Hearing<br />Impairment<br />By: Heather Motter, Sarah Urchuck, Megan Daley, Lindsay Kimes, and Amanda Vogler<br />
Background<br /><ul><li>Hearing Impairment- the full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds
Can happen to any organism that perceives sound
Caused by a range of biological and environmental factors
Trauma to the ear, genetic factors, diseases like meningitis
Categories of hearing loss: neural/sensorineural, conductive, combination
Hearing impairment can lead to social isolation and someone who deals with this must use many adaptations to live independently
Otologist and audiologist will primarily treat those with hearing impairments.
Some of the speech problems that will be dealt with include omitting speech sounds, distortion of consonants, and substitution of sounds.</li></li></ul><li>Background<br /><ul><li>Some of the speech problems that will be dealt with include omitting speech sounds, distortion of consonants, and substitution of sounds.
More specifically there are four major ways in which hearing loss affects children:
It causes delay in the development of receptive and expressive communication skills (speech and language).
The language deficit causes learning problems that result in reduced academic achievement.
Communication difficulties often lead to social isolation and poor self-concept.
2006- 37 Million adults in the U.S. had trouble with hearing (full range)
Males are more likely to be hearing impaired than females.</li></li></ul><li>Respiratory & Phonatory<br /><ul><li>Production because the primary basis for learning language is hearing
It (if you can’t hear it, it will be hard to produce it)
Voice problems that result from improper use of the respiratory system:
Breathiness, roughness, diplophonia, poor pitch, inability to control intensity
Speech problems in the phonatory system include:
Poor articulation, poor vowel discrimination, improper placement of articulator
It is important to notice signs of hearing impairment early. The “critical period” of cognitive development in children ranges from birth to 6 years of age. The earlier the diagnosis, the earlier the treatment, and therefore the child can stay on track developmentally. They can lead a closer to normal life.</li></li></ul><li>Respiratory & Phonatory<br /><ul><li>Ways to foster communication with a hearing impaired child:
Pitch, rhythm, stress, inflection and/or volume are inappropriate
Difficulty following oral and written directions people with a hearing impairment also have a limited vocabulary
A child with such a loss as difficulty learning the speech sounds
Child tends to distort, substitute, and omit many speech sounds
Childs voice will lack normal intonation and rhythm; the voice may also be of higher pitch
Children with hearing loss comprehend and produce shorter and simpler sentences than children with normal hearing.
Children with hearing loss may not hear their own voices when they speak. They may speak too loudly or not loud enough. They may have a speaking pitch that is too high. They may sound like they are mumbling because of poor stress, poor inflection, or poor rate of speaking</li></li></ul><li>Anatomy of the Auditory System<br /><ul><li>Middle Ear
speak clearly</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Sound waves vary in amplitude and in frequency. Amplitude is the sound wave's peak pressure variation. Frequency is the number of cycles per second of a sinusoidal component of a sound wave. Loss of the ability to detect some frequencies, or to detect low-amplitude sounds that an organism naturally detects, is a hearing impairment.</li></ul>Speech Variables<br /><ul><li>The hearing loss usually affects the highest frequencies (18 to 20 kHz) early on and gradually affects the lower frequencies; it usually becomes clinically significant when it affects the critical 2- to 4-kHz range around age 55 to 65 (sometimes sooner). The loss of high-frequency hearing significantly affects speech comprehension. Although the loudness of speech seems normal, certain consonant sounds (eg, C, D, K, P, S,T) become heard to hear.
Deaf children have limited control over their voice loudness. Pitch of a considerable number of deaf children is on the high side with inappropriate rise and fall variations. </li></li></ul><li>Clinical Application<br /><ul><li>Cochlear Implants
An electronic device that directly stimulates the auditory nerve by bypassing a person’s damaged cochlea.
Implants are able to detect and transmit a wide range of frequencies.
Parts: microphone, signal processor, transmitter and receiver/stimulator, and electrode array