HEALTH AND ILLNESS Assoc. Prof. Petko Salchev, MD, PhD
<ul><li>Our concepts for health and illness, life and death evolve through the ages, beginning with the secret of birth an...
Stages in the development of the concept for health and illness <ul><li>Empirical-sensory knowledge  </li></ul><ul><li>Hum...
Empirical-sensory knowledge <ul><li>It is typical of man’s first attempts to understand himself and the surrounding world ...
Humoral concept <ul><li>In the course of development of the humoral concept of health and illness, the latter is seen as  ...
Mechanistic-systemic concept <ul><li>Related to the development of knowledge of the human body structure and the discovery...
Biomedical (etiological) concept <ul><li>Founded on the development of the microbial theory of disease </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Model :   agent  –  host  –  environment (etiological) agent host Mode of  transmission environment
Enhanced model :   agent  –  host  –  environment  ( etiological - pathogenic ) <ul><li>Developed to define more correctly...
Enhanced model :   agent  –  host  –  environment  ( etiological - pathogenic ) agent host Mode of  transmission environme...
Psychosocial concept  <ul><li>Development of the psychosocial sciences and theories for the influence of psychological fac...
Ecological concept for health   <ul><li>Dating back to the middle of the  ХХ  century, it is based on the hypothesis, that...
Holistic concept   <ul><li>Health according to this concept is described as a singular or multi-aspect process, including ...
Socio-medical concept <ul><li>In order for health and illness be understood in light of this concept, we need to answer th...
Model of health  –  socio-medical concept  health disease birth death life chronification Permanent disability (invalidity...
Vital processes   <ul><li>Birth   is   a   „ complete push out or taking out from the mother’s body of the product of conc...
Definitions of health   <ul><li>Based on the previous questions eight types of definitions for health can be formulated  :...
Health as a condition or process <ul><li>Health can be defined as a state only in a brief (and measurable) moment,  but in...
Health as a human right. Constitution of Bulgaria <ul><li>„ Art . 52. (1)  Citizens have the right to health insurance, gu...
Health as a combination of statistical features  <ul><li>Can health be measured ? </li></ul><ul><li>How can it be assessed...
Health is a multi-aspect category  <ul><li>Assessment of the health status in a given moment is based on the heuristic thi...
Example :  distribution of diastolic and systolic blood pressure   norm norm mm Hg 20 120 140 240 200 220 160 180 100 80 6...
Example :  assessment of individual health status  <ul><li>Leading present complaints; </li></ul><ul><li>Personal data : a...
Health as a measure of vitality <ul><li>Health is the main measure of vitality and objective in itself, but this objective...
Health as an integral category <ul><li>” H ealth is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not mer...
Integral model of health  person health physical mental social physicochemical factors of the environment socio-economic f...
Definition of health <ul><li>„ Health is a complex multidimensional category with triple structure of harmonious unity bet...
Leading determinants of health  <ul><li>Factors related to way of life and life style </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors  (...
Strength of association in  %  of different factors with health 100 % 0 % Genome – 10% Health service – 10 % Lifestyle – 2...
