The Holocaust


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The Holocaust

  1. 1. THE HOLOCAUST: 1933-1945 Civitella
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Holocaust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek for sacrifice by fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the Nazi regime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1933 European Jewish population = roughly 9 million </li></ul><ul><li>By 1945 2/3 Jews had been killed & 1.5 million children had died </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction continued… <ul><li>Why Jews? (According to Nazi’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal = world domination (resulting in direct threat to the Aryan idea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in Social Darwinism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>survival of the fittest; natural selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as greedy; evil; cowardly; backstabbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politically responsible for German failures post-WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as slayers of Christ; witches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall anti-Semitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hatred of Jewish people/heritage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler believed in eugenics and adopted the idea of genocide resulting in the Final Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving a race by selective breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic killing of a race or group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total extermination of Jewish people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See visual overview of Holocaust here . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Holocaust: A Timeline 1933 <ul><li>Hitler becomes German chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>Der Sturmer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitic news publication “Jews are our misfortune” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SS sets up concentration camps for political prisoners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dachua </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enabling Act passed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate Jews from Germans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jews in public office are ordered to “retire” </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of the Gestapo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret state police </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Holocaust: A Timeline 1934-1939 <ul><li>1934 - Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>1935 – Nuremburg Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews are no longer German citizens/marry non-Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1936 – SS Deathshead Unit put in charge of concentration camps </li></ul><ul><li>1938 – Night of Broken Glass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitic attacks on Jewish businesses, people, and synagogues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 sent to camps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding the Night here . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1939 - Euthanasia program begins; Jews forced to wear yellow star; mass use of ghettos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercy killing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban living areas where Jews would be sent pre-concentration camps </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. The Holocaust: Ghetto’s <ul><li>Originally created as a provisional measure to control and segregate Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Final Solution (1941) made ghetto’s relatively useless & many were destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Largest ghetto in Poland = Warsaw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 400,000 Jews in 1.3 square miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Warsaw ghetto history here . </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. The Holocaust: Camps <ul><li>Concentration camps & Death camps ( extermination camps ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily detention and labor centers, as well as sites for the murder of smaller, targeted groups of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dachau = first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auschwitz-Berkenau (II) = largest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Height of operation 6,000 Jews killed/day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding Auschwitz here . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. The Holocaust: Camps continued… <ul><li>Transporting prisoners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany constructed a very sophisticated railway system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching into Spain, Italy and Russia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prisoners would be transported from CC to DC in Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trip was a nightmare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jammed into cars like cattle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom received food or water during journey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme weather conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No sanitary facilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding transport here . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The Holocaust: Camps continued… <ul><li>Camp life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistreatment of prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical experiments/testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work detail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building, excavating, production, general labor under harsh conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hanging, shooting, gassing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zyklon B (Cyanide based pesticide) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belittling, stripping of human rights, suicide, living in constant fear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beatings, starvation, sickness, over-crowdedness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding hunger in camps here . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding labor in camps here . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding daily life in camps here . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. The Holocaust: Special Stories <ul><li>Oscar Schindler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi; womanizer; war profiteer; saved 1,200 Jews from death during Holocaust by putting them to work in factories; reason for only shipment out of Auschwitz (300 women); died penniless; Schindler’s List </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List of 1,200 Jewish names Schindler purchased for factory work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Anne Frank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German Jew; moved to Amsterdam; spent 2 years hiding in father’s office building; died of typhus at age 15 at Bergen-Belsen CC; talented writer ( Diary of a Young Girl ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book written by Frank detailing her 2 years in hiding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See flash site regarding Anne and her writing here . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. The Holocaust: Liberation <ul><li>Russian forces reached Poland July 1944 starting liberation of camps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting free </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germans tried to destroy all evidence of camps and began mass evacuation of prisoners to the interior ( death marches ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of documents, personal belongings and buildings; burning of bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only after the liberation of camps was the full scope of Nazi horrors exposed to the world </li></ul><ul><li>See video regarding liberation here . </li></ul><ul><li>See video regarding liberation of Auschwitz here . </li></ul><ul><li>See pics regarding liberation of Auschwitz here . </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Holocaust: War Crimes <ul><li>By 1942 the allied powers announce their determination to punish war criminals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies officially note the mass murder of European Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moscow Declaration (1943) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War criminals would be punished by joint decisions of the Allied governments – the International Military Tribunal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US, GB, R and FR supplied a judge and a prosecution team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined crimes against humanity as &quot;murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation...or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declared that “following orders” was not a legitimate defense </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. The Holocaust: War Crimes continued… <ul><li>Nuremberg Trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held in Nuremberg, Germany 1945-1946 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 defendants (13 sentenced to death; 6 prison terms; 3 acquitted) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hermann Goering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commander of Luftwaffe; un-sympathetic during trials; committed suicide in his cell night before execution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Speer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architect; minister of armaments and war production; very cooperative during trials; sentenced to 20 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rudolf Hess </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deputy head of Nazi party; claimed amnesia during trials; sentenced to life in prison </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding trials here . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. The Holocaust: War Crimes continued… <ul><ul><li>Legacy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first time a nation's leaders were prosecuted by the international community for crimes committed by the state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rules created during the trial formed the future of principles for war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ODESSA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization to help former SS members avoid capture/trial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nazi Hunters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who track down/gather information on former Nazi/SS who were involved in the Holocaust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found Adolf Eichmann; tried and executed in 1962 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestapo head for Jewish affairs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simon Wiesenthal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holocaust survivor; Nazi hunter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ When history looks back I want people to know the Nazis weren't able to kill millions of people and get away with it.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. The Holocaust: Denial? <ul><li>What is Holocaust Denial ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims that the genocides that took place during WWII never occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>against the law in Israel, France, Germany, Austria and now Hungary to deny the Holocaust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punished with stiff fines and prison sentences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of denial? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues with gassing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctored photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why single out the Jews (i.e. why not the Russians or thousands of others who died?)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding the denial here . </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. The Holocaust: Denial? continued… <ul><li>“ The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews, including two million children. Holocaust denial is a second murder of those same six million. First their lives were extinguished; then their deaths. A person who denies the Holocaust becomes part of the crime of the Holocaust itself.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Matas, Senior Counsel for the “League for Human Rights” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. The Holocaust: Aftermath <ul><li>What was the aftermath? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of state of Israel 1948 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International war laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological effect on survivors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resurgence of anti-Semitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War criminals brought to justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remembrance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>memorials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See flash video regarding aftermath here . </li></ul></ul>