Intramural Basketball Program
Revised Arnos – October 2007
The Officials’ M.A.P.
• Fouls, Violations
• Game Management
* Review Evaluation Form
Calling the Foul
1. Blow the Whistle
► Sharp and Crisp
► Loud whistles
2. Extend your right arm
straight up with a
► Move slowly and
Reporting a Foul
•Color : Give the color of the fouling player (“RED”)
•Number : give the # of the fouling player (“14”)
•Foul : give the correct foul ( “BLOCKING”)
•NEXT : report what will happen next (“2 Shots”)
* If a made basket preceded the foul call say: “Count
the basket” and then continue C.N.F.N.
Foul Reporting Area
• GUARDING: it is the act of legally placing a body in
the path of an offensive opponent. Every player is
entitled to a spot on the floor provided such player gets
there first without illegally contacting an opponent. A
player who extends an arm, shoulder, hip, or leg into the
path of an opponent is NOT considered to have a legal
position if contact occurs.
• Obtaining a legal guarding position:
– The guard must have both feet touching the floor
– The front of the guard’s torso must be facing the opponent.
Screen: a legal action by a player who, without causing contact,
delays or prevents an opponent from reaching a desired position.
Establishing a legal screening position:
The screener may face any direction
The screener must be stationary
Once the screener takes proper position it is the defensive players
responsibility to avoid contact.
If the defense does not see the screen there will be contact. This is
If defense tries to force their way through the screen it is a foul on the
To obtain or maintain a legal rebounding position a
player may not:
• Displace, push or charge an opponent.
• Bend their body in an abnormal way to
hold or displace an opponent.
• Violate the Principle of Verticality.
* There really is no such thing as “over-the-back”: there must be contact – it
must be either a pushing or holding foul.
Principle of Verticality
• Players must remain in their “vertical plane”
• Arms must be STRAIGHT UP
• Player can jump vertically, but not out of vertical
• Player must avoid contact with their lower
body outside of their vertical plane
• The offensive player may not “intrude” a
defensive player’s vertical plane.
• Players are not allowed to stick out an arm,
leg, hip, or shoulder into the path of an
The Standard Foul
• Hack : illegal contact
with the ball handler.
“White, #42, Hack.
Black ball on the side.”
• PUSH: illegal contact by
extending of arms which
influences the movement of
• HOLDING: illegal contact
that impedes the lateral
or vertical movement of
an opposing player.
• DOUBLE FOUL:
personal fouls by a
member of each
• This is a great call to
clean up overly
aggressive post play
• Results in alternating
• BLOCK: Illegal personal
contact which impedes
the progress of an
• ISSUES w/ CALLING BLOCKS
– “Referee the Defense”
– Principle of Verticality
Player Control Foul
• PLAYER CONTROL: offensive player
makes illegal contact with a defensive
player in a previously established legal
• A player moving with the
ball is required to stop or
change direction to avoid
contact with a defender in
a legal position.
PLAYER CONTROL FOULS = Loss
of possession / no free throws
“The Blarge!” Block/Charge
• “Referee the Defense”
– This call is easy to make if
you focus correctly.
– Was the Defense there first?
The Defense must get to the spot
– Did the Defense have both in time to draw the foul…
feet on the floor? IF IT IS UNCLEAR, IT’S A BLOCK
– Was the Defense facing the
player with the ball?
Player Control Fouls also apply
to an Airborne Shooter.
Yes to all 3? It’s a Charge!
• HAND CHECKING: illegal
personal contact by a
defensive player, which
impedes the forward or lateral
movement of the ball holder.
• Call the foul if the defender…
– Impedes or restricts the
– Dislodges or jabs an opponent
– Continually leaves a hand on an
Excessive Swinging of Elbows
• ELBOWING: a player swings
his elbows in an excessive
and dangerous manner.
If there is…
– no contact = warning
– contact = personal foul or
technical foul, if severe
• Foul committed with no
attempt to play the ball
– If severe enough it becomes
a flagrant foul (ejection).
• Result: 2 free throws
(clear the lane) and
• This is an ejection
and technical foul that
is violent or savage in
• Includes but is not
Penalty Player is ejected
and 2 foul shots with the
– Kneeing lanes cleared for the opposing
– Punching team.
• Excessive language
• Excessive foul
• Disrespect toward official or
• Kicking, punching, or
throwing the basketball
• Taunting or harassment
• Any unsportsmanlike
• Delay of game
• Slapping the backboard to
redirect a shot
Result – 2 free throws and
Two technical fouls = ejection
and disciplinary action.
Calling a Violation
• Blow Whistle
– Give a sharp blast
– Weak whistles =
• Raise arm
– Open hand
– Straight in the air
• Give proper mechanic
for the violation which
Out of Bounds
• Ball is out of bounds when it touches a player
who is out of bounds, the floor beyond the
boundary, the ceiling or backboard supports.