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Health And Illnesss Prez Eng

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Health And Illnesss Prez Eng

  1. 1. HEALTH AND ILLNESS Assoc. Prof. Petko Salchev, MD, PhD
  2. 2. <ul><li>Our concepts for health and illness, life and death evolve through the ages, beginning with the secret of birth and death, our place in the surrounding world, life and health as individual values and health care as a social value, legal right and aim. </li></ul>HEALTH AND ILLNESS
  3. 3. Stages in the development of the concept for health and illness <ul><li>Empirical-sensory knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Humoral concept </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical-systemic concept </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical ( etiological ) concept </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological concept </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho-social concept </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic concept </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-medical concept </li></ul>
  4. 4. Empirical-sensory knowledge <ul><li>It is typical of man’s first attempts to understand himself and the surrounding world . </li></ul><ul><li>Human life and death, as well as health and illness have been dependant on supernatural powers, which could be pacified by magic and the rituals of shamans and medicine men </li></ul>
  5. 5. Humoral concept <ul><li>In the course of development of the humoral concept of health and illness, the latter is seen as „ disturbance in the balance of „ humors ” in the human body - Paracelsus (1493-1541) </li></ul><ul><li>The „ humors ” in the human body are blood (sanguis), phlegm (phlegma), bile (cholera) and melancholy (melancholia) – black bile </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mechanistic-systemic concept <ul><li>Related to the development of knowledge of the human body structure and the discovery of part of the physiologic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Sees human body as a machine, disease as a a failure of this machine. Main objective of medicine is the repair of this machine. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biomedical (etiological) concept <ul><li>Founded on the development of the microbial theory of disease </li></ul><ul><li>The development of this concept is based on the understanding that every disease occurs as a result of the presence of a certain agent in the host </li></ul>
  8. 8. Model : agent – host – environment (etiological) agent host Mode of transmission environment
  9. 9. Enhanced model : agent – host – environment ( etiological - pathogenic ) <ul><li>Developed to define more correctly the three components in view of the achievements of medical science and epidemiology, both in the fields of communicable and chronic diseases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors related to host and influencing health or disease are : age, gender, genetic factors, psychological factors, life style, education, social status, occupation, culture, etc. . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors related to causative agent may be defined as : biological, genetic, nutritional, chemical, physical, mechanic, etc . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors of the environment are defined as : physicochemical – air, water, geographic location, altitude, dust, etc .; генетични; socio-economic ; political and others . </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Enhanced model : agent – host – environment ( etiological - pathogenic ) agent host Mode of transmission environment Factors: Gender, age, genetic, psychological, lifestyle Factors: physicochemical, genetic, socio-economic Factors: Biological, genetic, nutritional, chemical, mechanical
  11. 11. Psychosocial concept <ul><li>Development of the psychosocial sciences and theories for the influence of psychological factors on health and illness </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ecological concept for health <ul><li>Dating back to the middle of the ХХ century, it is based on the hypothesis, that health represents a dynamic equilibrium between man and his environment </li></ul><ul><li>„ Health means … a continuous adaptation to environment with the purpose of achieving optimal functioning ” (Dubos,R., 1965). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Holistic concept <ul><li>Health according to this concept is described as a singular or multi-aspect process, including human wellbeing in the context of his/her environment </li></ul><ul><li>„ Health is a way of existence, permitting the imperfect human to achieve satisfaction and not so painful existence, faring in the also imperfect world .” ( Dubos , R ., 1968). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Socio-medical concept <ul><li>In order for health and illness be understood in light of this concept, we need to answer the following questions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where does health (respectively illness) start and end ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is health ( illness ) a condition of the organism or a process ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is health ( illness ) a feature of the organism or just an expression of the influence of various factors ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is health measured ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is health as a social category – a value, right or a goal ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can health serve to measure vitality, wellbeing ? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Model of health – socio-medical concept health disease birth death life chronification Permanent disability (invalidity) Unknown factor Known factor treatment rehabilitation Promotion Primary prophylaxis Secondary prophylaxis Tertiary prophylaxis Vital processes Health activities diagnostics
