful over the Irish Earls and now Tudor King of Ireland. </li></ul>
  88. 90. The Pale <ul><li>The Pale which emanated outwards from Dublin, originally named “The English Land” by Edward I (Longshanks) , during the Norman period, had stretched from Dublin to Waterford and westward to Kildare and further still to the Shannon and the Barrow rivers, pretty much all of Leinster and its surrounding land. </li></ul><ul><li>No boundary had been built however it relied only on natural river and mountain boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore it could be breached by a rebel Chieftain Army or potentially by a rebel murder gang willing to cross the rivers Barrow and Shannon or via difficult mountain terrain. </li></ul>
  89. 91. The Pale <ul><li>In 1488 the English pale was formally introduced in an Act passed by a Anglo~Irish Parliamentary Statute from the English garrison town of Drogheda. </li></ul><ul><li>The Medieval Anglo~Irish Parliament was held at Drogheda. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pale was now down to just four counties, Dublin, Meath, Kildare and Uriel (now Louth), much smaller than in Norman times. </li></ul><ul><li>English garrison towns still existed outside the pale of course, and these were mainly constructed during the Medieval period. </li></ul><ul><li>The phrase to be “beyond the pale” comes from this reference, namely if you came from outside the pale you were a barbarian. </li></ul>
  90. 92. The Pale <ul><li>The Pale 1488 – Statute from the old Drogheda Parliament . </li></ul>
  91. 93. The Pale <ul><li>In 1494 Sir Edward Poyning passed an Act allowing for new construction around the Pale consisting of huge double ditches to be interlaced with Castles to protect this English Pale. </li></ul><ul><li>These ditches were to be six feet high, but in some stretches there were much higher. </li></ul><ul><li>The ditches stretched the entire district around Dublin and Drogheda. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pale now also bordered the River Dodder including Merrion Castle the old Fitzwilliam Stronghold. </li></ul>
  92. 94. The Pale <ul><li>The Area just outside the Pale became hinterland, and would be only occupied by old Irish or English soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>During Henry VIII 34 th year reign 1543 , he extended the Pale northwards to Dundalk, the next garrison town along the eastern coast beyond Drogheda. </li></ul><ul><li>He also extended it south towards Dalkey an old small coastal garrison harbour town just south of the town of Dublin, hence the Pale now reached the start of the mountains. </li></ul>
  93. 95. The Pale <ul><li>These Dublin mountains and Wicklow mountains were not properly captured until much later, and therefore created access points in the border for Chieftain clans to secretly enter the pale. </li></ul><ul><li>The English Army was placed intermittently along the Pale’s border to protect against raiders and to try to capture any trespassers or Chieftain merchants. </li></ul>
  94. 96. The Pale <ul><li>The small Town of Dalkey still has a Tudor look about it today, with a small Tudor Castle at one end of the town. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pale was also extended by Henry VIII ~ westward to Nass, Sydan, Kells, Rathmore, Balimore, Clan and Kilcocke, Tallaght and to the bridge at Kilcullen. </li></ul><ul><li>A larger Rampart was then built to keep the rebels out from entering the Pale and the Lord Deputy Garret og Fitzgerald Earl of Kildare had been given charge of maintenance of these defences. The last defence was still the Castles of course. </li></ul>
  95. 97. Dublin <ul><li>The “Protestant Ascendancy” through “re-colonising” was a largely successful policy, shoring up military control particularly in the area around Dublin and in the Leinster province. </li></ul><ul><li>The policy was first introduced by Henry VIII, and increased by Elizabeth I , all ruled over by a Lord Lieutenant Viceroy in Dublin. </li></ul>Dublin Castle 1570 Lord Lieutenant Sidney riding out from the Castle
  96. 98. Elizabeth I
  97. 99. Queen Elizabeth I <ul><li>Queen Elizabeth after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588 , now made sure that she controlled the Irish Earls, and the Scottish Earls. </li></ul><ul><li>She now waged war on both the Scottish & Irish rebel armies. </li></ul><ul><li>She also increased the Anglicisation of Ireland and large protestant land-owner plantation followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Governor Presidencies had been set up to administer the Earls in the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connacht. </li></ul><ul><li>Ulster was still solely under her Chieftain~Earldom control. </li></ul>
  98. 100. Lord Mountjoy <ul><li>Elizabeth’s Viceroy General Lord Mountjoy, a very clever tactician, was now put in charge of the English garrison at Dublin Castle. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheiftain O’Neill the Earl of Tyrone was one of the last of the great Gaelic Chieftains, along with Chieftain Red Hugh O’Donnell, the Earl of Tyreconnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Chieftain~Earls still had full control in Ulster, under English “Overlordship”, now the Tudor Queen’s new Lord~Lieutenant Mountoy. </li></ul>
  99. 101. Chieftain O’Neill <ul><li>Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster had originally shown loyalty to the Crown, but he later cast away his title of Earl of Tyrone. </li></ul><ul><li>He was locally proclaimed “King of Ireland”. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Neill attacked Elizabeth’s forces with a great deal of success in Ulster, which gained him support. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Hugh O’Donnell also gained military success by re-capturing Sligo Castle and defeating Lord Clifford, the English Governor of Connacht. </li></ul>
  100. 102. The Spanish Return <ul><li>Elizabeth was now under a big challenge by Chieftain O’Neill of Ulster and Red Hugh O’Donnell, who had joined forces with O’Neill, supported by a Scottish rebel army 1,000 strong. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish firstly surprised the English and entered Kinsale harbour and the town itself from the sea, in the September of 1601 . They arrived in very hostile English territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Don Juan del Aguilla’s small Spanish Army only numbered 4,000 men however and were to be no match for the English. </li></ul>
  101. 103. The Battle of Kinsale <ul><li>O’Neill’s hand was now forced, so he marched his Chieftain army south and west from Ulster on a long march through enemy territory Connacht and Munster, in the depth of a very cold winter to support the Spanish at Kinsale. </li></ul><ul><li>To his credit, he managed to avoid all attempts of being stopped by the English en-route to the south. </li></ul>
  102. 104. The Battle of Kinsale <ul><li>The English would have had superior forces in the west of Ireland and should have been able to capture O’Neill’s forces, but O’Neill managed to evade them. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Neill on arrival at Kinsale, still had 12,000 men, who immediately surrounded the English just outside the small garrison town of Kinsale, whilst the English forces were still fighting the remaining Spanish inside. </li></ul>
  103. 105. The Battle of Kinsale <ul><li>The battle now also became one of terrible trench warfare and attrition. Mountjoy dug in to wait and merely hold off the Chieftain Army, until reinforcements arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Mounjoy’s forces on land were down to 6,500 men by the 2 nd December 1601 , whilst O’Neill and the combined Scottish and Spanish armies numbered 10,000. </li></ul>
  104. 106. The Battle of Kinsale <ul><li>The Spanish struggle in the town put pressure on O’Neill and O’Donnell to attack the English forces. </li></ul><ul><li>The English Royal Naval fleet had just arrived however. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fleet, arrived with supplies and men for Mountjoy. </li></ul>
  105. 107. The Battle of Kinsale <ul><li>Queen Elizabeth had sent a large Naval Fleet to defeat the small Spanish fleet that had been sent by King Pillip III of Spain, now anchored in Kinsale harbour. </li></ul><ul><li>The English now besieged the Spanish Army, with vastly superior forces both at land and from their fleet at sea. </li></ul>
  106. 108. The Battle of Kinsale <ul><li>Lord Mountjoy with a large mounted land force now ruthlessly defeated the Chieftain Armies when they tried to mount a coordinated attack , along with the Spanish from inside the town, Mountjoy immediately crushed them all. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Fleet were forced to surrender by the English fleet on Christmas Eve 1601 , and turned back for Spain. </li></ul>
  107. 109. Elizabeth I <ul><li>The defeat of the Chieftain Armies enabled her to now capture Ulster completely. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1610 the Ulster Plantation was started to maintain control in Ulster, this time with a complex system of multi-tier plantation of Ulster’s lands. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Neill’s nine-year war with Ireland had been put to the sword. O’Neill himself was now finished. </li></ul>
  108. 110. Elizabeth I <ul><li>Elizabeth now very much consolidated her English Tudor Rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth I established Ireland’s first University in Dublin at Trinity College, and was a great supporter of Arts and Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Further magnificent Tudor~Elizabethan buildings were constructed around this period in Dublin. </li></ul>
