Chemical Bonding in Sports<br />Sondra Vujovich<br />
What is Hemoglobin?<br />~a type of protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body.<br />ht...
How is hemoglobin important in the transport of oxygen in our bodies?<br />~Since oxygen is not very soluble in water an o...
Why is the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin a real-life example of chemical bonding?<br />~Small unicellular organisms ca...
How is hemoglobin related to a successful climb to the top of Mt. Everest?<br />~Mt. Everest and the body’s response is th...
What does pH have to do with the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin?<br />~Human blood has a normal pH of about 7.41. Durin...
What is Blood Doping?<br />~Blood doping is boosting of the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to impro...
What is the difference between autologous and homologous blood doping?<br />~In autologous blood transfusion or auto trans...
What is EPO and why is it used?<br />~EPO is a protein produced by the kidney. After being released into the blood stream ...
What are the medical uses of blood doping?<br />~Blood doping is used medically for injured, patients having heart surgery...
Why is blood doping used in sport?<br /> Blood doping is a method of increasing the number of red blood cells in the body ...
What are the side effects of blood doping?<br />~Skin rash, Flu symptoms, achy muscles, nausea, heart palpitations, dehydr...
Blood Doping<br />Blood doping is a process where a syringe of blood is removed from the body and stored in a refrigerator...
Blood Doping<br />In the late 1980s an advance in medicine led to an entirely new form of blood doping involving the hormo...
References.<br />www.webmd.com<br />www.ncbi.hlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8926864<br />www.rice.edu/~jenky/sports/epo.html<br />Goog...
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  1. 1. Chemical Bonding in Sports<br />Sondra Vujovich<br />
  2. 2. What is Hemoglobin?<br />~a type of protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body.<br />http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/graphics/images/en/19510.jpg<br />
  3. 3. How is hemoglobin important in the transport of oxygen in our bodies?<br />~Since oxygen is not very soluble in water an oxygen transport protein must be used to allow oxygen to be &apos;soluble&apos;. Hemoglobin is the oxygen transport protein used in the blood of vertebrates.<br />http://www.aurorahealthcare.org/healthgate/images/si55551170.jpg<br />
  4. 4. Why is the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin a real-life example of chemical bonding?<br />~Small unicellular organisms can obtain oxygen required for metabolism by flow from the environment. Most multi-cellular organisms have too big surface area and many cells are not in contact with the environment. They require circulatory systems that transport oxygen from gas-exchange organs to other tissues. In vertebrates, oxygen is bound to molecules of Hemoglobin or transport in red blood cells.<br />http://www.scienceclarified.com/images/uesc_03_img0133.jpg<br />
  5. 5. How is hemoglobin related to a successful climb to the top of Mt. Everest?<br />~Mt. Everest and the body’s response is the decrease in atmospheric oxygen. When going up air gets into your lungs and mixes with the air left from the last breath. At the top of Mt. Everestthe amount of available oxygen has dropped. If a person has spent their entire life at sea level and is then suddenly climbing the top of Mt. Everest the decrease in atmospheric oxygen will almost certainly cause a medical condition known as hypoxia. This will lead to severe disorientation and sometimes death. Each Hemoglobin molecule can bind 4 oxygen molecules. In your lungs, essential all of the Hemoglobin molecules have bound at least 3 oxygen molecules.<br />http://www.foxnomad.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/profile-of-man-climbing-mountain.jpg<br />
  6. 6. What does pH have to do with the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin?<br />~Human blood has a normal pH of about 7.41. During exercise, the muscles use up oxygen as they convert chemical energy in glucose. This O2 comes from hemoglobin in the blood. CO2 and H+ are produced during the breakdown of glucose, and are removed from the muscle to the blood. The production and removal cause chemical changes in the blood. They cause the pH of the blood to drop. If the pH of the body gets too low (below 7.4), a condition known as acidosis results. This can be very serious, because many of the chemical reactions that occur in the body, especially when proteins are involved, are pH-dependent. Usually the pH of the blood should be 7.4. If the pH drops below 6.8 or rises above 7.8 death could occur. But we have buffers in the blood to protect against large changes in pH. A buffer is an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH. <br />