  16. 16. Vital processes <ul><li>Birth is a „ complete push out or taking out from the mother’s body of the product of conception, regardless of the pregnancy duration, which demonstrates signs of life, breathing, heart beat, umbilical cord pulse or clear movement of skeletal muscles ” ( WHO , ICD-X ). </li></ul><ul><li>Illness is a dynamic process, which passes through the stages of onset, course, treatment and recuperation . </li></ul><ul><li>Disease is the period through which the process of illness evolves and correlates to the disturbance of one or more vital, social and psychological functions of the organism . </li></ul><ul><li>Death is an established fact of a final and irreversible stopping of signs of life, due to the interruption of vital functions of one or more organs or systems. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Definitions of health <ul><li>Based on the previous questions eight types of definitions for health can be formulated : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as a state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as a feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as a process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as a social category ( value, purpose ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as a human right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as a total of statistical features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as a measure of vitality ( quality of life ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health as an integral category </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Health as a condition or process <ul><li>Health can be defined as a state only in a brief (and measurable) moment, but in its essence it is a continuous process of change in different conditions (but not just a sum of them) . </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the answer to the question whether health represents a process or a state is – health is a process of constant change of states, influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic to the organism factors and aimed at maintaining the integrity of the individual and achieving optimal balance . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Health as a human right. Constitution of Bulgaria <ul><li>„ Art . 52. (1) Citizens have the right to health insurance, guaranteeing them accessible medical care and free use of medical services under conditions and order, stipulated by law . </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Health care for citizens is funded by the state budget, employers, personal and collective insurance payments and other sources under conditions and order, stipulated by law . </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The state promotes citizens health and encourages the development of sport and tourism . </li></ul><ul><li>(4) No single person can be subjected unwillingly to treatment and sanitary measures, except for the cases foreseen in law . </li></ul><ul><li>(5) The state exercises control over all treatment facilities, as well as the production of medications, bioactive substances and medical equipment and over trade with them .” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Health as a combination of statistical features <ul><li>Can health be measured ? </li></ul><ul><li>How can it be assessed and validated ? </li></ul><ul><li>When is a certain man healthy or ill and what are the indicators for this ? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Health is a multi-aspect category <ul><li>Assessment of the health status in a given moment is based on the heuristic thinking of the physician and analysis of data incoming from anamnesis, status, measured through various technologies indicators – laboratory, microbiologic, pathogenic, imaging diagnostics, as well as correlation of these data with the influence of environment factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Health is a multi-aspect category, functioning in certain intervals with unsettled borders, providing optimal functioning of the organism, where various other factors are read, related to the biological, social or psychic essence of man . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Example : distribution of diastolic and systolic blood pressure norm norm mm Hg 20 120 140 240 200 220 160 180 100 80 60 40 diastolic systolic count
  23. 23. Example : assessment of individual health status <ul><li>Leading present complaints; </li></ul><ul><li>Personal data : age, gender, ethnicity, education, family status ; </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational anamnesis ; </li></ul><ul><li>Family anamnesis ; </li></ul><ul><li>Personal anamnesis ; </li></ul><ul><li>Functional status ; </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors : family predisposition , high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, alcoholism, sedentary life, fats rich diet, occupational stress, etc. ; </li></ul><ul><li>Present diseases ; </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examination ; </li></ul><ul><li>Differential diagnosis ; </li></ul><ul><li>Other medical problems ; </li></ul><ul><li>Tests : lab , imaging , ECG, etc. ; </li></ul><ul><li>Working diagnosis ; </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment and its effect; </li></ul><ul><li>Final diagnosis ; </li></ul><ul><li>Other medical problems and treatment consequences; </li></ul><ul><li>Condition follow-up ; </li></ul><ul><li>Long term health care – plan. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Health as a measure of vitality <ul><li>Health is the main measure of vitality and objective in itself, but this objective has its dimensions and the most fundamental of them is quality of life . </li></ul><ul><li>„ Quality of life” is a state of life as a result of the combined effect of all factors, which define health, happiness е ( including physical comfort and satisfactory knowledge ), education, social and intellectual achievements, freedom of action, justice and freedom of speech .” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Health as an integral category <ul><li>” H ealth is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity . ” </li></ul><ul><li>( WHO - 7 April ,1948) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Integral model of health person health physical mental social physicochemical factors of the environment socio-economic factors - family, society, occupation
  27. 27. Definition of health <ul><li>„ Health is a complex multidimensional category with triple structure of harmonious unity between biological, psychological and social features, developing as a continuous process in time and space under the influence of factors ( determinants ) of the environment, as well as the intrinsic for the individual, reflecting the integral qualities of the individual in the community, expressed and measured through the achieved quality of life .” ( Salchev ) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Leading determinants of health <ul><li>Factors related to way of life and life style </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors ( hereditary ) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul>
  29. 29. Strength of association in % of different factors with health 100 % 0 % Genome – 10% Health service – 10 % Lifestyle – 20% Physicochemical environmental factors – 10% Socio-economic factors – 50%

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