The Irish Civil War

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The Irish Civil War

  1. 1. The Irish Civil War
  2. 2. Structure <ul><li>Background (History, Reasons) </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreak of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Wartime </li></ul><ul><li>End of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Aftermath </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background (History, Reasons) <ul><li>Anglo-Irish Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Irish Free State“ as an autonomous territory of Britiain (like Canada and Australia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michael Collins: “ …not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire and develop, but the freedom to achieve freedom…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-treaty radicals rejected his opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Irish Republican Army divided into two parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-treaty members led by Richard Mulcahy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-treaty members led by Liam Lynch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-war attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confrontations between IRA factions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion of Kilkenny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18 men died </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Truce was declared to avoid a civil war </li></ul></ul></ul>aspire: anstreben; achieve: erzielen; truce: Waffenstillstand
  4. 4. Background (History, Reasons) <ul><li>The 1922 election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collins planned a compromise to reunite the IRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set up of a republic-style constitution (not mentioning Britain) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted by anti-treaty leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British threatened with a military intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both parties were called “Sinn Féin” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-treaty (38%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-treaty (21%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others (mostly pro-treaty) (41%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRA broken up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old British barracks and weapons given to the anti-treaty part of the IRA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Outbreak of the war <ul><li>Battle of Dublin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th April 1922 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 anti-treaty IRA members invaded Dublin’s four court buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain almost intervened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Army attacked the buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65 killed, 280 wounded, 250+ civilians dead, 500 imprisoned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The opposing forces formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free State Army (National Army, “Staters”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7000 men, supported by British (aircrafts, cars, arms, ammunition) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55000 men at the end of the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining IRA, “Republicans” (“irregulars”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based in the south and west of Ireland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly armed, no clear command structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Wartime <ul><li>Irish Free State offensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July to September 1922 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NA against republican strongholds in the south and west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14000 (NA) against 15000 men (IRA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Munster Republic, Limerick, Waterford, Battle of Killmallrock, Cork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NA: 185 killed, 647 wounded; IRA: 300 killed/wounded, 6000 imprisoned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guerilla Warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A reaction of the IRA to the NA’s success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRA takes towns back, NA has many casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter baffled the tactic, lack of supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only small attacks continue in 1923 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sabotage/destruction of infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinations </li></ul></ul></ul>baffle: vereiteln
  7. 7. End of the war <ul><li>Many imprisoned IRA members were executed during the final months of the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many executions were unauthorized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened the IRA’s morale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liam Lynch was killed on April 10 th </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Aiken signed a truce on April 30 th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered IRA forces to drop arms on May 24 th </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thousands of IRA members were arrested </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aftermath <ul><li>Casualties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-treaty: 800 NA, 4 CID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-treaty: 2000-3000 (12000 imprisoned) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilian: Unknown, 250 in Dublin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic homes were destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost of the National Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 million pounds in property damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland was not affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borders were determined and debts shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today the Free State of Ireland is independent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence on today‘s politics (legacy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fianna Fáil” / “Fine Gael” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tensions still unresolved </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sources <ul><li>English Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo-Irish Treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michael Collins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UCD-Archives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frank Aiken </li></ul></ul>

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