Degenerate Art PresentationPresentation Transcript
Group 1Intro to Art 1201
Background(Origins of Degenerate art) 1933: Adolf Hitler is announced Chancellor of Germany and Nazi Germany begins. 1933: The Deutscher Kunsberich: 5 point manifesto by Hitler and the Nazis describing what changes in the arts Germany can expect from the new government. 1934: Hitler names himself dictator, and the reign of the Third Reich begins. 1937: Hitler is comfortable with his position as dictator and begins to implement his views from his book Mein Kampf which included not only a military, but a cultural takeover by him and his Nazi party of Germany. 1937: When Hitler is reforming the nation of Germany through his eyes, the cultural and degenerate art movement was inevitable.
What is degenerate Art? Sometimes called “Jewish” or “Bolshevik”, degenerate art was anything that was not in line with Hitler’s way of thinking. Most of Hitler’s aggression against the degenerate artist was a direct result of him failing to gain novice as an artist in Vienna, Austria. Adolf Hitler firmly believed that the sole purpose of art in Nazi Germany was to exalt the Aryan or “Highest race” way of life. The vast majority of the artist whose works were considered degenerate were expressionist painters.
Entartete Kunst Campaign(Aktion entartete kunst) 1937: Nazi officials and members form the Nationalist Socialist Society for German Culture travel to and purge German museums of art considered to be degenerate. Over 20 thousands work of art from nearly 200 different artist were confiscated during the campaign. Types of works that were confiscated: Classical modernity, works by artists of Jewish descent, and works of social criticism. Along with the confiscating of artworks form numerous museums, the destruction of murals and architectural monuments took place as well. The end of the Entartete Kunst Campaign was signaled by the unfortunate burning of 4,829 pieces of artwork in the courtyard of the Berlin Fire Brigade.
Entartete Kunst Exhibition This exhibit was the culmination of the EntarteteKunst Campaign and the degenerate art movement as a whole. Opened in Munich Germany Summer 1937, and closed in 1940. From thousands of works, 650 were chosen to be viewed in the exhibit. Starting in Munich the exhibit traveled to eleven different cities in Germany and Austria. At each installation of the exhibit the artwork was surrounded by negative images such as graffiti. Also handwritten labels were placed by the pieces to mock the various artist and their work. At the end of its duration over three million viewed the artwork making the Entartete Kunst the first “blockbuster” exhibition. Many artist whose artwork appeared in the exhibit are now considered some of the most elite artist of the 20th century. (Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Pablo Picasso)
The Degenerate Artists Surprisingly only six of the degenerate artist were considered “Jewish” The Jewish degenerate artist like all other Jews faced the possibilities of labor camps and death in concentration camps. German degenerate artists on the other hand faced ridicule and in many cases were asked by the Nazi government to resume painting under their guidelines. During the reign of the Third Reich in Germany and the degenerate art movement the artist were under enormous pressure. During the Nazi regime ,Harvard University became a safe haven for many artist and scholars from Germany. Not only the artist but many pieces of art from artists like Picasso, Van Gogh, Klee, and Nolde found a home at Harvard. Because of their artwork and the profound effects it had many artist , such as Picasso, faced large amounts of criticism and feared for their lives.
Works Cited http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/weekly/aa072599.htm http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/arts/artdegen.htm http://astro.temple.edu/~bigred76/150/hdk.html