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  • 1. Ch. 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life By Ben Karlsberg
  • 2. Taxonomic Classification Order (More specific on top, less towards bottom)
  • 3. Example classification of a bear
  • 4. Binomial nomenclature
    • First part is Genus
    • Second part is Species
    • Only Genus capitalized
    • Ex. Ursus arctos
  • 5. Phylogenetic tree- history of a group of organisms
  • 6. Analogy and Homology
    • Analogy- constructing a phylogeny due to convergent evolution
    • Homology- constructing a phylogeny due to shared ancestry
    • Homoplasies- Analogous structures that arose independently
  • 7. Cladistics- classifying based on common ancestry 3 Clades- monophyletic, paraphyletic, polyphyletic
  • 8. Claudes
    • Monophyletic- consists of ancestral species and all descendents
    • Paraphyletic- ancestral species and some of descendents
    • Polyphyletic- includes taxa (unit of hierarchy) with different ancestors
  • 9. Types of homologous genes
    • Orthologous genes- found in different species because of speciation
    • Paralogous genes- result from gene duplication, so they are found in more than one copy in the same genome
  • 10.  
  • 11. Molecular clock
    • A yardstick for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of genomes appear to evolve at constant rates
  • 12. Neutral Theory
    • Much of evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection
  • 13. Three domains of life
  • 14. The End