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• 1. Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
• 2.
• What are we going to see in this unit?
• 2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them
• 2.2 Drafts and sketches
• 2.3 Drafting scale
• 2.4 Diedric system
• 2.5 Marking and standardizing
Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
• 3. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Paper
• Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees
• The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m 2 (A0) four times by half the longest side.
• 4. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Pencil
• A pencil has a lead covered with wood. The lead is made with graphite and clay
• 5. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Pencil hardness
• The more clay it contains the harder the lead will be. We use letter H for hard pencils and letter B for soft ones.
• Hard: H Soft: B
less clay More clay Technique draw Artistic draw 5H 4H 5B 6B 3B B H 3H 4B 2B HB 2H 6H Very soft Soft Medium Hard Very hard
• 6. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Mechanical pencils
• They hold a graphite lead. They can be used for technical drawing (if used )with a soft lead.
• ERASERS
• Erasers are made of rubber, they absorb
• graphite and erase it.
• 7. 2.1 DRAWING TOOLS
• THE RULER
• It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance.
• TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE
• A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles.
• There are 2 types of trianglular set squares
A 45 degree A 60 degree
• 8. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• How to draw vertical and parallel lines with the set square
• Vertical: Parallel:
Activity : Draw the set squares in your notebook as you can see them in both positions
• 9. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Activity :Draw a chessboard using the set square . The separation between squares is 2 cm!
square 16 cm 16 cm
• 10. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Drawing angles: we can get 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, 90º, 120º, 135º…angles combining the 30º, 45º , 60º and the 90º angles from the set squares
You don't have to copy them because you can find them in your text book on page 25
• 11. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
• 12. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
• 13. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
• The Compass
• It is used for drawing circles and angles
Advice: sharpen the lead tip by rubbing it on a fingernail file
• 14. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
• DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it.
Page 41
• 15. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
• ATTENTION!
• A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!!
• 16. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
• The sketch : It is a free hand drawing too , but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing.
measure Page 41
• 17. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
• Activity : draw a sketch of your home cupboard.
• 18. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
• the Sketch
• 19. 2.3 Drafting scale
• We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object
A model uses a reduction scale
• 20. 2.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing size The Real size Page 38
• 21. 2.3 Drafting scale 1 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to 1200cm in reality Page 38 1200 reality 1cm drawing 1:1200
• 22. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Scale types:
• Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects , so they can be drawn on paper
• We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10…
• In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree
1:1000 Real drawn Real Real
• 23. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper
• It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 …
• In this example the drawing is two times the real object
Drawing Real Safety pin 2:1 2:1
• 24. 2.3 Drafting scale
• An example of scale application
• Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 2:1, 1:2, 1:4
1cm 10cm
• 25. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Scale 2:1
Real 2:1 1 wide 10 1 Real 2 Drawn High
• 26. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Scale 1:2
2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 2 Real 1 Drawn High
• 27. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Scale 1:4
Real 2:1 1:2 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 Real 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 4 Real 1 Drawn High
• 28. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Scale exercise
• This drawing is 4,5cm long and 2,5 cm high, if we have used a 1:100 scale How high and long is the real car?
