Intelligent Parallel Parking Control of Autonomous Ground Vehicles in Tight Spaces
Yanan Zhao, Emmanuel G. Collins. Jr.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Florida A&M University- Florida State University
Prepared through collaborative participation in the Robotics Consortium sponsored by the U. S. Army Research Laboratory under the Collaborative Technology Alliance Program, Cooperative Agreement DAAD19-01-2-0012. The U. S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.
The objective of the research is to study reverse-motion maneuvering which can be used to hide autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs) during missions, for example between trees or in crevices or small buildings, preventing them from being detected or attacked.
Reverse motion is necessary under the
when the forward path is blocked,
or when forward navigation has difficulty to maneuver a vehicle into a tight space.
The reverse-motion maneuvering algorithm studied here was designed to emulate the parallel parking process of an experienced human driver.
Parallel parking is also important for industrial and commercial vehicles.
Current approaches to automatic parallel parking can be classified into two groups.
Path tracking approach,
a feasible geometry path is planned in advance, taking into account the environmental model as well as the vehicle's dynamics and constraints. Control commands are generated to follow the reference path.
fuzzy logic or neural networks are used to acquire and transfer an experienced human driver's parking skill to an automatic parking controller. The control command is generated by considering the orientation and position of the vehicle relative to the parking space.
A solution to automatic parallel parking of autonomous ground vehicles by the use of fuzzy logic was developed.
GAs provide a systematic approach to determine the effective MFs and scaling factors for the fuzzy logic controller.
Both simulation and experimental implementation results illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel parking scheme to maneuver the vehicle into tight spaces.
The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Army Research Laboratory or the U. S. Government.