Ch 26 Ap Bio

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Ch 26 Ap Bio

  1. 1. Ch. 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life By Ben Karlsberg
  2. 2. Taxonomic Classification Order (More specific on top, less towards bottom)
  3. 3. Example classification of a bear
  4. 4. Binomial nomenclature <ul><li>First part is Genus </li></ul><ul><li>Second part is Species </li></ul><ul><li>Only Genus capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Ursus arctos </li></ul>
  5. 5. Phylogenetic tree- history of a group of organisms
  6. 6. Analogy and Homology <ul><li>Analogy- constructing a phylogeny due to convergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Homology- constructing a phylogeny due to shared ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Homoplasies- Analogous structures that arose independently </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cladistics- classifying based on common ancestry 3 Clades- monophyletic, paraphyletic, polyphyletic
  8. 8. Claudes <ul><li>Monophyletic- consists of ancestral species and all descendents </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphyletic- ancestral species and some of descendents </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphyletic- includes taxa (unit of hierarchy) with different ancestors </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of homologous genes <ul><li>Orthologous genes- found in different species because of speciation </li></ul><ul><li>Paralogous genes- result from gene duplication, so they are found in more than one copy in the same genome </li></ul>
  10. 11. Molecular clock <ul><li>A yardstick for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of genomes appear to evolve at constant rates </li></ul>
  11. 12. Neutral Theory <ul><li>Much of evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection </li></ul>
  12. 13. Three domains of life
  13. 14. The End

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