  109. 111. Elizabeth I <ul><li>Dublin was now the seat of control for the entire Irish Colony. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1610 plantation of Ulster was extensive creating a long legacy in the province of Protestant Rule and consolidating English power in Ulster, and loyalty to the Crown. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Castle was also re-built during her reign. </li></ul>
  110. 112. Dublin Castle 1600’s <ul><li>The Elizabethan (re-built) Dublin Castle </li></ul>
  111. 113. Charles I & The 1641 Rebellion. <ul><li>By 1641 King Charles I tried to maintain control in Ireland and with his own parliament in London, but the English parliament was gaining far greater control over the English King and the Monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in England encourage the Irish population including the Anglo~Irish Earls to mount a major uprising in 1641 mainly the native people of Ulster, who had never accepted the violence and injustice of the plantation of their lands since 1610 . </li></ul><ul><li>The Scots or English parliaments were also now seen as a greater threat to them than the power of the English King. </li></ul>
  112. 114. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>The name of the Rebellion of 1641 , was given to this protracted conflict, started by the massacre of Protestants in Ulster in 1641 . </li></ul><ul><li>A union had been created by the Civil War where “Old English” Anglo~Irish Earls and Gaelic Catholics united against the Crown. </li></ul><ul><li>The severe Cromwellion onslaught that followed was swift, ruthless and decisive. </li></ul>
  113. 115. 1641 Rebellion and the Ulster Massacre <ul><li>Started by the massacre of Protestants by Catholics, which was on a large scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Though exaggerated by many, modern research now suggests around 12,000 out of a total 40,000 Protestants in Ulster were slain, a terrible massacre no doubt, by any scale, and a regrettable episode amongst others in Irish History. </li></ul><ul><li>The rebellion then spread through other parts of Ireland including further south in Dublin itself. </li></ul>
  114. 116. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>Protestant dominance in Ireland was in danger of been completely eradicated, such was the initial success of the rising. </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Benburb in 1646 was to see the slaying of the main protestant army in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The terrible massacres, created a deep mistrust by the Protestant ruling class in Ulster for years to come. </li></ul><ul><li>They were never to forgive or trust the neighbouring Catholics despite the passing of generations. </li></ul>Go back to Dublin 1800
  115. 117. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>Such was the acute sense of discontent by the native Irish Catholics in Ulster by 1641 , due to the loss of their lands. There is no doubt that there was a lingering bitterness from 1610 , which unfortunately spilled over into uncontrolled violence and mayhem. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Earls engaged in their insurrection on 22nd October 1641, unquestionably they were not intending on the complete destruction of the entire Plantation that had been brought into place however. </li></ul>
  116. 118. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>At the time of the Ulster Plantation in 1610 , there was also a large concurrent transportation scheme carried out by the royal authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>This resulted in some 6,000 able-bodied men being transported from Ireland to Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority of those were Catholic people that had to be shipped out from Ulster under the orders of the new Lord Lieutenant. </li></ul>
  117. 119. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>In the Early years of the Plantation, the Crown Authorities had done their best to decommission the arms of the native Irish people. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a remarkable sort of comparison to the present-day situation where a proclamation was issued in 1605 which sought to disarm all people in Ireland, given the changes that have occurred over 400 years since, in technology and in policing and in the rule of law and order. </li></ul>
  118. 120. 1641 Rebellion and the Flight of the Earls <ul><li>The Irish Earls also still wanted to maintain the monarchy in Ireland for and they also wanted to maintain the ruling classes. </li></ul><ul><li>They along with their tenuous union with the Catholic peasantry~workers and the “old Anglo~Irish” noblemen, wanted a much fairer system to allow the return of land to the previous Catholic owners. </li></ul><ul><li>They realised they would need some of the Protestant planters to stay. </li></ul>
  119. 121. Charles I The 1641 Rebellion & Civil War <ul><li>In Dublin on the eve of a planned attack on Dublin Castle, the rising was compromised, and it’s leaders arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>The rising in Ulster went ahead though and Sir Phelim O’Neill at first met with considerable success. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Neill’s victory over the Scots was seen as a victory for King Charles. </li></ul>
  120. 122. The Crown Defeated by Parliament <ul><li>King Charles I had an army in Ireland, which however he needed in England to fight as Cavaliers in his Civil War with Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell’s Roundheads – soldiers who were loyal to the new parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish Earls were unaware of Cromwell’s support and tried to gain concessions from King Charles. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1649 Charles I was defeated and was taken to the Tower of London and executed by axe under Cromwell’s orders. </li></ul>
  121. 123. Sir Thomas Fairfax
  122. 124. Sir Thomas Fairfax <ul><li>Sir Thomas Fairfax, knighted by King Charles I in 1641 . </li></ul><ul><li>When the English Civil War broke out he became General in Command of the Parliament’s new “Model Army”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oliver Cromwell was put in charge of it’s Cavalry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cromwell sought now to force Ireland into complete submission of his authority and that of Parliament. </li></ul>
  123. 125. Oliver Cromwell <ul><li>Cromwell’s Puritan Army landed at Dublin in August 1649 . </li></ul><ul><li>He had a huge 20,000 strong fully armoured and equipped army which crushed all military opposition in its wake. </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1649. </li></ul>
  124. 126. Cromwell <ul><li>Cromwell burned his way through Ireland in a ruthless campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>His Roundhead soldiers now engaged in a huge orgy of killing in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>It was retribution for the 1641 rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Arthur Aston, loyal to the Crown had however believed his headquarters in Drogheda to be defendable from Cromwell’s new “Model Army”. </li></ul>
  125. 127. Cromwell <ul><li>Drogheda just north of Dublin was a heavily fortified walled town. </li></ul>Drogheda Town around Cromwell’s Time (1649)
  126. 128. Cromwell at Drogheda <ul><li>However Cromwell’s artillery breached the walls of the town and it was captured Over 3,500 people, including women and children were slaughtered at Drogheda following the executions of garrison soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>The garrison of Wexford suffered a similar fate. Other towns chose to surrender rather than be destroyed. </li></ul>
  127. 129. Cromwell’s attack on the Roman Catholic Church <ul><li>Cromwell then attacked the Catholic Church whose property was seized and destroyed and it’s priests were hunted down. </li></ul><ul><li>By May 1650 Cromwell returned to England, confident that his work in Ireland was done, a terrifying episode leaving long consequences for Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lord Protectors forces would now remain in garrisons around Ireland. </li></ul>
  128. 130. Aftermath of Cromwell <ul><li>In the provinces of Leinster and Munster, the policy now was to replace all the major Catholic landowners with Protestants, which created a new land-owning upper class. </li></ul><ul><li>These newcomers were not always in communities with a already significant Protestant population however. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1641 rebellion had been swiftly defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>The impoverished bog lands of Connacht & Clare west of the Shannon was set aside for the native Irish population. </li></ul>Go back to Dublin 1800
  129. 131. The Legacy of Cromwell <ul><li>“ To hell or Connacht” became the dreaded Irish phrase meaning no choice at all ! </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Curse of Cromwell on you” was another phrase derived from this period, meaning of course a terrible curse, always a dreaded phrase. </li></ul>
  130. 132. Charles I Under powers granted by Parliament and Self Appointment Cromwell had Charles I executed at the Tower of London, after Oliver Cromwell won the Civil War against the Crown’s Forces in Ireland and England.