  7. 7. What is Blood Doping?<br />~Blood doping is boosting of the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to improve an athletic performance.<br />http://www.nsbri.org/HumanPhysSpace/focus3/fig2.jpg<br />
  8. 8. What is the difference between autologous and homologous blood doping?<br />~In autologous blood transfusion or auto transfusion the patient is both the donor and the recipient of the donated blood<br />~homologous transfusion, from a compatible donor are harvested, concentrated and then transfused into the athlete’s circulation before endurance competitions.<br />http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/71/91871-034-DA6BA042.jpg<br />
  9. 9. What is EPO and why is it used?<br />~EPO is a protein produced by the kidney. After being released into the blood stream it binds with receptors in the bone marrow, where it stimulates the production of red blood cells. EPO is used to treat certain forms of anemia. Since EPO quickens erythrocyte production it also increases oxygen carrying capacity.<br />http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_CAmg8xXq7mw/SoTBNW_uZiI/AAAAAAAAAEM/jrZ55JHGN_I/s320/RBC_epo.jpg<br />
  10. 10. What are the medical uses of blood doping?<br />~Blood doping is used medically for injured, patients having heart surgery, organ transplants, cancer treatments,treatments for other diseases that affect the blood,sickle cell anemia. Also treats severe anemia or thrombocytopenia caused by a blood disease and hemophilia.<br />http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/00440/images/sicklecell.jpg<br />
  11. 11. Why is blood doping used in sport?<br /> Blood doping is a method of increasing the number of red blood cells in the body which in turn carry more oxygen to the muscles. It is most often used by athletes who run high endurance races. Usually 2 days before the race the stored blood would be injected into the athlete creating more red blood cells. The red blood cells then carry more oxygen to the muscles&apos; giving the athlete a bit more advantage then one who didn’t use blood doping. <br />http://www.electrical-res.com/EX/10-16-02/cross_country.jpg<br />
  12. 12. What are the side effects of blood doping?<br />~Skin rash, Flu symptoms, achy muscles, nausea, heart palpitations, dehydration, high blood pressure, clogged arteries and veins, blood clots, elevated pressure in the brain-- can lead to swelling of the brain and seizures. These are some of the many effects it can have on the human body. <br />http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/541011-48med.jpg<br />
  13. 13. Blood Doping<br />Blood doping is a process where a syringe of blood is removed from the body and stored in a refrigerator. After the body has replaced the blood in a week or 2, the syringe of blood is reintroduced into the body just before a competition or sporting event. The excess blood is soon reabsorbed into the body, so the effects are only good for a day maybe 2.<br />http://www.strokecenter.org/education/ais_pathogenesis/images/thrombus_comp.jpg<br />
  14. 14. Blood Doping<br />In the late 1980s an advance in medicine led to an entirely new form of blood doping involving the hormone erythropoietin (EPO). EPO is a naturally-occurring growth factor that stimulates the formation of red blood cells. DNA technology made it possible to produce EPO. Easily injected under the skin, EPO can increase hematocrit for six weeks or longer. The use of EPO is now believed by many to be widespread in endurance sports. <br />http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Sport/Pix/pictures/2008/10/09/BloodsamplesRe.jpg<br />
  15. 15. References.<br />www.webmd.com<br />www.ncbi.hlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8926864<br />www.rice.edu/~jenky/sports/epo.html<br />Google definitions<br />www.righthealth.com/topic/blood%20transfusions?as=goog&ac=427&p=1<br />www.kidzworld.com/article/1832-blood-doping-in-sports-athletes-cheating<br />www.healthycompition.org/teens/side_effects.shtm<br />www.wikianswers.com/Q/what_are_examples_of_blood_doping<br />www.wellsphere.com/biking-article/blood-doping-what-is-it/401023?query=blood+doping<br />
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