• If a ball hits on the top of the backboard it is
not out unless it contacts a support piece or
fully goes over the backboard.
• When the ball goes out of bounds the official
should give a strong whistle, raise the arm with
open palm and signal direction for possession.
• Develop a consistent count
– arm slightly above your torso
– make your count crisp and
• Counting situations:
– Closely guarded (5)
– In-bounding (5)
– Back Court (10)
10 Second Back Court Violation
A team must advance the ball
beyond the center court line
in 10 seconds.
The official will administer
a visible 10 count.
5 Second Violation
• Five second violations
• Blow your whistle,
signal the violation
with open palm and
give the 5-second
• Closely guarded is
when a defensive
player is “actively”
guarding a player
within six feet.
• Closely guarded only
applies to when the
ball is across half
The 5 count resets every time there is a change in the ball
handler’s “status”: a player can hold the ball for 4 ½ seconds,
then dribble for 4 ½ seconds, then hold the ball for 4 ½
seconds before they have to get rid of the ball.
Not Closely Guarded
The 5 count resets
every time there is a
change in the ball
handler’s “status”: a
player can hold the
ball for 4 ½ seconds,
then dribble for 4 ½
seconds, then hold
the ball for 4 ½
seconds before they
have to get rid of the
• Use preventive officiating
Lane Violation before calling:
(3 seconds) – “Get out of the key Red!”
– If a player is on their way
out don’t call it
An offensive player may – If player doesn’t move after
warning call the violation
not have any part of
their body in the lane,
while the ball is in the
front court, for more
than three seconds.
Count resets every time
the ball is shot.
“Palming the Ball” or Carry
• Player rolls his wrist
over the ball in an
attempt to gain an
– Most players carry with
their normal dribble.
– Make sure you
distinguish between a
person’s normal dribble
and an attempt to gain
• Player is not allowed to travel
or walk with the ball.
– Pivot Foot: Player commits to a
pivot foot by landing on that foot
• If player makes a good jump
stop, they can establish either
foot as their pivot foot.
• Player may pick up their pivot
foot, but must get rid of the ball
before returning it to ground.
• Player cannot jump with the ball
and return to the ground with
the ball without releasing it.
Double Dribble / Illegal Dribble
Players cannot start a dribble after their first
dribble has ended or put two hands on the ball
– Not a Double Dribble:
• Ball has been
• Loose Balls
• After a shot attempt, even
if the shot does not hit the
rim or backboard.
• It is a violation to
the ball with any part
of the leg or foot.
• Results in loss of
possession for the
“No Basket! No Basket!”
• A basket, scored after
a violation, must be
• This call must be
– Be LOUD
– Use emphatic signals
– Show no indecision
– Don’t hesitate
Jump Ball or Held Ball
Held Ball – when the
defense prevents an
airborne shooter from
• Jump Ball – when releasing the ball
opponents each have
their hands on the ball
and neither can establish
RESULT Alternating Possession
The Possession Arrow
• The Possession Occurs for…
– Jump Balls or Held Balls
– Out of bounds off both teams
– Official cannot determine correct possession
– Simultaneous free-throw violations
– Ball stuck between backboard and hoop
– Double Foul (Personal or Technical)
• FOUR REQUIRED
1. A shot or tap
2. Downward flight
3. Ball above the level
of the basket
4. The shot has a
chance to go in
AWARD THE POINTS AFTER A
GOALTENDING CALL AGAINST
• Occurs when a player…
– touches the ball, basket, or
net when the ball is ON or
within the basket
– touches the ball while it is
on the cylinder
– touches the ball outside the
cylinder while reaching
through the basket from
If committed by the Defense award
If committed by the Offense disallow
the points and grant possession to the
An offensive player with
the ball may not cross
back over half-court
once they have
advanced the ball
A player is not considered
• Its never a violation on a
to be in the frontcourt
until they have established
• If a player jumps from the
2 out of 3 “points” in the
back court to the front court
without establishing position
it is considered over-and-
THE POINTS: Right Foot,
Left Foot, and Ball
Basic Positioning: Lead & Trail
• Positioned on the base line at a good depth and distance,
not under the basket.
• Responsible for the endline boundary.
• Watches primarily post play and rebounds.
• An official should always be in position to see between
defenders. Never get blocked by the players.
• Position on the opposite side as the lead.
• Watches front court action:
– Closely guarded
– 3 Pointers
– Ball handling action
• Responsible for sideline and halfcourt line.
• An official should always be in position to see between
defenders. Never get blocked by the players.
Three Man Coverage Areas
Placement of Throw-ins
• Administer the throw-in
closest to the spot of
the foul or violation.