  131. 133. Cromwell <ul><li>Lord Lieutenant & Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth 1654 –1658 . </li></ul>
  132. 134. The Return of the Monarchy under Charles II <ul><li>The restoration of the Crown with Charles II in 1660 brought little change in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The return of the Crown was welcomed by the majority of the people however, as a vast improvement in the situation incurred under Cromwell. </li></ul><ul><li>The King did not restore lands, as hoped for any Irish loyalty to the Crown. </li></ul>King Charles II
  133. 135. King James II <ul><li>Following Charles II, came James II who had converted (back) to the direct Catholic Faith – loyal to the Pope in Rome (as it had been under Henry VIII earlier reign ) </li></ul><ul><li>This was due to James’s marriage with Mary – an Italian Catholic. </li></ul><ul><li>Cromwell’s settlers had left Ireland as James was catholic, and feared a new Catholic ruling class in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>James however was defeated by a now strong Parliament & Lord Danby sent for the Dutch Prince married to James’s protestant daughter (also called Mary). </li></ul><ul><li>James II had an heir ~ a Catholic in 1688 which sparked panic in the English Establishment fearing a new Catholic dynasty. </li></ul>Go back to Dublin 1800
  134. 136. James II
  135. 137. William of Orange <ul><li>William of Orange became King and conquered James II at the Boyne River, troops still loyal to James, (Jacobites) and French troops sent by Louis XIV and also some Irish infantry, who were all defeated. </li></ul>William III James II Louis XIV
  136. 138. King William III
  137. 139. Battle of the Boyne <ul><ul><ul><li>King James II was then later defeated at the Battle of the Boyne by the Dutch King William of Orange ~ William III . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William had 36,000 men and James had 25,000 - the largest number of troops ever deployed on an Irish battlefield, reinforced by 6,500 French troops sent by King Louis XIV. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At stake was the British throne, French dominance in Europe and Religious power in Ireland. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  138. 140. The Battle of the Boyne
  139. 141. Battle of the Boyne <ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 1,500 soldiers were killed at the Boyne. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of the Boyne 1 th July 1690 ~ King William III. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William himself crossed at Drybridge on the Boyne River with 3,500 mounted troops. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orangemen in Northern Ireland continue to controversially celebrate this Victory of “King Billy” on the 12 th July each year. (modern calendar date change) </li></ul></ul></ul>Go back to Dublin 1800
  140. 142. Regency Georgian Dublin in the 1700’s <ul><li>During the time of the French revolution and the new ideals of “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” the British government moved now to reduce the restrictions that had been placed on Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics were now allowed to join the army for instance. </li></ul>
  141. 143. Regency Georgian Dublin in the 1700’s <ul><li>The penal laws were now repealed (in part) and the land tenure laws changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Poyning’s Law was also finally repealed, though some of the principles of the Crown’s rule remained in force. </li></ul><ul><li>A long period of peace and prosperity ensued in Dublin and the Irish Estates during the reign of four consecutive King Georges, known as the Georgian period. </li></ul>
  142. 144. Dublin Custom House
  143. 145. King George I King George II
  144. 146. Castletown House <ul><li>A fine example of a Large Georgian Stately Home near Dublin. </li></ul>
  145. 147. The Dublin Parliament in the 1700’s <ul><li>In the 1770’s the Irish Parliament was set up in Dublin which was loyal to the King of England but now had some legislative independence to the English Westminster Parliament. </li></ul>The Old Dublin Parliament now a Central Bank
  146. 148. Regency Georgian Dublin in the 1700’s <ul><li>By 1782 Dublin had gained a measure of legislative independence, from Westminster in London. </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland was now a separate entity still fully loyal to the King of England of course. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin developed as a City even more, boasting fine architecture and grand broad streets, a Dublin society life also developed, with much gaiety and extravagance. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of Dublin today has architecture dating from this period with the majority of Georgian terrace town houses still intact and still used as residencies. </li></ul>
  147. 149. 18 th Century Dublin By the end of the 17th century and the early 18 th Century a remarkable growth began with Protestant refugees from the European continent pouring into Dublin. In the course of the 18th century Dublin grew enormously in size and wealth. Dublin soon became the second city of the British Empire. This prosperity made Dublin a very exciting city for it’s new and old population. It became very vibrant and fashionable. Phoenix park in Dublin was also laid out for the public.
  148. 150. Georgian Dublin The Four Courts Georgian Town House
  149. 151. Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>The Protestant Aristocracy in Georgian Dublin truly had a golden era. The Landlords grew very very rich, however these members of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy had also denied some basic civil rights to the native Roman Catholics community, causing further resentment. </li></ul><ul><li>The Protestant Landlords during this period lived a merry and extravagant lives, charging very high rents to their tenants and spending the money on houses, their own estates and grandeur. </li></ul><ul><li>However this extravagance was whilst the tenant farmers lived in abject poverty, almost worlds apart from the high living enjoyed by their masters. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1720-30 the first of the harsh famines and failed crop devastated the south. </li></ul>
  150. 152. Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>Ordinary Irish people held on to respect for learning and education and maintained their own language to a point, as well as learning English culture and traditions and knowledge of the classics using the unofficial hedge schools, or outdoor schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Irish poets and harpers still had an audience at the new grand houses and among their own people. Music also developed during this period with new orchestras, and chamber music. </li></ul>
  151. 153. Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>Some small rebellions occurred, but were quickly quelled, the ruling classes overall now enjoying great prosperity and relative peace. </li></ul><ul><li>This ensured that the status quo in Ireland would remain for the time being. </li></ul><ul><li>There was some unrest with the tenant farmers which spilled over into murder and risings by “Fenian” gangs. </li></ul>
  152. 154. Georgian Ireland 1700’s <ul><li>Overall the native population now had to conform to the now extremely powerful British Empire's rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin itself, the colonial Capital had been designed to be the second city of the British Empire after London. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin was now largely peaceful and very much a new Imperial City, with much gaiety and wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenix Park in Dublin was now very fashionable. </li></ul>
  153. 155. Phoenix Park 1800 The very grand and splendid Phoenix park in Dublin. Europe’s largest walled park.
  154. 156. The formation of the United Kingdom <ul><li>Before 1800 the United Kingdom comprised of the Principality of Wales and the Kingdom of England. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Act of Union with the Kingdom of Scotland in 1707 Which had been created by the earlier Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland 1603 - the formation of Great Britain was conceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland, though colonised had not yet been brought into this “Great” union with Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>This all changed in 1801 with the Act of Union with Ireland. </li></ul>                                         
  155. 157. The Union of The English and Scottish Crowns 1603 and The Act of Union with Scotland 1707 James VI of Scotland became James I of England 1603 The House of Stewart Queen Anne of Scotland signs Act of Union with England 1707 becoming “ The first Queen of Great Britain” After the death of Queen Anne a Stewart – the new “British” Monarchy went to the House of Hanover – the English Crown.
