The Atmosphere

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The Atmosphere

  1. 1. The Atmosphere
  2. 2. The atmosphere is the blanket of air that surrounds the Earth.
  3. 3. The Earth System
  4. 4. Composition of the Air Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Other gases 1% *greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, etc.
  5. 6. Layers of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Troposphere </li></ul><ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Thermosphere (ionosphere) </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Troposphere <ul><li>the bottom layer of the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>stretches to about 11 km </li></ul><ul><li>temperature decreases with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>where weather conditions happen </li></ul><ul><li>with vertical air currents (turbulent) </li></ul><ul><li>contains 75% of the air </li></ul><ul><li>mostly N 2 and O 2 </li></ul>
  7. 8. Temperature Graph
  8. 9. The Stratosphere <ul><li>the second layer of the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>up to about 50 km </li></ul><ul><li>with horizontal air currents </li></ul><ul><li>temperature increases with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>contains the ozone ( O 3 ) layer in the upper region </li></ul><ul><li>where most jet planes travel through </li></ul><ul><li>contains about 24% of the air </li></ul>
  9. 10. Temperature Graph
  10. 11. The Mesosphere <ul><li>the third layer of the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>up to about 80 km </li></ul><ul><li>temperature decreases with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>the coldest layer </li></ul><ul><li>where most meteors burn up </li></ul>
  11. 12. Temperature Graph
  12. 13. The Thermosphere (Ionosphere) <ul><li>the fourth layer of the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>to about 1000 km </li></ul><ul><li>the hottest layer (due to ions, H + and He - , that directly absorb the sun’s radiation) </li></ul><ul><li>temperature increases with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>where radio waves are reflected </li></ul>
  13. 14. Temperature Graph
  14. 15. Importance of the Atmosphere <ul><li>provides the necessary gases for living things to survive </li></ul><ul><li>regulates the heat from the sun to just the right temperature for life on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>plays an important role in the water cycle </li></ul><ul><li>the ozone layer protects the Earth from the sun’s harmful UV rays </li></ul><ul><li>protects the Earth from small meteors </li></ul>
  15. 16. Points to Ponder <ul><li>What is air pollution? Where does it come from? </li></ul><ul><li>How does air pollution affect us? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do about air pollution? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Clean Air Act all about? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Let’s summarize…
  17. 18. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>1. Composed of hydrogen and helium. </li></ul>Thermosphere
  18. 19. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>2. Most affected by air pollution. </li></ul>Troposphere
  19. 20. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>3. Protects the organisms from the </li></ul><ul><li>harmful rays of the sun. </li></ul>Stratosphere
  20. 21. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>4. Contains the most dense air. </li></ul>Troposphere
  21. 22. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>5. Contains the least dense/thinnest air. </li></ul>Thermosphere
  22. 23. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>6. Coldest layer of the atmosphere. </li></ul>Mesosphere
  23. 24. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>7. Contains ozone (O3). </li></ul>Stratosphere
  24. 25. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>8. Where meteors burn up. </li></ul>Mesosphere
  25. 26. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>9. Where air planes and jet planes fly. </li></ul>Stratosphere
  26. 27. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described: <ul><li>10. Where weather changes happen. </li></ul>troposphere
  27. 28. True or false: <ul><li>1. Nitrogen (N 2 ) gas is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. </li></ul>True
  28. 29. True or false: <ul><li>2. Methane (CH 4 ) is not a greenhouse gas. </li></ul>False
  29. 30. True or false: <ul><li>3. Thermosphere and Mesosphere are the hottest layers of the atmosphere </li></ul>False
  30. 31. True or false: <ul><li>4. Air pressure is highest in the troposphere layer. </li></ul>True
  31. 32. The End

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