What I learned from this article is summed up in this quote :
“ Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy involving children's participation in small group learning activities that promote positive interaction. This digest discusses the reasons for using cooperative learning in centers and classrooms, ways to implement the strategy, and the long-term benefits for children's education.”
Lyman, Lawrence – Foyle, Harvey C. (1988). Cooperative Learning Strategies and Children. Eric Digest Database.
Duffy and Cunningham (1996) have said that people who are supporters of the “collaborative learning” have only focused more on “instructional design issues.” They want teachers to promote collaborative thinking to enhance a students ability to speak amongst their peers easier. They encourage students to be able to think with others and by themselves to “improve their own learning ability.”
There are five phases for designing instruction for collaborative learning:
This article seemed to have gone into more detail. While collaborative learning is simply another name for cooperative learning, it’s often interesting how different authors view similar topics. A great quote from this article I found is:
“ Dewey (1938) said that one of the philosophies of education is not to learn merely to acquire information but rather to bring that learning to bear upon our everyday actions and behaviors.”
Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa. (1998). Enhancing Student Thinking through Collaborative Learning. Eric Digest.
Cooperative problem solving is essential in to children. This is going to be effective if children have a similar goal, but have a different perspective on that goal. An example given in the article was, it’s like two children attempt to ride on a swing at the exact same time. Piaget (1932,1959) states that when two children discuss things that they have in common, they may become less “egocentric” because they end up facing the fact that not everyone has the same opinion about something. Psychologists have done studies on Piaget’s theory that have “examined performance on conservation tasks, working in pairs, and individually.” A study was shown that children who work with children that are a bit more “advanced” were able to complete a task at a higher level than a student who worked alone.
There are a few guidelines that teachers should follow in order for this to work. Teachers should “encourage students to interact with other children.” This helps children be able to view other students points of view. A teacher should help the students “clarify or adapt their shared goals.” Meaning, a teacher should have the student “do” their activity, only to open a door for the teacher to help them think before they solve. A teacher should also encourage the students that are more likely to “shy” away from giving an opinion. This helps the child learn to “speak freely” in front of their peers.
This article really gave me the impression that “pushing” a student, even if it’s outside of their element, really helps a child “feel important.” A great quote from this article is:
“ As Damon (1984) points out, when children explore new possibilities jointly, their thinking is not constrained by an expert who "knows better," but rather is limited only by the boundaries of their mutual imaginations.”
Tudge, Jonathan – Caruso, David. (1989). Cooperative Problem Solving in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.
The three articles I read were very interesting. While all three were similar, it was neat to view a couple authors different opinions while reading the articles. Cooperative learning is very essential in education today. Whether it’s for older students or younger students, this type of learning allows students to work together and view other students opinions.