  156. 158. The Act of Union with Ireland 1800 <ul><li>The combination of the the blue flag with a white cross – the cross of St.Andrew of Scotland and the red crossed flag of St. George of England created the old union flag of Great Britain or the United Kingdom. Next; after the union with Ireland in 1801 the diagonal red cross of St.Patrick was added.to create the new Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. </li></ul>Note: The flag of Wales is not incorporated into the Union Flag because Wales had been incorporated into England as a Principality of England, as opposed to Scotland who had joined in a Royal Union of Crowns, as supposed equal partners in a Union. England would be the dominant partner however.
  157. 159. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1800 ~ 1921 <ul><li>In 1801 The Act of Union with Great Britain ~ this abolished the old Parliament in Dublin and created; The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin continued to grow rapidly in the new burgeoning industrial age especially with the introduction of canals and by the turn of the century the railways. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin however now lost some of the gaiety and grandeur of its former Capital City status as the Irish parliamentarians now took their seats in Westminster and so now had homes in London rather than Dublin. London was now the political Capital. Dublin was still an important Irish city of course. </li></ul>
  158. 160. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland <ul><li>Relative peace did occur in the first half of the new 19 th century after the Act of Union was passed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Land laws stayed the same leaving mainly Landlords in rich powerful positions however. </li></ul><ul><li>Some new rights were now granted to the native population to bring laws in line with Westminster. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin had become by now a fine Georgian City. </li></ul>
  159. 161. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland <ul><li>Westminster was now able to pass new powerful coercion bills on its people in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Powers of arrest, imprisonment, internment and transportation increased. This was under the new direct rule of Westminster as Britain sought to assert control over her Empire. </li></ul>
  160. 162. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland <ul><li>One Improvement did occur the corrupt old Dublin Parliament was no more, as the new Act of Union provided some fairer laws in theory for all the citizens of the newly established United Kingdom. And Irish MP’s who had ruled rough-shod over the Irish people would now answer directly to Westminster. </li></ul><ul><li>This system did remove direct autonomy though for Ireland, and to some it would be seen as yet a further infringement on Irish liberty and freedom. </li></ul>
  161. 163. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland <ul><li>These laws which were made by Westminster for the entire population, not just for the protestant ruling classes as before, that was how it was put to the Westmisnter parliamentarians at least. </li></ul><ul><li>However the old Protestant ruling class MP’s took up their respective seats in Westminster – instead of Dublin, and would still have a majority voice over Catholics for many years to come. </li></ul>
  162. 164. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland <ul><li>King George III was the first King of this new United Kingdom. Dublin was still the 2 nd City of the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union was also supported by the Roman Catholic church as it was hoped that this would bring peace. </li></ul><ul><li>New Rights to Catholics were granted in 1827. </li></ul><ul><li>The British class system very much remained in place. </li></ul>
  163. 165. King George III George III was known as a mad and extravagant King. King George III also became quite popular after the Act of Union.
  164. 166. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland <ul><li>A Dublin protestant Robert Emmet attempted a rising in 1803 but it failed and he was hanged, then brutally drawn and quartered and then finally beheaded. </li></ul><ul><li>The Napoleonic wars and the creating of a civil police force “ the pealers”. </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Robert Peal (Old Bill) freed the army to fight at Waterloo 1815 many thousands of Irish men also fought and died in France at Waterloo. </li></ul>
  165. 167. The Grand Duke of Wellington <ul><li>The Duke of Wellington a fine General to King George III also a Irish man who won a great battle for the King’s forces at Waterloo finally defeating Napoleon Bonaparte and protecting the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Irishmen joined up regiments in the British army at this time. </li></ul><ul><li>A monument (right) to Wellington was built to his fine and famous Victory in Phoenix Park Dublin. </li></ul>
  166. 168. Daniel O’Connell MP <ul><li>Daniel O’Connell was a successful Catholic Lawyer educated in France and he won the Clare bi-election and became the Westminster member of parliament for Clare, he famously gained Catholic Emancipation for Ireland in 1829 . </li></ul><ul><li>This was done via the Duke of Wellington’s Catholic~Relief Bill at Westminster. </li></ul>
  167. 169. Wellington & Daniel O’Connell <ul><li>The Duke of Wellington, the Irish born General, was now Prime Minister of Great Britain, he realised the danger of mass revolt in Ireland, so he pushed the Catholic~Relief Bill through the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and it received Royal assent from King George IV. </li></ul><ul><li>This Act removed all institutional discrimination against Catholics in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. </li></ul>
  168. 170. The Catholic~Relief Bill <ul><li>A Large quota of Irish Catholic Soldiers had also fought for Wellington at Waterloo, the duke noted, and historians comment that he repaid the Irish people with the emancipation of their religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Access now was only denied to some of the very highest offices of government and state, Catholics could now be employed, in theory on an equal footing with Protestants. </li></ul>
  169. 171. Dublin and Ireland in the 1800’s <ul><li>Some voting-rights for the small 40shilling farmers were abolished, reducing the Irish electorate by 80% thus disenfranchising many of O’Connell’s most loyal supporters this counterbalanced some of Wellington’s powerful Bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Any Catholics appointed to office in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales had to take an Oath to the King, (King George IV) for any position of government or high office, like a clerk of the peace, sheriff or a magistrate. </li></ul>
  170. 172. Dublin and Ireland in the 1800’s <ul><li>The King remember was the defender of the Protestant faith since Henry VIII and was unconnected to the Pope and the Vatican in Rome*, though still a Christian faith. </li></ul><ul><li>It was now allowed for Catholics to practise their religion freely, without any hindrance in their respective churches. </li></ul><ul><li>The different Christian Churches Catholic and Protestant now functioned side by side, with possibly some lingering distrust from one to the other resonating from the 1641 rebellion for the Protestants and from the Cromwellian onslaught in 1649 for the Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>*with the exception of James II the English Kings since Henry VIII were protestant. James claim to the throne was quashed by William III of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. (click on links for more info.) </li></ul>
  171. 173. George IV
  172. 174. Dublin and Ireland in the 1800’s <ul><li>The National School System in the 1830’s was now possible, this made primary education available to all. </li></ul><ul><li>It was very much based on the English syllabus and textbooks, and had to be taught through the English language so the native Irish had to learn English on a massive scale across the whole island. </li></ul><ul><li>If children spoke Irish they would be punished and victimised by their teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>An English education system in Ireland had now been firmly established. Hedge schools were no longer needed. </li></ul>
  173. 175. The English Education System <ul><li>The system did bring good education to all of Ireland. This was maintained throughout from the 1800’s and 1900’s to the present day, and most of Ireland today speaks English as the main language. </li></ul><ul><li>The new system and institutions did almost eradicate the Irish language however. </li></ul><ul><li>To the Empire of course this was very successful policy. </li></ul>
  174. 176. The English Education System <ul><li>Some changes were made later in the 20 th Century when Ireland became a dominion state in 1922 and then again in 1937 , when the new Irish Constitution was drawn up allowing pupils to learn subjects through the Irish Language as a right of citizenship of Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially however the English National Schools System established in the 1830’s, though of course since modernised remains fully intact, continuing to provide a good education to the entire population. </li></ul>
  175. 177. The Irish Language <ul><li>The terrible famine to come, the emigration that followed and the National Schools System were the three biggest factors in the decline of the Irish language. </li></ul><ul><li>The Gaelic League had been founded promoting Irish Culture and attempted to revive the Irish language. </li></ul><ul><li>It also promoted Irish music and dancing. </li></ul><ul><li>The organisation stressed that Ireland was a different country within the British Empire and not just a colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Anglo~Irish writers became established from 1800’s in Dublin. </li></ul>
  176. 178. Emblem of Ireland The Famous old Irish Harp, still used to this day as the emblem of Ireland. It has been in use for centuries. Used by the Gaelic league as the emblem of Eire, which also appears on the Irish passport. It has also been used by the British Empire to symbolise her old links with Ireland, it appears in the Royal ensign and in the British army regimental uniform of the Irish Guards who still use this emblem today. It is used by both the Garda Siochána (The Irish Police – “guardians of the peace”.) The Police Service for Northern Ireland (formally the Royal Ulster Constabulary or RUC) also uses this emblem along with a royal crown. It is also used by the Irish State Army and the Irish government. It is very much the emblem of the whole island of Ireland. The national emblem is also used as the emblem of the Irish President at Dublin Castle and Aras an Uachtarain now the offical resident of the President in Phoenix Park.
