Human impact on ecology

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Human impact on ecology

  1. 1. LMTSOM<br />
  2. 2. WHAT IS ECOLOGY<br />Study of the “house/environment” in which we live.<br />Ecology is study of interactions between non-living and living components in the environment.<br />light <br />water<br />wind<br />nutrients in soil<br />heat<br />solar radiation<br />atmosphere, etc. <br />Living organisms…<br />Plants<br />Animals<br />microorganisms in soil, etc.<br />
  3. 3. Nonliving<br />dead organic matter<br />nutrients in the soil and water. <br />Producers <br />green plants<br />Consumers <br />herbivores and carnivores<br />Decomposers<br />fungi and bacteria <br />
  4. 4. ECOLOGY: Levels of Organization<br />- a hierarchy of organization<br /> in the environment<br />
  5. 5. Biosphere<br />Surface of the earth <br />Composed of many ecosystems<br />Ecosystem<br />Large or small as we decide<br />Population– one species live in one place at one time<br />Community– All populations (diff. species) that live in a particular area.<br />Habitat – physical location of community<br />Organism– simplest level of organization<br />Ecology is an integrated and dynamic study of the environment.<br />
  6. 6. HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY<br />DIRECT <br />Land use changes (Deforestation & Degradation)<br />Construction and Excavation<br />Agricultural Practices<br />Nuclear program<br />INDIRECT<br />Ozone Depletion<br />Acid Rain<br />Green House Effect<br />Pollution<br />
  7. 7. LAND USE CHANGES <br />Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization)<br />AGRICULTURE PRACTICES<br />Inorganic Fertilizers<br />Pesticides & insecticides<br />Increased to 2.5 million tons annually <br />World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that 3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths.<br />Decompositionof organic matter in the soil<br />
  8. 8. Much of the methane emitted into the atmosphere is caused by the decomposition of organic matter in wet soils such as rice paddies.<br />Wet or anaerobic soils also lose nitrogen through denitrification, releasing the greenhouse gasnitric oxide.[<br />CONSTRUCTION AND EXCAVATION<br />Human ActivityConstruction Dams<br />Increased urbanization<br />Multipurpose projects<br />River line and Coastal Erosion<br />Water Temperature<br />
  9. 9. NUCLEAR PROGRAM<br />Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light<br />Anthropogenic changes .<br />Chief hazards are burns and eyeinjuries<br />Burns visible on a people in Hiroshima during the blast.<br />
  10. 10. OZONE DEPLETION<br />Ozone is the shield in the upper atmosphere that protects us from ultraviolet radiation<br />Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals involved in ozone destruction<br /> Depletion, harms living organisms<br /><ul><li>Exposure to UV is linked to disorders in humans, including cataracts, skin cancer, and weakened immune systems.</li></ul>Effects on crops<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. CFC<br />Coolant in refrigerators and air conditioners<br />The propellant in aerosol dispensers<br />The foaming agent in the production of plastic foam cups and containers<br />
  13. 13. ACID RAIN<br />Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and cloudwater, dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components. <br />A more accurate term is “acid deposition”.<br />Principal cause of acid rain is sulphurand nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generation, factories, and motor vehicles<br />Coal power plants are one of the most polluting<br />
  14. 14. Factories had short funnels to let out smoke, but this caused many problems locally<br />
  15. 15. ACID RAIN EFFECT<br />An extremely destructive form of pollution, and the environment suffers from its effects. <br />Forests, trees, lakes, animals, and plants suffer from acid rain.<br />The needles and leaves of the trees turn brown and fall off.<br />Lakes are also damaged by acid rain.<br />Buildings, Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildings<br />Humans can become seriously ill, and can even die from the effects of acid rain<br />
  16. 16. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT<br />Greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earth's surface and atmosphere.<br />atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet by absorbing long wave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface.<br />Without the greenhouse effect life on this planet would probably not exist as the average temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18°<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Main sources of greenhouse gases<br />burning of fossil fuels and deforestation<br />use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)<br />agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers etc.<br />GLOBAL WARMING is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74°C between the start and the end of the 20th century.<br />
  19. 19. CONSEQUENCES<br />Sea level rise Flooding coastal areas. <br />Reduced yield of crops. <br />Displacement of populations.<br />Climate change Displacement of ecosystems.<br />Change in range of insect vectors of pathogens. <br />Declining Biological Diversity continued<br />Extinction of Plant and Animal species.<br />
  20. 20. POLLUTION<br />Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.<br />Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light.<br />Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels.<br />
  21. 21. TYPES OF POLLUTION<br />Air pollution<br />Water pollution<br />Soil contamination<br />Radioactive contamination<br />Noise pollution<br />Light pollution<br />Thermal pollution<br />
