The Irish Civil War
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The Irish Civil War

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The Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War Presentation Transcript

  • The Irish Civil War
  • Structure
    • Background (History, Reasons)
    • Outbreak of the war
    • Wartime
    • End of the war
    • Aftermath
  • Background (History, Reasons)
    • Anglo-Irish Treaty
      • “ Irish Free State“ as an autonomous territory of Britiain (like Canada and Australia)
      • Michael Collins: “ …not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire and develop, but the freedom to achieve freedom…”
      • Anti-treaty radicals rejected his opinion
    • The Irish Republican Army divided into two parts
      • Pro-treaty members led by Richard Mulcahy
      • Anti-treaty members led by Liam Lynch
    • Pre-war attacks
      • Confrontations between IRA factions
      • Invasion of Kilkenny
        • 18 men died
        • Truce was declared to avoid a civil war
    aspire: anstreben; achieve: erzielen; truce: Waffenstillstand View slide
  • Background (History, Reasons)
    • The 1922 election
      • Collins planned a compromise to reunite the IRA
        • Set up of a republic-style constitution (not mentioning Britain)
        • Accepted by anti-treaty leaders
        • British threatened with a military intervention
      • Both parties were called “Sinn Féin”
        • Pro-treaty (38%)
        • Anti-treaty (21%)
        • Others (mostly pro-treaty) (41%)
      • IRA broken up
        • Old British barracks and weapons given to the anti-treaty part of the IRA
    View slide
  • Outbreak of the war
    • Battle of Dublin
      • 14 th April 1922
      • 200 anti-treaty IRA members invaded Dublin’s four court buildings
      • Britain almost intervened
      • National Army attacked the buildings
      • 65 killed, 280 wounded, 250+ civilians dead, 500 imprisoned
    • The opposing forces formed
      • Pro-treaty
        • Free State Army (National Army, “Staters”)
        • 7000 men, supported by British (aircrafts, cars, arms, ammunition)
        • 55000 men at the end of the war
      • Anti-treaty
        • Remaining IRA, “Republicans” (“irregulars”)
        • Based in the south and west of Ireland
        • Poorly armed, no clear command structure
  • Wartime
    • Irish Free State offensive
      • July to September 1922
      • NA against republican strongholds in the south and west
      • 14000 (NA) against 15000 men (IRA)
      • Munster Republic, Limerick, Waterford, Battle of Killmallrock, Cork
      • NA: 185 killed, 647 wounded; IRA: 300 killed/wounded, 6000 imprisoned
    • Guerilla Warfare
      • A reaction of the IRA to the NA’s success
      • IRA takes towns back, NA has many casualties
      • Winter baffled the tactic, lack of supplies
      • Only small attacks continue in 1923
        • Sabotage/destruction of infrastructure
        • Assassinations
    baffle: vereiteln
  • End of the war
    • Many imprisoned IRA members were executed during the final months of the war
      • Many executions were unauthorized
      • Weakened the IRA’s morale
    • Liam Lynch was killed on April 10 th
    • Frank Aiken signed a truce on April 30 th
      • Ordered IRA forces to drop arms on May 24 th
    • Thousands of IRA members were arrested
  • Aftermath
    • Casualties
      • Pro-treaty: 800 NA, 4 CID
      • Anti-treaty: 2000-3000 (12000 imprisoned)
      • Civilian: Unknown, 250 in Dublin
      • Historic homes were destroyed
    • Economic costs
      • High cost of the National Army
      • 50 million pounds in property damage
    • Political results
      • Northern Ireland was not affected
      • Borders were determined and debts shared
      • Today the Free State of Ireland is independent
    • Influence on today‘s politics (legacy)
      • “ Fianna Fáil” / “Fine Gael”
      • Some tensions still unresolved
  • Sources
    • English Wikipedia
      • Irish Civil War
      • Anglo-Irish Treaty
      • Michael Collins
    • UCD-Archives
      • Frank Aiken