  177. 179. Dublin and Ireland by 1840 <ul><li>Between 1800 and 1840 the presence of coal and iron in Britain had led to the start of the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of the British cities, Liverpool Manchester, Glasgow, and in Ireland; Dublin and Cork and most notably Belfast. </li></ul><ul><li>Helped via coal from Britain as Ireland had no coal or iron. </li></ul>
  178. 180. Dublin and Ireland by 1840 <ul><li>Ireland could only live off the land alone and via her trade status within the British Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland did have her fishing and sea trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Belfast also had the new shipbuilding and linen trades. </li></ul><ul><li>The advent of Steam Power technology was also to change things ostensibly. </li></ul>
  179. 181. Dublin and Ireland by 1840 <ul><li>Importantly the Irish population, partly due to the British Empire’s economic success was growing rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>The population appears to have doubled between 1800 and 1840 it may have been even 9 million by 1845. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Power enabled new factories to be built for linen and cotton. </li></ul><ul><li>The first of the new Steam Engines were also being built. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Power now brought The New Railways. </li></ul>
  180. 182. The Railway <ul><li>Steam trains made it possible to travel quickly throughout Ireland by the middle of the 19 th Century. </li></ul>
  181. 183. Kings Bridge Station 1846 <ul><li>The very grand and imperial Kings Bridge Station Dublin now known as Heuston Station, it served to link Dublin to Galway and Westport in the west of Ireland. Cork and Limerick Tralee and Killarney in the south west and Kildare and Waterford in the east of the country. Heuston or King’s Bridge Station is based on the design of an Italian palazzo. </li></ul>English Architect: Sancton Wood 1846 & Sir John McNeill (covered train shed)
  182. 184. Dublin and Ireland 1840 <ul><li>New Railways were built with Grand Central Victorian Stations in Dublin connecting the big cities, like Cork and Belfast and rural Ireland along with its prominent towns. </li></ul><ul><li>In turn this created tremendous wealth through economic commerce, trade and travel. Travel increased thanks to the Victorian introduction of time-off for health and pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian tourism also started and grand coastal resorts were built like Bray (Co,Wicklow), Kingstown (DunLoghaire Co. Dublin) and Queenstown (Cobh near Cork) which was re-named for Queen Victoria’s Visit in 1849 . </li></ul>
  183. 185. St. Patrick’s Cathedral <ul><li>The magnificent St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin originally built by the Normans (though the Viking’s previously also built a Church here) . The Victorians later refurbished the Cathedral. Originally a Catholic Cathedral, it is now a Protestant Church of Ireland Cathedral, and has been since the completion on the reformation of the Church by Queen Elizabeth I </li></ul>
  184. 186. Dublin and Ireland 1840 <ul><li>The Irish MP’s in Westminster lobbied for Home Rule so it could tackle some of it’s own problems however this was to prove impossible due to the great potato famine in 1845 and again in 1847 . </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal Blight ruined the potato crop in 1845 . </li></ul><ul><li>Then again in 1846 the potato crop failure was total causing terrible and great suffering, starvation and poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of the crop failure was to be catastrophic particularly by 1846 and 1847 . </li></ul>
  185. 187. Famine 1845 ~ 1846 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>The first response was to let the poor into Workhouses established 1838 by the “Poor Law”. </li></ul><ul><li>These were provided as indoor relief for the destitute poor, the old, the sick and children under 15yrs old. </li></ul><ul><li>The Workhouses were already filled to capacity before the crisis hit hard. </li></ul><ul><li>The Workhouse Holding 1,000 people each, with infirmary and fever hospitals attached, they were grim places, disease and infestation were rife. </li></ul>
  186. 188. Famine 1846 ~ 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>The Second government response was to provide outside relief with soup kitchens in return for public work. </li></ul><ul><li>Public work schemes to build roads and other improvements were introduced, in theory a charitable idea, but of course the people were by now completely starving and not able to work well at all. </li></ul><ul><li>The Corn laws were changed allowing cheap Corn & maize to be imported. </li></ul><ul><li>There was not enough though to feed the starving population and people began to die in their thousands. </li></ul>
  187. 189. Famine 1846 ~ 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>Religious organisations tried to help in particular Quakers helped and won a place in Irish hearts. </li></ul><ul><li>Some groups required conversion to Protestantism nicknamed: “taking the soup”. </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Victoria herself, contrary to some commentators did donate large sums of money to charity, but it was not enough. </li></ul>
  188. 190. Famine 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>The potato crop failed again in 1847 and the crisis reached a terrible breaking point. </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel O’Connell pleaded with the British government to try and help more he proclaimed: “Ireland is in your hands, your power. If you do not save her she can’t save herself, I predict that one quarter of the population will perish unless you come to her relief.” </li></ul>
  189. 191. Famine 1847 ~ An Gorta Mor <ul><li>This episode now sparked huge Emigration. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1847 3 million a day were going to the soup kitchens. </li></ul><ul><li>The prosperous Irish Landlords now started to carry out brutal Evictions as tenants were unable to pay the rent. </li></ul>
  190. 192. The Famine 1846 - 1847 <ul><li>A starving poverty stricken woman with her two children. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass departure at the quayside at Cork </li></ul><ul><li>Early emigrant ships at Cork harbour in the 1840 & 50’s. </li></ul>
  191. 193. Emigration 1846 - 1847 <ul><li>After the Famine in 1846~49 emigration continued now to be a fact of life in rural Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>To survive, emigrants now left to look for work in the United States of America and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Victoria did see the Irish as her people, but she was unable to persuade her parliament to do enough to save them from starvation. The Westminster Parliament seamed to just ignore the problem whenever they could. </li></ul>
  192. 194. Emigration 1847-1849 <ul><li>The pattern of emigration established in the 1840’s was maintained right through the remaining 19 th century and and continued on large scale until very recently, during almost all of the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1847 100,000 emigrated to Canada alone. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1849 900,000 were now in the workhouses in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands emigrated to America or died trying. </li></ul>
  193. 195. Emigration 1845 - 1847 <ul><li>The United States took a huge influx of emigrants who would famously go through the austere American Immigration Halls at Ellis Island in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of ships never made it to America, the ships that tried were nicknamed “The Coffin Ships”, the Atlantic weather proving very cruel and some ships not prepared or made for the journey. </li></ul><ul><li>Some skippers also now saw an opportunity using the famine as a way to make a quick buck, and profiteered from the plight of the Irish people. </li></ul>
  194. 196. Emigration 1847 - 1849 <ul><li>Large British Cities such as Glasgow and Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham now had large numbers of Irish settling down there in the post~famine period. </li></ul><ul><li>Belfast, Cork and Dublin were the main departure ports for America and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands more including women and children now emigrated. </li></ul>
  195. 197. Emigration 1847 <ul><li>The Britannia Steamship 1847 ~ later steamships became outstandingly more luxurious, faster and better equipped for the journey. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Inspectors Office 1847 </li></ul>
  196. 198. Irish Famine Emigrant Ship “Jeanie Johnston” 1847 – Replica (above) Launched 2003 Tralee Co.Kerry. Unlike other emigrant ships of the era, not one person died on board, an amazing record, thanks to the ship’s captain, Captain Castletownsend born James Attridge, and the very experienced Ship's Doctor: Dr Richard Blennerhassett.