• Never allow a throw-in
from under the back
• Fouls in the key are
administered as shown
in the blue highlighted
• Ball is to be thrown in from the nearest spot
to the infraction/foul.
• Never allow a player to throw the ball in
from underneath the basket.
• Player gets one step in every direction.
– Exception: After a made basket the team may
run the baseline to throw the ball in
Throw In Violations
• Player has five seconds to release the ball
once they have been given it by the official.
• Official should show a visible count.
• Defensive team cannot reach over the
sideline/baseline to defend the ball.
– If any contact is made, delay of game is called
– 2 delay of games result in a technical foul
Free Throw Administration
– Maximum 6 players
– Must occupy bottom
– Maximum 4 players
– Shooter that was
Players can be in the top 2
spaces nearest the shooter
Free Throw Violations
• Try must be attempted between the foul line and within the
free throw semi-circle.
• A player taking a free throw cannot fake a shot or do anything
to cause an opponent to violate the lane.
• No opponent can “disconcert” or distract the shooter.
• No player can enter or leave a space once the shooter has the
• Players cannot enter the key until the ball has left the hand of
the shooter. Players outside the three point line cannot enter
the key until the ball hits the rim.
• The player taking the free throw must shoot the ball within 10
seconds, otherwise it is a violation.
Free Throw Violations
If Shooting team violates…
– Ball is immediately dead and any basket is disallowed.
• If shots remain, continue to the next shot
• If it is the final attempt, the opposing team gets the ball out of
bounds on the side.
If Defensive team violates…
– Delayed dead ball is signaled.
• If the basket is made the violation is ignored.
• If the basket is missed the violation is called and re-tried.
• Substitutes can only enter the
game on a dead ball, after
being waved in by an official.
• Substitutes during free throws
– Bring players in only before the
last certain free throw.
– Subbing for the shooter
• If the last free throw is made, stop
play and allow substitution to
• If last free throw is missed, play
continues and substitute has to wait
until the next dead ball.
Jump Ball Administration
• Players jumping will position themselves facing their basket and
will have both feet within their half of the center circle.
• All other players will take a position outside of the center circle
and must be set at the time of the jump.
• Teammates may not have adjacent positions if the opposing
team indicates the desire to fill that spot.
• The tossed ball cannot be touched until it reaches its highest
point, but must be touched before returning to the ground.
• The jumper may not:
– Catch the jump ball
– Touch the ball more than twice
– Leave the center circle before the ball is secured
– Control the ball before a non-jumper has had the opportunity
Jump Ball Violations
Ball is re-jumped if…
• Referee makes a bad toss.
• Teams commit simultaneous violations.
• If one team commits any violation the ball
is given out of bounds to the opposing
• If ball is knocked out of bounds on the
jump, opposing team gains possession.
There are two 20 minute halves
• Clock runs continuously until…
– Stops last in the 1:00 minute.
– The clock stops on dead balls in these situations
• Fouls, Violations, Free Throws, Out-of-bounds, etc etc
• Clock will otherwise only stop for time-outs,
injuries, and at the official’s discretion.
• 30 point mercy rule under 5 minutes left in the
• Half-time is 2 minutes.
• No jewelry – officials should check
everyone before the game.
• Elastic headbands and armbands are
• Three timeouts per game (1-20 second,
2-full). One in each OT session.
• Teams must start with 4 players.
• Co-Rec teams must have more or an
equal amount of females on the court at
• Teams will have one 30 sec possession.
• Teams each have 1 timeout per OT.
• Any defensive fouls = 1 foul shot + possession.
• Technical fouls = 2 foul shots + possession.
• Personal fouls continue to accumulate.
• Odd / even choice for offense / defense.
• Any turnover, offensive foul, defensive rebound, or jump
ball results in end of possession.
• Playoffs – 2 minute, running clock to last minute
• Championship – 5 minute, running clock to last minute
Game MGT: Captain’s Meeting
• Set The Tone For The Entire Game
– This is your first chance to let the teams know
what kind of game they are going to have.
– Take control but don’t be pushy.
– If their team has any questions or concerns
make sure it goes through the captain.
– Create your own agenda for the captains
meeting. Keep consistent throughout the year.
Basketball Officiating Principles
“Referee the Defense”
“Don’t Ball Watch”
“Advantage / Disadvantage”
“Use Preventive Officiating”
“Clean up the Game”
“Cleaning up a Game”
Fouls to look for:
1. Hand Checks – in the back court and cutters
2. The Post – look for double fouls, displacement
3. Screens – moving screens, aggressive
4. Blocks/charges – call the obvious collisions
5. Rebounding – over-the-back, pushing/shoving
6. Technical Fouls – slows the game (2 shots)
► Listen for taunting / baiting.
► Pay attention to player’s reaction after the call.