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  • 1. Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
  • 2.
    • What are we going to see in this unit?
      • 2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them
      • 2.2 Drafts and sketches
      • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • 2.4 Diedric system
      • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
  • 3. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Paper
    • Paper is made of cellulose that is obtained from trees
    • The paper size that we use is A4 . It is the result of dividing 1 m 2 (A0) four times by half the longest side.
  • 4. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Pencil
    • A pencil has a lead covered with wood. The lead is made with graphite and clay
    clay Graphite Lead Wood cover
  • 5. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Pencil hardness
    • The more clay it contains the harder the lead will be. We use letter H for hard pencils and letter B for soft ones.
    • Hard: H Soft: B
    less clay More clay Technique draw Artistic draw 5H 4H 5B 6B 3B B H 3H 4B 2B HB 2H 6H Very soft Soft Medium Hard Very hard
  • 6. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Mechanical pencils
    • They hold a graphite lead. They can be used for technical drawing (if used )with a soft lead.
    • ERASERS
    • Erasers are made of rubber, they absorb
    • graphite and erase it.
  • 7. 2.1 DRAWING TOOLS
    • THE RULER
    • It is a precision tool that makes it possible to measure and to transfer a distance.
    • TRIANGULAR SET SQUARE
    • A set square is a tool for drawing perpendicular (vertical) and parallel lines and for obtaining angles.
    • There are 2 types of trianglular set squares
    A 45 degree A 60 degree
  • 8. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • How to draw vertical and parallel lines with the set square
    • Vertical: Parallel:
    Activity : Draw the set squares in your notebook as you can see them in both positions
  • 9. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Activity :Draw a chessboard using the set square . The separation between squares is 2 cm!
    square 16 cm 16 cm
  • 10. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Drawing angles: we can get 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, 90º, 120º, 135º…angles combining the 30º, 45º , 60º and the 90º angles from the set squares
    You don't have to copy them because you can find them in your text book on page 25
  • 11. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
  • 12. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • Drawing angles exercise: you have to obtain , 45º, 75º, 90º, 120º angles combining the set squares
  • 13. 2.1 Drawing materials and instruments
    • The Compass
    • It is used for drawing circles and angles
    Advice: sharpen the lead tip by rubbing it on a fingernail file
  • 14. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
    • DRAFT: It is a free hand drawing (just with a pencil). We show an idea or object without totally defining it.
    Page 41
  • 15. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
    • ATTENTION!
    • A DRAFT IS NOT A BAD DRAWING AND A SKETCH IS NOT A GOOD DRAWING !!!!!!
  • 16. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
    • The sketch : It is a free hand drawing too , but it includes the measures, therefore it shows the precise size and a shape similar to the final drawing.
    measure Page 41
  • 17. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
    • Activity : draw a sketch of your home cupboard.
  • 18. 2.2 DRAFT AND SKETCH
    • the Sketch
  • 19. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • We define scale as the relation between the drawing size and the real object
    A model uses a reduction scale
  • 20. 2.3 Drafting scale 1:2 The Drawing size The Real size Page 38
  • 21. 2.3 Drafting scale 1 cm measured on the drawing is equivalent to 1200cm in reality Page 38 1200 reality 1cm drawing 1:1200
  • 22. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Scale types:
    • Reduction scale: it is used to represent big objects , so they can be drawn on paper
      • We usually use: 1:2 1:5 1:10…
      • In this example we have reduced 1000 times the real size of the tree
    1:1000 Real drawn Real Real
  • 23. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Enlargement scale: it is used to represent small objects so we can see them on paper
      • It is used: 2:1 5:1 10:1 …
    • In this example the drawing is two times the real object
    Drawing Real Safety pin 2:1 2:1
  • 24. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • An example of scale application
    • Let’s draw a pencil that is 10cm high and 1cm wide using different scales: 2:1, 1:2, 1:4
    1cm 10cm
  • 25. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Scale 2:1
    Real 2:1 1 wide 10 1 Real 2 Drawn High
  • 26. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Scale 1:2
    2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 2 Real 1 Drawn High
  • 27. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Scale 1:4
    Real 2:1 1:2 1:4 Real 2:1 1:2 Real 1:2 2:1 Real 1:2 1 wide 10 4 Real 1 Drawn High
  • 28. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Scale exercise
    • This drawing is 4,5cm long and 2,5 cm high, if we have used a 1:100 scale How high and long is the real car?