  197. 199. Dublin 1845 - 1899 <ul><li>By the nineteenth century, Leinster was already the richest and most populous province. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin was spared the full brunt of the Famine and the later depopulation through emigration. </li></ul><ul><li>It retains that position of relative wealth today, with a large conurbation centred on Dublin, but extending into the neighbouring Leinster counties of Wicklow, Kildare and Meath. </li></ul>
  198. 200. Dublin 1845 - 1899 <ul><li>From 1838 there were large workhouses in Dublin where the destitute were fed and housed. During the potato famine they were overwhelmed by the numbers fleeing starvation in the countryside and the West of Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Soup kitchens had to be set up in the streets to try and feed the masses of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the population of Ireland fell sharply after the famine the population of Dublin actually rose because of the number of starving people fleeing to the city. </li></ul><ul><li>People still emigrated from the city of course as the population increase was only partially beneficial to the local economy. </li></ul>
  199. 201. Imperial Dublin 1900 <ul><li>The Four Courts and Dublin Castle </li></ul>
  200. 202. Victorian Dublin 1900 <ul><li>A very turbulent century began in the aftermath of the famine, which was still been felt throughout the country. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 4 million people had left by 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>Death was on a large scale, 35% of the population had completely gone. </li></ul>
  201. 203. Victorian Dublin <ul><li>Victorian Ireland began to recover from this however. </li></ul><ul><li>Some public unrest post~famine occurred, small uprisings and some large land protests by the Irish Land-League. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin became a place to visit and people now used the trains to take short holidays. </li></ul>
  202. 204. Victorian Dublin <ul><li>Queen Victoria’s Imperial Reign in Ireland had brought substantial peace again and Dublin again prospered. </li></ul><ul><li>Some bitterness towards the British government did remain however due to the then still recent Irish famine, questions were asked; “how could the world’s richest and largest and greatest empire allow such a terrible catastrophe to happen on her dearest and closest neighbour, the starvation of her own people, right on her doorstep”. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions were asked both on the British “mainland” and in Ireland, for the general public at large wondered how could their government let this happen. </li></ul><ul><li>The British public wondered if the government were only interested in making money, whatever the cost, in the pursuance of “laisse~faire” politics. The government was thought to be not thinking of the welfare of its public at large, and thanks to the Industrial Revolution and moderate improvements in medicine that population was growing in vast numbers. </li></ul>
  203. 205. Victorian Dublin <ul><li>Imperial travel greatly swelled the numbers of foreign people from across the Empire and tourism increased thanks to the new huge steam passenger liners being built at British shipyards. </li></ul><ul><li>British goods ~ imported produce from across the Empire were now readily available in Ireland. This due mainly to the increase in exports, with the advent of steam power on merchant shipping. It was also due to the consolidation of peaceful relations within the Empire as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain it seamed, now stood for greater liberty and fairness, slavery had been long abolished, the Royal Navy had helped a great deal in ending this tyranny and the American War of Independence and her Civil War was also long over. Britain’s relations in Asia and Africa also improved notably in her Jewel of Empire ~ India and Burma. </li></ul>
  204. 206. Victorian Dublin <ul><li>The Empire’s Industrial Revolution and new travel companies also helped develop the new British economy in Ireland. The Industrial Revolution brought new employment opportunities in the now vast big English and Scottish Cities, mainly in the north of England and southern Scotland, south Wales, London, Birmingham and the Midlands. New work was also found in Northern Ireland thanks to the Belfast Shipyard “Harland and Wolf” and the Irish Linen industry. </li></ul><ul><li>There was some new industrial industry in other Irish cities, but not quite on the scale of Belfast, the rest of Ireland remained largely rural. Biscuit and cake factories were to be found in Dublin and Cork, and of course shipping was also to be seen in Cork, in particular, the new transatlantic trade with a booming America also brought further work opportunities and prosperity to the wealthy in Ireland. Most Irish people still found work in the big English and Scottish cities. </li></ul>
  205. 207. Victorian Dublin <ul><li>Dublin remained fashionable and rail travel increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Victoria visited Dublin in 1861 via Cork and stayed at Muckross House in Killarney and then again Dublin in 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>The Queen also visited Queenstown in Cork in 1849 and again in 1853. (now renamed Cobh) </li></ul>
  206. 208. Queen Victoria 1837 - 1901
  207. 209. Queen Victoria’s visit to Dublin 1900 Queen Victoria was not only Queen but also the Empress of a vast Empire now stretching across the globe. She was named The Empress of India. The Empire now included Australia, Canada, Egypt and much of Africa and the Middle East and Ireland. “Britannia” via the Royal Navy now compressively “ruled the waves”.
  208. 210. Charles Stuart Parnell
  209. 211. Charles Stuart Parnell <ul><li>Charles Stuart Parnell, Cambridge educated, was High Sheriff of Wicklow in 1874. </li></ul><ul><li>Parnell campaigned for Home Rule with Prime Minister Gladstone at Westminster. </li></ul>William Ewart Gladstone Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1868 ~ 1874 and 1880 ~ 1885 (resigned) and returned to power in 1886 and again in 1892 ~ 1894. Gladstone died of cancer on 19 th May 1898, he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
  210. 212. Prime Minister Gladstone <ul><li>Gladstone introduced three Home Rule Bills, which went before Westminster, </li></ul><ul><li>Only by the third time that this Bill was put to the House of Lords, did it succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Third time lucky – perhaps – but the Bill although made an Act of Parliament was never enacted, creating a great impasse in Irish politics. </li></ul>
  211. 213. Prime Minister Gladstone <ul><li>Vitally, in a historical context: The Third Home Rule Bill was then put on hold due the outbreak of war with Germany, this delay was to be a tactical error for British rule in Ireland. Gladstone may not have wished for such a drastic delay, especially as he had worked so hard to get the bill passed since the late 1800’s. </li></ul>
  212. 214. Prime Minister Gladstone <ul><li>It seamed to the Irish population that yet again Britain had reneged on yet another promise to “Britain’s friends in Ireland”. </li></ul><ul><li>It should perhaps be noted here that Britain still regarded Irish people as it’s subjects, within it’s Imperial Empire, though the bill would have brought some form of fairer independence, (similar in part to Scotland today). </li></ul>
  213. 215. 20 th Century Dublin
  214. 216. 20 th Century Dublin <ul><li>Emigration continued on a large scale as Irish workers were needed in the increasing industrialised Britain and US and there remained little work at home. </li></ul><ul><li>A big event early into the new century was that of ocean liner “The Titanic” which had been carrying hundreds of Irish emigrants in her lower decks, sank in April 1912 , with a huge loss off life. </li></ul><ul><li>Queenstown in Ireland had been her last port of call before hitting an iceberg mid~Atlantic on her maiden voyage to New York. </li></ul>
  215. 217. Emigration to the USA in the Early 1900’s <ul><li>Transatlantic Liner in Liverpool dock (above) </li></ul><ul><li>State Line Poster advertising voyages from Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin, Londonderry, and Liverpool these ships took many thousands of Irish Emigrants to new lives in the US leaving their homeland behind them, often forever. They did travel in relative luxury though now. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The new liners emulated the British Class system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cabins below decks (above-right) most emigrants travelled third class, but not all did. </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin’s harbour was not deep enough for the New Big Liners so emigrants had to travel by train to Queenstown near Cork or board the ferry from Dublin to Liverpool. </li></ul>
  216. 218. The Famous Titanic 1912 <ul><li>Steamship Liner RMS Titanic </li></ul>Titanic, built at the Belfast Shipyard Harland and Wolf ~ left her anchor at Queenstown (Cobh) April 1912 ~ on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York in the U.S. ~ Queenstown, Co.Cork was her last port of call before her fatal sinking ~ RMS Titanic struck an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean ~ with great loss of life ~ 15 th April 1912.