  22. 22. GOVT. ROLES ON ECO-FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT<br />Govt. of India is committed to ensure all ecofriendly environment to all Indian citizen.<br />Government and legislatures are using their influence to reduce environmental and health hazards due to industrialization and to stimulate the development of clean technologies<br />adopt clean and eco-friendly technologies and environmental-safe disposal of used products, along with preventive and mitigate approaches.<br />
  23. 23. EARTH SUMMIT<br />The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit <br />Issues addressed included:<br />systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals<br />alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change<br />
  24. 24. new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog<br />The growing scarcity of water.<br />
  25. 25. MONTREAL PROTOCOL <br />Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer<br />An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances.<br />Believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989 <br />
  26. 26. Terms and purposes of this treaty<br />Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phase-out Management Plan<br />Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)<br />
  27. 27. ENERGY AUDIT <br />An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). <br />Preliminary audit <br />The preliminary audit (alternatively called a simple audit, screening audit or walk-through audit) is the simplest and quickest type of audit.<br />A brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data<br />A walk-through of the facility to become familiar with the building operation and to identify any glaring areas of energy waste or inefficiency<br />Level of detail, while not sufficient for reaching a final decision on implementing a proposed measures.<br />
  28. 28. DETAIL ENERGY AUDIT<br />Collecting more detailed information about facility operation and by performing a more detailed evaluation of energy conservation measures <br /> Better understanding of major energy consuming systems and to gain insight into short and longer term energy consumption patterns. <br />Detailed implementation cost estimates, site-specific operating cost savings, and the customer's investment criteria. <br />
  29. 29. It includes<br />Sufficient detail is provided to justify project implementation. <br />Study of Equipment<br />Study of Process<br />Data collection, data analysis, inter firm comparison, standard setting<br />Identify of potential area.<br />
  30. 30. INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION<br />The Industrial Policy Statement of 1991 stated that “the Government will continue to pursue a sound policy framework encompassing encouragement of entrepreneurship”.<br /> Development of indigenous technology through investment in research and development.<br />Dismantling of the regulatory system, development of the capital markets and increased competitiveness for the benefit of common man".<br />
  31. 31. Objective of the Industrial Policy Statement – 1991<br />sustained growth in productivity, enhance gainful employment and achieve<br />optimal utilization of human resources, to attain international competitiveness,<br />and to transform India into a major partner and player in the global arena.<br />
  32. 32. VARIOUS ACTS<br />AIR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981 <br />WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1974 <br />CONSERVATION OF FORES THE INDIAN WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972 <br />SOIL AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTION REMEDIATION ACT<br />
  33. 33. Statutory organisation, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. <br />CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 <br />PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF THE CPCB <br /> to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention<br />control and abatement of water pollution <br />to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.<br />
  34. 34. MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS (MOEF) <br />The planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programmes. <br />Broad objectives of the Ministry are:<br />conservation of the country's natural resources including its lakes and rivers, its biodiversity, forests and wildlife.<br />Ensuring the welfare of animals, and the prevention and abatement of pollution. <br />Conservation and survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife<br />
  35. 35. Prevention and control of pollution<br />Afforestation and regeneration of degraded areas<br />Protection of the environment and<br />Ensuring the welfare of animals<br />
  36. 36. Subordinate offices<br />Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Kolkata<br />Directorate of Forest Education (DFE), Dehradun<br />Forest Survey of India (FSI), Dehradun<br />Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy (IGNFA), Dehradun<br />National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), New Delhi<br />National Zoological Park (NZP), New Delhi<br />Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata<br />
  37. 37. Autonomous institutions<br />Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi<br />Central Zoo Authority (CZA), New Delhi<br />G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora<br />Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun<br />
  38. 38. Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act<br />This Act is formulated to prevent and remediate soil and groundwater pollution, ensure the sustainable use<br />of soil and groundwater, enhance the living environment, and advance public health.<br />The regulations of other laws shall apply to those matters not regulated by this Act.<br />
  39. 39. Earth Hour started in 2007 in Sydney, Australia when 2.2 million homes and businesses turned their lights off for one hour to make their stand against climate change.<br />Only a year later and Earth Hour had become a global sustainability movement<br />Environment Action Programs have been prepared.<br />“ONE PLANT ONE LIFE” as awareness creation<br />
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