4.5cm 2.5cm
• 29. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Scale 1:100
250 2,5 High 450 100 Real 4,5 1 Drawn Long 4.5cm 2.5cm
• 30. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Activity:
• Let’s draw a plan of your classroom using your feet and your hands applying the suitable scale to draw it
1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
• 31. 31 feet are equivalent to 620cm 24 feet are equivalent to 480cm 4,5 hands = 45cm 3,5 hands=35cm Therefore we have 2.3 Drafting scale 4hands x 18cm/hand= 72cm 3hands x 18cm/hand= 54cm 31 feet x 20cm/foot= 620cm 24 feet x 20cm/foot=480cm
• 32. 2.3 Drafting scale Which scale could we use to draw the classroom and your desks on your notebooks? 54cm 72cm Desk 480cm 620cm Classroom width length
• 33. 2.3 Drafting scale Let’s use the 1:100 scale , so the drawing will be 100 times smaller than reality 480 4,8 wide 620 100 Real 6,2 1 Drawn Long Classroom 54 0,54 wide 72 100 Real 0,72 1 Drawn Long Desks
• 34. 2.3 Drafting scale
• Homework:
• Draw a plan of your bedroom using your feet and your hands. Apply a 1:25 scale to draw it
1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
• 35. 15feet= 300cm 20 pies = 400cm 70 100 Bed 150 150 Desk 200 330 bedroom Wide lenght habitación
• 36. 2.4 Diedric system
• 37. 2.4 Diedric system
• The diedric system represents the objects using a perpendicular projection on a plane
• 38. 2.4 Diedric system
• The projection or VIEW consists of drawing just what we see when we are perpendicular to the object and to the plane
Page 28
• 39. 2.4 Diedric system
• To define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile:
• Floor view : from the top of the object
• Front view: facing the object
• Profile view: from the side
Profile view Floor view Front view Front view Floor view Profile view
• 40.
• Draw the left profile, floor and front view of your pencil case.
• 41. 2.4 Diedric system
• Diedric Rules
• The front is usually indicated with an arrow
• The views distribution
• The front is always on top of the floor
• The profile is situated the other way round, that is, the left profile is situated on the right
front floor Left profile Right profile floor front
• 42. 2.4 Diedric system
• Remember:
• The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views
• The same width: on the front and on the floor views
• The same depth: on the floor and on the profile views
• 43. 2.4 Diedric system
• Exercise : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair
• 44. 2.4 Diedric system
• Exercise : Draw the front, profile and floor views of the class chair
• 45. 2.4 Diedric system
• Where do we have to be situated to see these objects like circles?
• 46. 2.4 Diedric system
• 47. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects Page 31
• 48. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
• 49. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
• 50. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
• 51. 2.4 Diedric system
• Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line
hidden line
• 52. 2.4 Diedric system
• Insert video
• 53. 2.4 Diedric system
• Activity : draw the front, floor and right profile views of this figure colouring each face in one colour.
• 54. 2.4 Diedric system
• Activity : draw the front, floor y left profile views of this figure colouring each face in a different colour.
• 55. 2.4 Diedric system
• Exercice: draw the right profile, front and floor views of these objects
• 56. 2.4 Diedric system
• 57. 2.4 Diedric system
• 58. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• The standardizing is the group of rules that defines technical drawing .
• For example:
• For paper size we use the DIN rule: A0,A1,A2…
• The lines are :
• Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects
• Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines
• Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines
• 59. 2.5 Marking and standardizing Measure line Auxuliary Line Measure Reference line
• 60. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• Outside thick continuous line
Thick discontinuous line for a hidden edge
• 61. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• Marking : indicating the real dimensions above the object
• 62. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong
• 63. 2.5 Marking and standardizing.
• The measure lines:
• We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated
• They are limited by the auxiliary lines
• The arrows are thin and enlongated, they go from one side to the other
Marking follows some rules: see page 37
• 64. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• Auxiliary lines
• We place them perpendicular to the measure lines
• They cross the measure line a little bit
• They never cut the measure line
• 65. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
Correct Wrong
• 66. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• The measures:
• We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written
• They are placed above the measure line, never under it
• We only use the extrictly necessary measures
• 67. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
• Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
Correct Wrong
• 68.
• Activity : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of your pencil marking the measures
2.5 Marking and standardizing
• 69.
• Let’s revise the important terms
• 70.
• What are we going to see in this unit?
• 2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them
• 2.2 Drafts and sketches
• 2.3 Drafting scale
• 2.4 Diedric system
• 2.5 Marking and standardizing
Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
• 71. Vocabulary
• Paper size
• Cellulose