  217. 219. Dublin’s Famous Irish Writers <ul><li>WB Yeats Oscar Wilde Samuel Beckett George Bernard Shaw </li></ul>
  218. 220. Ulysses James Joyce and Dublin
  219. 221. James Joyce <ul><li>Although Joyce only began writing Ulysses in 1914, he had been laying the plans for it since 1906. His intention was to create a fictional Everyman-- Leopold Bloom-- to rival the classical figure of Homer's Odysseus (aka Ulysses). His Odyssey, which Joyce admired as the most well-rounded portrait of a human in literature. But he took the tribute a step further by making Bloom's adventures parallel Ulysses's, on a much smaller scale. </li></ul><ul><li>The action takes place in 18 chapters spaced approximately one hour apart, starting at 8:00am on Thursday 16 June 1904, and ending in the early hours of June 17. </li></ul>Bloom by Joyce
  220. 222. Bloomsday <ul><li>The central parallel to Homer is that Bloom's wife Molly-- like Penelope in Homer-- is being courted by a suitor, the dashing Blazes Boylan. In order to win her back, Bloom must negotiate twelve trials-- his Odyssey. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;It is an epic of two races (Israelite - Irish) and at the same time the cycle of the human body as well as a little story (storiella) of a day (life). ...It is also a sort of encyclopedia. My intention is to transpose the myth sub specie temporis nostri. Each adventure (that is, every hour, every organ, every art being interconnected and interrelated in the structural scheme of the whole) should not only condition but even create its own technique. Each adventure is so to say one person although it is composed of persons-- as Aquinas relates of the angelic hosts.&quot; 20 September 1920 </li></ul>James Joyce
  221. 223. Odyssey <ul><li>Homer’s Odyssey - Dublin </li></ul>
  222. 224. The Great War 1914 ~ 1918 <ul><li>In 1914 the first world war broke out and Lord Kitchener declared he would build a new army from civilian volunteers raised from all areas of the British Isles ~ “Kitcheners Men” by the end of 1914: </li></ul><ul><li>1,200,00 men had enlisted for the war effort. </li></ul>
  223. 225. The Great War 1914 ~ 1918 <ul><li>Home Rule was to be the reward for loyalty to the British Crown in war. </li></ul><ul><li>Irish Unionists led by Sir Edward Carson a Dublin Lawyer gambled that to demonstrate loyalty and fight would grant them sympathy in Britain, though he and the Unionist did already agree to the Irish Home Rule Bill in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Edward Carson, it turned out, was completely opposed to Home Rule however fearing that it would destabilise the Union with Britain. “Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right” </li></ul>
  224. 226. Home Rule <ul><li>John Redmond from the Irish Home Rule Party also supported the War Effort. He sought only limited Irish self-government, considering it undesirable that Britain and Ireland should be wholly separated, and he had no wish to see the dismemberment of the British Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Redmond was deeply opposed to the use of physical force. </li></ul><ul><li>Redmond was committed to political change by constitutional means. </li></ul><ul><li>Redmond’s Irish Party did want full devolution and self~government for all of Ireland, whilst remaining part of the British Empire. </li></ul>
  225. 227. The Home Rule Bill <ul><ul><li>John Redmond (left) and Sir Edward Carson (right) </li></ul></ul>
  226. 228. Home Rule
  227. 229. Home Rule Opposition <ul><li>Sir Edward Carson’s campaign opposing home rule. </li></ul>Unionist Rally at the Ulster Hall in Belfast
  228. 230. The Ulster Covenant <ul><li>Sir Edward Carson and Sir James Craig sign the “Ulster Covenant” declaring complete opposition to home rule in Ulster (Northern Ireland) </li></ul>                                                                                                                                    
  229. 232. Home Rule
  230. 233. Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Third Home Rule Act (or Bill ), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>It intended to provide self-government (&quot;home rule&quot;) for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland . </li></ul><ul><li>The Act was the first law ever passed by the British parliament that established devolved government in a part of the United Kingdom. </li></ul>
  231. 234. Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>The Act’s implementation was postponed however for at least 12 months after the outbreak of war with Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The delay in implementation was to continue throughout the war. </li></ul><ul><li>If implemented it would have granted Home Rule to all of Ireland and would have avoided partition, as the Unionists, despite their fervent protests; would have had to except the democratic decision of the vote buy Westminster MPs and the Lords. </li></ul>
  232. 235. Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>The King had signed the Act into law allowing it on to the Statute Book at Westminster. The Act was not implemented! </li></ul><ul><li>It may then have been a stepping stone to further independence, from the Irish Nationalist Party’s point of view, in the great Daniel O’Connell and Charles Stewart Parnell tradition of the Party. </li></ul>
  233. 236. Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Ireland would have remained a united entity with self~governance for itself, still remaining part of the British Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist opinion in the Irish Party regarded this as a necessary stepping stone to further independence, it would have been (if it had been enacted) a great achievement towards independence. </li></ul>
  234. 237. Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Unionist had reluctantly accepted Home Rule as now inevitable, but were now going to fight to keep Ulster in the United Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>The Act was repealed in 1920 and replaced by a new Government of Ireland Act, which included partition of the Island as a means to appease unionism, and as it was thought, to ensure peace. </li></ul>
  235. 238. Home Rule Act 1914 <ul><li>Instead of home rule, most of Ireland was to achieve independence in 1922 as the “Irish Free State”. However, the six north-eastern counties that remained within the United Kingdom as “Northern Ireland” had already obtain it’s version of “home rule” in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>Partition had now become a reality – splitting the country of Ireland on partially religious and mainly political grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>(Go back to 1918 – home rule). </li></ul>
  236. 239. The Great War 1914 ~ 1918 <ul><li>The Great War saw tragic loss of life, Ulster had been given its own Division 36th known to English soldiers as “Carson’s Army” This unit tragically lost 5,500 men in one day, July 1916 on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. </li></ul><ul><li>Ulster was to never turn back from this, to deviate from the Crown would be an insult they thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands more Irishmen were to die in World War I. </li></ul>
  237. 240. World War I <ul><li>Lord Kitchener’s (middle) War Recruitment Campaign in Ireland </li></ul>
  238. 241. World War I
  239. 242. Emigration and the RMS Lusitania <ul><li>RMS Lusitania full of Irish emigrants indiscriminately torpedoed by a German U-Boat in World War I In flames, she sank just a few hours after departure towards the Atlantic off the old Head of Kinsale in West Cork southern Ireland with great loss of life. To the right is the “Angel” monument to the tragedy in Cobh (Queenstown). </li></ul><ul><li>The sinking hardened opinion for the War against the Kaiser both in Britain and Ireland. </li></ul>
  240. 243. Easter Monday 1916 <ul><li>Dublin before the Rising of 1916 </li></ul>
  241. 244. Dublin Easter 1916 <ul><li>In the midst of the Great War Dublin endured the long week of Easter of 1916, a few volunteers started a rising they captured prominent buildings but failed to take Dublin Castle ~ where the English Viceroy and British Army garrison had a fortified position. </li></ul><ul><li>The leaders of the rebellion attempted to declare a new Republic of Ireland on the Steps of the General Post office in Dublin. </li></ul>
  242. 245. GPO ~ Dublin <ul><li>Dublin’s General Post Office – symbolic of Irish Independence, the site of the declaration of a Republic during the ill-fated Easter Rising of 1916. </li></ul>
  243. 246. Dublin Easter 1916 <ul><li>The British responded with heavy artillery and a Gun boat ! The Helga sailed up the River Liffey and shelled Dublin. This extraordinary use of force by Britain against its own citizens in one of its own cities appalled the general public both in Britain and Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of Ireland did not join in, in this rebellion. </li></ul>
  244. 247. Easter 1916 <ul><li>Dublin in flames following the British gun ships onslaught of shelling in the city. </li></ul>Sackiville Street – from Parnell Square.
