Human impact on ecology
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Human impact on ecology

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Human impact on ecology Human impact on ecology Presentation Transcript

  • LMTSOM
  • WHAT IS ECOLOGY
    Study of the “house/environment” in which we live.
    Ecology is study of interactions between non-living and living components in the environment.
    light
    water
    wind
    nutrients in soil
    heat
    solar radiation
    atmosphere, etc.
    Living organisms…
    Plants
    Animals
    microorganisms in soil, etc.
  • Nonliving
    dead organic matter
    nutrients in the soil and water.
    Producers
    green plants
    Consumers
    herbivores and carnivores
    Decomposers
    fungi and bacteria
  • ECOLOGY: Levels of Organization
    - a hierarchy of organization
    in the environment
  • Biosphere
    Surface of the earth
    Composed of many ecosystems
    Ecosystem
    Large or small as we decide
    Population– one species live in one place at one time
    Community– All populations (diff. species) that live in a particular area.
    Habitat – physical location of community
    Organism– simplest level of organization
    Ecology is an integrated and dynamic study of the environment.
  • HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY
    DIRECT
    Land use changes (Deforestation & Degradation)
    Construction and Excavation
    Agricultural Practices
    Nuclear program
    INDIRECT
    Ozone Depletion
    Acid Rain
    Green House Effect
    Pollution
  • LAND USE CHANGES
    Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization)
    AGRICULTURE PRACTICES
    Inorganic Fertilizers
    Pesticides & insecticides
    Increased to 2.5 million tons annually
    World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that 3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths.
    Decompositionof organic matter in the soil
  • Much of the methane emitted into the atmosphere is caused by the decomposition of organic matter in wet soils such as rice paddies.
    Wet or anaerobic soils also lose nitrogen through denitrification, releasing the greenhouse gasnitric oxide.[
    CONSTRUCTION AND EXCAVATION
    Human ActivityConstruction Dams
    Increased urbanization
    Multipurpose projects
    River line and Coastal Erosion
    Water Temperature
  • NUCLEAR PROGRAM
    Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light
    Anthropogenic changes .
    Chief hazards are burns and eyeinjuries
    Burns visible on a people in Hiroshima during the blast.
  • OZONE DEPLETION
    Ozone is the shield in the upper atmosphere that protects us from ultraviolet radiation
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals involved in ozone destruction
    Depletion, harms living organisms
    • Exposure to UV is linked to disorders in humans, including cataracts, skin cancer, and weakened immune systems.
    Effects on crops
  • CFC
    Coolant in refrigerators and air conditioners
    The propellant in aerosol dispensers
    The foaming agent in the production of plastic foam cups and containers
  • ACID RAIN
    Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and cloudwater, dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components.
    A more accurate term is “acid deposition”.
    Principal cause of acid rain is sulphurand nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generation, factories, and motor vehicles
    Coal power plants are one of the most polluting
  • Factories had short funnels to let out smoke, but this caused many problems locally
  • ACID RAIN EFFECT
    An extremely destructive form of pollution, and the environment suffers from its effects.
    Forests, trees, lakes, animals, and plants suffer from acid rain.
    The needles and leaves of the trees turn brown and fall off.
    Lakes are also damaged by acid rain.
    Buildings, Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildings
    Humans can become seriously ill, and can even die from the effects of acid rain
  • GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
    Greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earth's surface and atmosphere.
    atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet by absorbing long wave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface.
    Without the greenhouse effect life on this planet would probably not exist as the average temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18°
  • Main sources of greenhouse gases
    burning of fossil fuels and deforestation
    use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers etc.
    GLOBAL WARMING is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74°C between the start and the end of the 20th century.
  • CONSEQUENCES
    Sea level rise Flooding coastal areas.
    Reduced yield of crops.
    Displacement of populations.
    Climate change Displacement of ecosystems.
    Change in range of insect vectors of pathogens.
    Declining Biological Diversity continued
    Extinction of Plant and Animal species.
  • POLLUTION
    Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.
    Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light.
    Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels.
  • TYPES OF POLLUTION
    Air pollution
    Water pollution
    Soil contamination
    Radioactive contamination
    Noise pollution
    Light pollution
    Thermal pollution
  • GOVT. ROLES ON ECO-FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT
    Govt. of India is committed to ensure all ecofriendly environment to all Indian citizen.
    Government and legislatures are using their influence to reduce environmental and health hazards due to industrialization and to stimulate the development of clean technologies
    adopt clean and eco-friendly technologies and environmental-safe disposal of used products, along with preventive and mitigate approaches.
  • EARTH SUMMIT
    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit 
    Issues addressed included:
    systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals
    alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change
  • new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog
    The growing scarcity of water.
  • MONTREAL PROTOCOL
    Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
    An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances.
    Believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989
  • Terms and purposes of this treaty
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phase-out Management Plan
    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)
  • ENERGY AUDIT
    An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s).
    Preliminary audit
    The preliminary audit (alternatively called a simple audit, screening audit or walk-through audit) is the simplest and quickest type of audit.
    A brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data
    A walk-through of the facility to become familiar with the building operation and to identify any glaring areas of energy waste or inefficiency
    Level of detail, while not sufficient for reaching a final decision on implementing a proposed measures.
  • DETAIL ENERGY AUDIT
    Collecting more detailed information about facility operation and by performing a more detailed evaluation of energy conservation measures
     Better understanding of major energy consuming systems and to gain insight into short and longer term energy consumption patterns.
    Detailed implementation cost estimates, site-specific operating cost savings, and the customer's investment criteria.
  • It includes
    Sufficient detail is provided to justify project implementation.
    Study of Equipment
    Study of Process
    Data collection, data analysis, inter firm comparison, standard setting
    Identify of potential area.
  • INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION
    The Industrial Policy Statement of 1991 stated that “the Government will continue to pursue a sound policy framework encompassing encouragement of entrepreneurship”.
    Development of indigenous technology through investment in research and development.
    Dismantling of the regulatory system, development of the capital markets and increased competitiveness for the benefit of common man".
  • Objective of the Industrial Policy Statement – 1991
    sustained growth in productivity, enhance gainful employment and achieve
    optimal utilization of human resources, to attain international competitiveness,
    and to transform India into a major partner and player in the global arena.
  • VARIOUS ACTS
    AIR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981
    WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1974
    CONSERVATION OF FORES THE INDIAN WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972
    SOIL AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTION REMEDIATION ACT
  • Statutory organisation, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
    CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
    PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF THE CPCB
     to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention
    control and abatement of water pollution
    to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
  • MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS (MOEF)
    The planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programmes.
    Broad objectives of the Ministry are:
    conservation of the country's natural resources including its lakes and rivers, its biodiversity, forests and wildlife.
    Ensuring the welfare of animals, and the prevention and abatement of pollution.
    Conservation and survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife
  • Prevention and control of pollution
    Afforestation and regeneration of degraded areas
    Protection of the environment and
    Ensuring the welfare of animals
  • Subordinate offices
    Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Kolkata
    Directorate of Forest Education (DFE), Dehradun
    Forest Survey of India (FSI), Dehradun
    Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy (IGNFA), Dehradun
    National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), New Delhi
    National Zoological Park (NZP), New Delhi
    Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata
  • Autonomous institutions
    Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi
    Central Zoo Authority (CZA), New Delhi
    G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora
    Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun
  • Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act
    This Act is formulated to prevent and remediate soil and groundwater pollution, ensure the sustainable use
    of soil and groundwater, enhance the living environment, and advance public health.
    The regulations of other laws shall apply to those matters not regulated by this Act.
  • Earth Hour started in 2007 in Sydney, Australia when 2.2 million homes and businesses turned their lights off for one hour to make their stand against climate change.
    Only a year later and Earth Hour had become a global sustainability movement
    Environment Action Programs have been prepared.
    “ONE PLANT ONE LIFE” as awareness creation