WHAT IS ECOLOGY Study of the “house/environment” in which we live. Ecology is study of interactions between non-living and living components in the environment. light water wind nutrients in soil heat solar radiation atmosphere, etc. Living organisms… Plants Animals microorganisms in soil, etc.
Nonliving dead organic matter nutrients in the soil and water. Producers green plants Consumers herbivores and carnivores Decomposers fungi and bacteria
ECOLOGY: Levels of Organization - a hierarchy of organization in the environment
Biosphere Surface of the earth Composed of many ecosystems Ecosystem Large or small as we decide Population– one species live in one place at one time Community– All populations (diff. species) that live in a particular area. Habitat – physical location of community Organism– simplest level of organization Ecology is an integrated and dynamic study of the environment.
HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOLOGY DIRECT Land use changes (Deforestation & Degradation) Construction and Excavation Agricultural Practices Nuclear program INDIRECT Ozone Depletion Acid Rain Green House Effect Pollution
LAND USE CHANGES Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization) AGRICULTURE PRACTICES Inorganic Fertilizers Pesticides & insecticides Increased to 2.5 million tons annually World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that 3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths. Decompositionof organic matter in the soil
Much of the methane emitted into the atmosphere is caused by the decomposition of organic matter in wet soils such as rice paddies. Wet or anaerobic soils also lose nitrogen through denitrification, releasing the greenhouse gasnitric oxide.[ CONSTRUCTION AND EXCAVATION Human ActivityConstruction Dams Increased urbanization Multipurpose projects River line and Coastal Erosion Water Temperature
NUCLEAR PROGRAM Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light Anthropogenic changes . Chief hazards are burns and eyeinjuries Burns visible on a people in Hiroshima during the blast.
OZONE DEPLETION Ozone is the shield in the upper atmosphere that protects us from ultraviolet radiation Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals involved in ozone destruction Depletion, harms living organisms
Exposure to UV is linked to disorders in humans, including cataracts, skin cancer, and weakened immune systems.
CFC Coolant in refrigerators and air conditioners The propellant in aerosol dispensers The foaming agent in the production of plastic foam cups and containers
ACID RAIN Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and cloudwater, dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components. A more accurate term is “acid deposition”. Principal cause of acid rain is sulphurand nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generation, factories, and motor vehicles Coal power plants are one of the most polluting
Factories had short funnels to let out smoke, but this caused many problems locally
ACID RAIN EFFECT An extremely destructive form of pollution, and the environment suffers from its effects. Forests, trees, lakes, animals, and plants suffer from acid rain. The needles and leaves of the trees turn brown and fall off. Lakes are also damaged by acid rain. Buildings, Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildings Humans can become seriously ill, and can even die from the effects of acid rain
GREEN HOUSE EFFECT Greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process that aids in heating the Earth's surface and atmosphere. atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane, are able to change the energy balance of the planet by absorbing long wave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface. Without the greenhouse effect life on this planet would probably not exist as the average temperature of the Earth would be a chilly -18°
Main sources of greenhouse gases burning of fossil fuels and deforestation use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers etc. GLOBAL WARMING is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74°C between the start and the end of the 20th century.
CONSEQUENCES Sea level rise Flooding coastal areas. Reduced yield of crops. Displacement of populations. Climate change Displacement of ecosystems. Change in range of insect vectors of pathogens. Declining Biological Diversity continued Extinction of Plant and Animal species.
POLLUTION Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels.
TYPES OF POLLUTION Air pollution Water pollution Soil contamination Radioactive contamination Noise pollution Light pollution Thermal pollution
GOVT. ROLES ON ECO-FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT Govt. of India is committed to ensure all ecofriendly environment to all Indian citizen. Government and legislatures are using their influence to reduce environmental and health hazards due to industrialization and to stimulate the development of clean technologies adopt clean and eco-friendly technologies and environmental-safe disposal of used products, along with preventive and mitigate approaches.
EARTH SUMMIT The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit Issues addressed included: systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change
new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog The growing scarcity of water.
MONTREAL PROTOCOL Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances. Believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989
Terms and purposes of this treaty Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phase-out Management Plan Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)
ENERGY AUDIT An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). Preliminary audit The preliminary audit (alternatively called a simple audit, screening audit or walk-through audit) is the simplest and quickest type of audit. A brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data A walk-through of the facility to become familiar with the building operation and to identify any glaring areas of energy waste or inefficiency Level of detail, while not sufficient for reaching a final decision on implementing a proposed measures.
DETAIL ENERGY AUDIT Collecting more detailed information about facility operation and by performing a more detailed evaluation of energy conservation measures Better understanding of major energy consuming systems and to gain insight into short and longer term energy consumption patterns. Detailed implementation cost estimates, site-specific operating cost savings, and the customer's investment criteria.
It includes Sufficient detail is provided to justify project implementation. Study of Equipment Study of Process Data collection, data analysis, inter firm comparison, standard setting Identify of potential area.
INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION The Industrial Policy Statement of 1991 stated that “the Government will continue to pursue a sound policy framework encompassing encouragement of entrepreneurship”. Development of indigenous technology through investment in research and development. Dismantling of the regulatory system, development of the capital markets and increased competitiveness for the benefit of common man".
Objective of the Industrial Policy Statement – 1991 sustained growth in productivity, enhance gainful employment and achieve optimal utilization of human resources, to attain international competitiveness, and to transform India into a major partner and player in the global arena.
VARIOUS ACTS AIR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981 WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1974 CONSERVATION OF FORES THE INDIAN WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972 SOIL AND GROUNDWATER POLLUTION REMEDIATION ACT
Statutory organisation, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF THE CPCB to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention control and abatement of water pollution to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS (MOEF) The planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programmes. Broad objectives of the Ministry are: conservation of the country's natural resources including its lakes and rivers, its biodiversity, forests and wildlife. Ensuring the welfare of animals, and the prevention and abatement of pollution. Conservation and survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife
Prevention and control of pollution Afforestation and regeneration of degraded areas Protection of the environment and Ensuring the welfare of animals
Subordinate offices Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Kolkata Directorate of Forest Education (DFE), Dehradun Forest Survey of India (FSI), Dehradun Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy (IGNFA), Dehradun National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), New Delhi National Zoological Park (NZP), New Delhi Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata
Autonomous institutions Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi Central Zoo Authority (CZA), New Delhi G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun
Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act This Act is formulated to prevent and remediate soil and groundwater pollution, ensure the sustainable use of soil and groundwater, enhance the living environment, and advance public health. The regulations of other laws shall apply to those matters not regulated by this Act.
Earth Hour started in 2007 in Sydney, Australia when 2.2 million homes and businesses turned their lights off for one hour to make their stand against climate change. Only a year later and Earth Hour had become a global sustainability movement Environment Action Programs have been prepared. “ONE PLANT ONE LIFE” as awareness creation