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# Nur 283 hy math review

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### Transcript

• 1. Math Review NUR 283HY
• 2. Abbreviations <ul><li>Review acceptable and non-acceptable abbreviations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacology book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentals book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kee &amp; Marshall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inside front cover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 3, pg. 68-70 </li></ul></ul></ul>
• 3. Rounding <ul><li>NOTE: Don’t round until you have completely finished the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Rounding within the problem will </li></ul><ul><li>result in a close answer, </li></ul><ul><li>but not an exact one </li></ul>
• 4. Rounding <ul><li>To round to the nearest tenth, </li></ul><ul><li>carry out the division process to </li></ul><ul><li>hundredths place (2 positions to the right of the decimal) </li></ul><ul><li>3/8 = 0.37 </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 = 0.33 </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 = 0.75 </li></ul>
• 5. Rounding <ul><li>Next, look at the number in the hundredths place </li></ul><ul><li>If the number is less than 5, then round down </li></ul><ul><li>0.33 rounds to 0.3 </li></ul><ul><li>If the number is 5 or higher, then round up, </li></ul><ul><li>0.75 rounds to 0.8 </li></ul><ul><li>0.37 rounds to 0.4 </li></ul>
• 6. Volume and Concentration <ul><li>Meds are given to clients in some type of volume </li></ul><ul><li>(ml, tablets, capsules, mEq, units, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration indicates the amount of medication in a given amount of solution (mg/ml, units/ml, mg/tablet, etc.) </li></ul>
• 7. Conversions <ul><li>Remember a conversion = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used in an equation with either number as the numerator or denominator </li></ul><ul><li>The unit of measure is BEFORE THE NUMBE R in the apothecary system </li></ul><ul><li>The unit of measure is AFTER THE NUMBER in the metric and household systems </li></ul>
• 8. Common Metric Conversions <ul><li>Metric: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 kg = 2.2 pounds (#) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 kg = 1000 g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 mg = 1000 mcg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 g = 100 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.54 cm = 1 inch </li></ul></ul>
• 9. Other Common Conversions <ul><li>Apothecary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 grain = 60 mg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember ss = ½ grain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Household: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 teaspoon = 5 ml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 ml = 1 ounce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon </li></ul></ul>
• 10. Basic Formula <ul><li>D x V = amount to be given </li></ul><ul><li>H 1 </li></ul><ul><li>D = desired dose (what client is supposed to receive) </li></ul><ul><li>H = dosage you have on hand </li></ul><ul><li>V = volume or vehicle that the dosage on hand is in </li></ul><ul><li>‘ D’ and ‘H’ must be in the same unit of measurement </li></ul>
• 11. Setting up Problems <ul><li>Use the label factoring method (dimensional analysis – DA). This method uses labels with the numbers to arrive at the correct answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kee pg. 92- 104) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine unit of measurement for answer </li></ul><ul><li>Set up problem until labels cancel out and you are left with correct label for the answer </li></ul>
• 12. Dosages based on Weight <ul><li>Drugs may be ordered based on the weight of the client </li></ul><ul><li>(amount of mg of the drug per kg of weight) </li></ul><ul><li>When converting weight in pounds to weight in kilograms, the number is approximately less than ½ of the weight in pounds </li></ul><ul><li>110 # = 50 kg; 220# = 100 kg; 140# = 63.6 kg </li></ul>
• 13. Divided Doses <ul><li>You may have a problem that asks you to calculate the entire amount of drug that is to be given in a 24 hour period </li></ul><ul><li>A problem may give you the amount of drug the client is to receive in 24 hours and ask you to calculate an individual dose </li></ul>
• 14. Reconstitution of a Drug <ul><li>A problem might give you a great deal of information about reconstituting a drug – how much diluent, vial size, etc. (Kee pg. 186) </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom line is to recognize the final concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order for 1.5 g of penicillin IM q6h. The pharmacy sends a vial labeled penicillin 5 g/vial in dry form. Reconstitute with 5.6 ml of sterile water to yield 1000 mg/ml. How much should be given? </li></ul></ul>
• 15. Hints for Taking Quizzes <ul><li>Read the directions completely </li></ul><ul><li>Decide the unit of measure needed for the correct answer </li></ul><ul><li>Read the problem again after you decide on the answer. Is the answer logical? </li></ul><ul><li>Check calculations more than once on calculator </li></ul><ul><li>Read the directions again </li></ul>