  245. 248. Dublin Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>Britain and Ireland were still engaged in a bitter and terrible war in the French trenches against the Kaiser’s Germany however, and had no time or sympathy for the behaviour of the rebels. </li></ul><ul><li>General Sir John Maxwell quickly quelled the rebellion and using martial law raised Dublin to the ground in retribution. </li></ul>
  246. 249. Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>The Shelled out GPO on Sackville Street (now O’Connell Street) The gun boat Helga had orders to shell all rebel positions in Dublin. </li></ul>
  247. 250. Dublin Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>Pearse the leader surrendered. An occupying navy sailing into a city and laying waste to its own civilians was too much for many to bear. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearse, though very brave had misunderstood the British resolve to maintain control in Ireland. </li></ul>
  248. 251. Dublin Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>Most of the leaders were then executed by firing squad, at Kilmainham Jail the British government then halted them, in response to a wave of public revulsion across Ireland, the US and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately for Britain the damage had already been done and Ireland had new generation of martyrs yet again. </li></ul>
  249. 252. Kilmainham Gaol (Jail) <ul><li>Kilmainham Gaol Dublin, where members of the Easter Rising of 1916 were shot by firing squad under martial law. </li></ul>
  250. 253. Dublin Easter Rising 1916 <ul><li>Then unbelievably though via judicial process this time more executions came right through the following summer. Some 3,400 were arrested and interned into English prisons and a Welsh prison camp. </li></ul><ul><li>Some leaders did avoid execution, Eamon DeValera and Countess Markievicz, who was spared as she was a woman. DeValera’s execution was suspended fearing a wave of revulsion due to his American citizenship. </li></ul>
  251. 254. Dublin Easter 1916 <ul><li>The Easter Rising of 1916 was not supported by all in Ireland especially while many Irishmen were still at war on Britain’s side against Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The treason executions changed this mood a little though as the public gave sympathy to those executed apparently with little trial, and were now seen as political prisoners as apposed to just fenian rebels as before. </li></ul>
  252. 255. The Helga <ul><li>Helga's roles after Rising of 1916 </li></ul><ul><li>While the gunboat Helga is best-known as the ship that sailed up the Liffey and shelled Liberty Hall and the GPO, it had a role in another major incident two years later. It was one of the rescue ships that went to the assistance of RMS Leinster, the Dublin-Holyhead mail-boat, when it was torpedoed by a German U-boat on October 10th, 1918. </li></ul><ul><li>On board the Leinster was a crew of 77 plus 680 passengers, 500 of whom were soldiers. When three torpedoes struck the ship 501 were killed, making it the greatest loss of life from a sinking in the Irish Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Helga was later bought by the Irish Free State and, having been renamed the LE Muirchu, it became a fishery protection vessel. </li></ul><ul><li>It was eventually scrapped in 1947. </li></ul>
  253. 256. 1918 ~ 1922 <ul><li>The aftermath of The Great War </li></ul><ul><li>The 1918 British General Election </li></ul><ul><li>The Home Rule Bill (1914) </li></ul><ul><li>The War of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo ~ Irish Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish Free State </li></ul>
  254. 257. 1918 ~ 1919 <ul><li>Great War finished in 1918 causing a general election this time just Home Rule already voted for by Westminster was now not enough for some and opinion hardened before the end of the war when Britain attempted to introduce conscription. </li></ul><ul><li>The Home Rule Party withdrew from Westminster over this issue. The Home Rule Act then had another delay causing even more frustration. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of Irish men had also died in the horrendous allied trenches of “The Great War” or WW I. </li></ul>
  255. 258. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland <ul><li>At this post war British general election 73 seats went to Sinn Fein (the new republican party, begun in the early 1900’s which later split into three different parties after the Irish civil war in 1921, only the much smaller one being staunchly republican, in the final analysis). </li></ul><ul><li>Other seats went to 26 Unionist Party members and only 6 Home Rule Irish Party. The new Irish nationalist party Sinn Fein won vast support in Ireland now the largest of the Irish Political Parties, winning the democratic support of the Irish Nation. </li></ul>
  256. 259. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland <ul><li>The executions and the deportations in the aftermath of the 1916 Rising fuelled popular hostility in Ireland towards Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>They also increased sympathy in Ireland for the use of force to achieve independence as well as support for an independent Irish Republic. </li></ul>
  257. 260. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland <ul><li>Other aspects of the British government’s policy in Ireland reinforced these trends - it persisted with nationwide martial law until November 1916; it arrested prominent and articulate critics of its administration and it threatened to impose conscription, so causing deepening resentment, especially among young men. In these circumstances, the appeal of the moderate nationalist Irish Parliamentary Party declined further. </li></ul>
  258. 261. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland <ul><li>John Redmond’s old Home Rule Party had virtually lost nearly all their support. </li></ul><ul><li>It had been damaged by its continuing failure in wartime to achieve Irish self-government. It was not until 1917 that the Irish Parliamentary Party’s 50-year domination was challenged. </li></ul>
  259. 262. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland <ul><li>The delay in the decline of Redmond’s Irish Party was because its militant nationalist opponents were divided and split into numerous separate organisations, with their own programmes and priorities, and also because the leaders of these had been imprisoned after the Rising. </li></ul>
  260. 263. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland <ul><li>The process of forming a single cohesive political force to challenge the Irish Parliamentary Party was begun with their gradual release from the prisons in December 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the Sinn Féin party which eventually displaced the IPP. Sinn Féin was not directly involved in the Rising, but benefited immensely from it. It was quite wrongly associated with the outbreak by the Irish public. This was because the role of the Irish Republican Brotherhood Military Council in planning the insurrection was not widely known. </li></ul>
  261. 264. The 1918 British General Election for the entire United Kingdom and Ireland <ul><li>Sinn Féin was believed to be involved as it was the best-known, openly anti-English, nationalist propaganda body in Dublin. </li></ul><ul><li>As admiration for the r

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