    4.5cm 2.5cm
  • 29. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Scale 1:100
    250 2,5 High 450 100 Real 4,5 1 Drawn Long 4.5cm 2.5cm
  • 30. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Activity:
    • Let’s draw a plan of your classroom using your feet and your hands applying the suitable scale to draw it
    1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
  • 31. 31 feet are equivalent to 620cm 24 feet are equivalent to 480cm 4,5 hands = 45cm 3,5 hands=35cm Therefore we have 2.3 Drafting scale 4hands x 18cm/hand= 72cm 3hands x 18cm/hand= 54cm 31 feet x 20cm/foot= 620cm 24 feet x 20cm/foot=480cm
  • 32. 2.3 Drafting scale Which scale could we use to draw the classroom and your desks on your notebooks? 54cm 72cm Desk 480cm 620cm Classroom width length
  • 33. 2.3 Drafting scale Let’s use the 1:100 scale , so the drawing will be 100 times smaller than reality 480 4,8 wide 620 100 Real 6,2 1 Drawn Long Classroom 54 0,54 wide 72 100 Real 0,72 1 Drawn Long Desks
  • 34. 2.3 Drafting scale
    • Homework:
    • Draw a plan of your bedroom using your feet and your hands. Apply a 1:25 scale to draw it
    1 foot: 20cm 1 hand: 10cm
  • 35. 15feet= 300cm 20 pies = 400cm 70 100 Bed 150 150 Desk 200 330 bedroom Wide lenght habitación
  • 36. 2.4 Diedric system
  • 37. 2.4 Diedric system
    • The diedric system represents the objects using a perpendicular projection on a plane
  • 38. 2.4 Diedric system
    • The projection or VIEW consists of drawing just what we see when we are perpendicular to the object and to the plane
    Page 28
  • 39. 2.4 Diedric system
    • To define an object we only need 3 views, floor, front and profile:
    • Floor view : from the top of the object
    • Front view: facing the object
    • Profile view: from the side
    Profile view Floor view Front view Front view Floor view Profile view
  • 40.
    • Draw the left profile, floor and front view of your pencil case.
  • 41. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Diedric Rules
    • The front is usually indicated with an arrow
    • The views distribution
      • The front is always on top of the floor
      • The profile is situated the other way round, that is, the left profile is situated on the right
    front floor Left profile Right profile floor front
  • 42. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Remember:
    • The same height: the object has the same height on the floor and on the profile views
    • The same width: on the front and on the floor views
    • The same depth: on the floor and on the profile views
  • 43. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Exercise : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of the class chair
  • 44. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Exercise : Draw the front, profile and floor views of the class chair
  • 45. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Where do we have to be situated to see these objects like circles?
  • 46. 2.4 Diedric system
  • 47. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects Page 31
  • 48. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  • 49. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  • 50. 2.4 Diedric system Exercise 11: Complete the views of the following objects
  • 51. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Non visible lines: when we know there is a hidden line we have to draw it using a discontinuous line
    hidden line
  • 52. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Insert video
  • 53. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Activity : draw the front, floor and right profile views of this figure colouring each face in one colour.
  • 54. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Activity : draw the front, floor y left profile views of this figure colouring each face in a different colour.
  • 55. 2.4 Diedric system
    • Exercice: draw the right profile, front and floor views of these objects
  • 56. 2.4 Diedric system
  • 57. 2.4 Diedric system
  • 58. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • The standardizing is the group of rules that defines technical drawing .
    • For example:
      • For paper size we use the DIN rule: A0,A1,A2…
      • The lines are :
        • Thick continuous lines: are used to outline objects
        • Thick discontinuous lines: indicate hidden lines
        • Thin continuous lines: are used for auxiliary measures and reference lines
  • 59. 2.5 Marking and standardizing Measure line Auxuliary Line Measure Reference line
  • 60. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Outside thick continuous line
    Thick discontinuous line for a hidden edge
  • 61. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Marking : indicating the real dimensions above the object
  • 62. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
    Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong Correct Wrong
  • 63. 2.5 Marking and standardizing.
    • The measure lines:
      • We place them parallel to the edge and slightly separated
      • They are limited by the auxiliary lines
      • The arrows are thin and enlongated, they go from one side to the other
    Marking follows some rules: see page 37
  • 64. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Auxiliary lines
      • We place them perpendicular to the measure lines
      • They cross the measure line a little bit
      • They never cut the measure line
  • 65. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
    Correct Wrong
  • 66. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • The measures:
      • We indicate the real measure in milimetres, but “mm” is never written
      • They are placed above the measure line, never under it
      • We only use the extrictly necessary measures
  • 67. 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    • Activity: draw these views indicating which rules are broken
    Correct Wrong
  • 68.
    • Activity : Draw the front, left profile and floor views of your pencil marking the measures
    2.5 Marking and standardizing
  • 69.
    • Let’s revise the important terms
  • 70.
    • What are we going to see in this unit?
      • 2.1 Drawing tools and how to use them
      • 2.2 Drafts and sketches
      • 2.3 Drafting scale
      • 2.4 Diedric system
      • 2.5 Marking and standardizing
    Unit 2.Drawing applied to technology
  • 71. Vocabulary
    • Paper size
    • Cellulose
    • Clay, graphite, lead
    • Hard and soft pencils
    • Erasers, technical pencil
    • Sixty and forty-five degree rules
    • Sketch, draft, free hand drawing, measures
    • Scale, real and drawn size, reduction, enlargement scales
    • To be reduced 100 times…
    • Length, height, width
    • Long, high, wide.