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Jamie, Katherine, and Sharelle's Global 1 Powerpoint
 

Jamie, Katherine, and Sharelle's Global 1 Powerpoint

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Jamie, Katherine, and Sharelle's Global 1 Powerpoint Jamie, Katherine, and Sharelle's Global 1 Powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Nubia History of a Nile river kingdom
  • Thesis
    • The Nubian’s were very advanced with innovative ideas, an interesting culture, and many difficult environmental factors that made them the great land they were.
  • Culture, Everyday Life, and Cultural Interactions
    • Specific Thesis
      • The Nubian’s cultural advancements played a huge role in their everyday lives, and their thriving empire.
  • Nubian Life
    • Culture
      • Neolithic
        • 5th millennium- Nubian’s were part of an Agricultural Revolution.
        • Domesticated plants and animals
        • Many sculptures depicting cattle cult
      • Kerma
        • Evolved from Neolithic around 2400 BC
        • By 1650 BC it was a densely occupied urban center
      • 1500 BC
        • Egypt conquers all of Nubia and is set into a period of war and violence
        • Egypt continued to fall apart due to weak pharaohs and invasions
        • Egypt fell apart
      • Era of Kush (Kushnites)
        • Nubia was source of products and slaves for Egypt
        • After long Egyptian rule, Kush emerged as a regional power
  • Interaction between Nubia and Egypt
    • Egypt ruled Kush for a long period
    • Egyptians strongly influence Nubian life
    • Kush’s capital, Napata, became a center for cultural diffusion
    • Nubians built pyramids similar to Egyptians but steeper
    • Regained independence after Egypt's decline in 1100 BC
    • Tried to restore Egypt
    • The Assyrians, war driven, conquered Egypt from Nubian control
    • Forced to move south, up the Nile by the Assyrians and despite the loss of Egypt the Kush experienced a golden age.
  • Everyday Nubian Life Facts
    • Mines were an important source of gold not only for Nubia but for Egypt as well
    • Nubian kings DID conquer Egypt for a short but important time
    • The term “Nubia” is now only applied to the Nubian desert in upper Sudan and lower Egypt
    • Nubians only adopted Egyptian ideas and religions after seizing northern power
    • Kings of Kerma (a Nubian kingdom formed shortly after 2000 BC) were buried in a chamber larger than ANY Egyptian pyramid
  • Afterlife, Wars, Government and Achievements
    • Specific Thesis
      • The Nubian’s had an interesting take on the afterlife, but in their actual lives they had a strong government which achieved many things and fought many battles.
  • The Afterlife
    • Because of the Egyptian influence on Nubia for such a long time, their ideas of the afterlife were fairly similar
      • Giant mounds of land covering intricate underground tombs were used for Nubian burial whereas Egyptians had massive expansive pyramids.
    • Magical figurines known as shawabties went into tombs of important peoples to serve as workers in the grain fields in heaven
      • The most fam ous shawabty is the one located in King Taharqo’s tomb, now on permanent display in Ontario Canada
  • Achievements
    • Tombs
      • 223 pyramids
      • Underground graves are known for their intricacy and depth
    • Shaduf
      • The water lift. Invented approximately around 1600 BC
      • Its usage was to move water to help deal with flooding and drought.
    • Ox-Driven waterwheel
      • It wasn’t greatly appreciated in its time, but in Roman years it was used to irrigate inland crops during the long dry season
  • Nubian Government
    • Women rule!
      • Had women rulers as well as male
      • Highest # of queens during the Meroitic kingdom’s golden age
      • Women were usually preferred rulers to men
      • Queen Shandakhete
        • One of the most significant female rulers of Nubia in its history
    • In modern day society a king is higher than the queen but in few places were the queens more important; Nubia was one of these places.
    • Had a “Kandate ” form of government
    • It is suggested that due to this great leadership Nubia was not only as rich as it was but it was highly technologically and artistically advanced
  • Wars
    • Meroe, Kerma and Napata all embraced Egypt's culture once invaded by them
    • Egyptians stole Nubia’s
      • Gold
      • Copper
      • Diorite stones
    • Nubia raided Egypt as “revenge” on a regular basis
      • Kandace Amanirenas (Egyptian Queen)- Went along on raid, when confronted led army through with success
      • Returned to Nubia with a defaced Augustus Ceaser Statue head which was buried in the door way as a sign of disrespect.
  • Climate, Language, and Geography... Oh my!
    • Specific Thesis
      • Though the leadership was changing, and times were sometimes rough in this hot dry land; It didn’t keep Nubians from talking…Literally!
  • Climate
    • The year round temperature varied quite widely, but it was fairly hot and dry
    • Warm months, May-September- 100 Degrees Fahrenheit
    • Rest of year reaches below freezing at night
    • Northern Nubia (now Egypt) rarely saw any rain
    • Southern Nubia (now Sudan) has a large rain season July- August
    • Saw a great deal of wind all over Nubia, ALL the time. The high winds made it easy to travel both ways on the Nile
    • Arid desert land
  • Languages
    • Spoken
      • Fiadidja-Mahas- Spoken currently in modern day Sudan. There are 2 different varieties of this specific Nubian language; Fadidja and Mahas.
      • Kenuzi-Dongola- Spoken by people of Sudan AND Egypt.
    • Written
      • Old Nubia had ways (similar to hieroglyphics) to keep archives, but not all were accurate. During the Christian Nubian era the Nubian alphabet resembled the Greek and Coptic ones. The main way to speak Nubian is in way of tones, similar to intonations and chanting.
  • Geography
    • Nubia was directly below Egypt and above modern day Sudan
    • Depended its existence on The Nile
    • Northern Nubia (Egypt) was only desert on either side of Nile
    • Agriculture
      • All the land nearest the river was widely farmed and all the food was grown there
      • Growth was only possible in early fall after the flood water from the Nile had receded
      • Nothing grows in North Nubia
  • Nubian Fun Facts
    • Nubian women were highly thought of and respected. They were depicted as being leaders, scholars and goddesses. Unlike most societies of the time, Nubia treated women as equals.
    • An Interesting fact which makes the study of Nubia much more interesting for the theatre oriented is the Broadway show Aida. It is about a “forbidden love” between the next in line to be the Egyptian pharaoh and the Nubian Princess.
  • Bibliography
    • Stuart Tyson Smith, Dr. Nubia.
    • Web site: http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmith/research/nubia_history.html
    • Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S.Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahlia Ibo Shabaka. World History(Patterns of Interaction). United States of America: McDougal Littel Inc., 1999.
    • http://ancientearest.tripod.com/Images/SudanNubia.jpg
    • http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/02/black-pharaohs/robert-draper-text.html
    • http://library.thinkquest.org/22845/introduction/climate.pdf
    • http://www.alovelyworld.com/webegypt/gimage/egy80.jpg
    • http://www.looklex.com/e.o/nubian_l.htm
    • http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_people2.html
    • http://www.freewebs.com/black-legacy/Nubian-workers.jpg
    • http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE3DD133CF932A25751C0A964958260
    • http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_people2.html
    • http://wysinger.homestead.com/kush.html
    • http://www.angelfire.com/oh/AncientKnowledge/NUBIA.html
    • http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_some_achievements_of_Ancient_Egyptian_and_Ancient_Nubian_civilization