Hierarchy of Legal Control Over Educational Policy & Practice CONSTITUTION ACT Especially §93 & Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms STATUTES Education Act, Saskatchewan Teachers’ Federation Act, Saskatchewan Human Rights Code, Criminal Code of Canada, Young Offenders Act REGULATIONS Education Act §372(1) ( e.g.., The Education Regulations, 1986 ; The Teacher Certification and Classification Regulations , etc.) COMMON LAW (e.g., precedent - R v. Oakes , etc.; & principle - in loco parentis , etc.) RULES and POLICIES
The Canadian Constitution Canada Act , 1982 (U.K.) Constitution Act , 1982
Charter or Rights and Freedoms
Division of Powers
B.N.A. 1867 (§§ 91, 92, and 93) continues to define separation of powers .
Division of Powers A Delicate Balance Doctrine of Intra/Ultra Vires , occupied fields & paramountcy
( B.N.A. Act 1867) CONSTITUTION ACT 1982 §93 Education Provinces Exclusively Make Laws Denominational Rights Remedial Power of Parliament of Canada Education Act and Regulations §91 Parliament of Canada Criminal Law “ Indians” Armed Forces Divorce etc. (residual powers) §92 Provincial Legislatures Administration of Justice Property and Civil Rights Hospitals etc.
The Constitution Act 1982 ( B.N.A. Act 1867) VI. Distribution of Legislative Powers §91 - Powers of the Parliament
It shall be lawful for the Queen by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate and House of Commons, to make Laws for the Peace, Order and good Government of Canada, in relation to all Matters not coming within the Classes of Subjects by this Act assigned exclusively to the Legislatures of the Provinces: and for greater Certainty, but not so as to restrict the Generality of the foregoing Terms of this Section, it is hereby declared that (notwithstanding anything in this Act) the exclusive Legislative Authority of the Parliament of Canada extends to all Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects next hereinafter enumerated; that is to say,-
1. The Public Debt and Property. 2. The Regulation of Trade and Commerce. 3. The raising of Money by any Mode or System of Taxation. 4. The borrowing of Money on the Public Credit. 5. Postal Service. 6. The Census and Statistics. 7. Militia, Military and Naval Service and Defence. 8. The fixing of and providing for the Salaries and Allowance of Civil and other Officers of the Government of Canada. 9. Beacons, Buoys, Lighthouses, and Sable Island. 10. Navigation and Shipping. 11. Quarantine and the Establishment and Maintenance of Marine Hospitals. 12. Sea Coast and Inland Fisheries. 13. Ferries between a Province and any British or Foreign Country or between Two Provinces. 14. Currency and Coinage. 15. Banking, Incorporation of Banks, and the Issue of Paper Money. 16. Savings Banks. 17. Weights and Measures. 18. Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes. 19. Interest. 20. Legal Tender. 21. Bankruptcy and Insolvency. 22. Patents of Invention and Discovery. 23. Copyrights. 25. Naturalization and Aliens. 26. Marriage and Divorce. 27. The Criminal Law, except for Constitution of Courts of Criminal Jurisdiction, but including the Procedure in Criminal Matters. 28. The Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of Penitentiaries. 29. Such Classes of Subjects as are expressly excepted in the Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects by this Act assigned exclusively to the Legislatures of the Provinces. And any Matter coming within any of the Classes of Subjects enumerated in this Section shall not be deemed to come within the Class of Matters of a local or private Nature comprised in the Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects by this Act assigned exclusively to the Legislatures of the Provinces.
The Constitution Act 1982 ( B.N.A. Act 1867) VI. Distribution of Legislative Powers §92 - Exclusive Powers of the Provincial Legislatures
In each Province the Legislature may exclusively make Laws in relation to Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects next hereinafter enumerated, that is to say,
1. The Amendment from Time to Time, notwithstanding anything in this Act, of the Constitution of the Province, except as regards the Office of Lieutenant-Governor. 2. Direct Taxation within the Province in order to the Raising of a Revenue for Provincial Purposes. 3. The borrowing of Money on the sole Credit of the Province. 4. The Establishment and Tenure of Provincial Offices and the Appointment and Payment of Provincial Officers. 5. The Management and Sale of the Public Lands belonging to the Province and of the Timber and Wood thereon. 6. The Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of Public and Reformatory Prisons in and for the Province. 7. The Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of Hospitals, Asylums, Charities, and Eleemosynary Institutions in and for the Province, other than Marine Hospitals. 8. Municipal Institutions in the Province. 9. Shop, Saloon, Tavern, Auctioneer, and other Licenses in order to the raising of a Revenue for Provincial, Local, or Municipal Purposes. 10. Local Works and Undertakings other than such as are of the following Classes:- (a) Lines of Steam or other Ships, Railways, Canals, Telegraphs, and other Works and Undertakings connecting the Province with any other or others of the Provinces, or extending beyond the Limits of the Province; (b) Lines of Steam Ships between the Province and any British or Foreign Country; (c) Such Works as, although wholly situate within the Province, are before or after their Execution declared by the Parliament of Canada to be for the general Advantage of Canada or for the Advantage of Two or more of the Provinces. 11. The Incorporation of Companies with Provincial Objects. 12. The Solemnization of Marriage in the Province. 13. Property and Civil Rights in the Province. 14. The Administration of Justice in the Province, including the Constitution, Maintenance, and Organization of Provincial Courts, both of Civil and of Criminal Jurisdiction, and including Procedure in Civil Matters in those Courts. 15. The Imposition of Punishment by Fine, Penalty, or Imprisonment for enforcing any Law of the Province made in relation to any Matter coming within any of the Classes of Subjects enumerated in this Section. 16. Generally all Matters of a merely local or private Nature in the Province.
The Constitution Act 1982 ( B.N.A. Act 1867) VI. Distribution of Legislative Powers §93 - Education
93. In and for each Province the Legislature may exclusively make Laws in relation to Education, subject and according to the following provisions:
1. Nothing in any such law shall prejudicially affect any Right or Privilege with respect to Denominational Schools which any Class of Persons have by Law in the Province at the Union; 2. All the Powers, Privileges, and Duties at the Union by Law conferred and imposed in Upper Canada on the Separate Schools and School Trustees of the Queen's Roman Catholic Subjects shall be and the same are hereby extended to the Dissentient Schools of the Queen's Protestant and Roman Catholic Subjects in Quebec; 3. Where in any Province a System of Separate or Dissentient Schools exists by Law at the Union or is thereafter established by the Legislature of the Province, an Appeal shall lie to the Governor General in Council from any Act or Decision of any Provincial Authority affecting any Right or Privilege of the Protestant or Roman Catholic Minority of the Queen's Subjects in relation to Education; 4. In case any such Provincial Law as from Time to Time seems to the Governor General in Council requisite for the due Execution of the Provisions of this Section is not made, or in case any Decision of the Governor General in Council on any Appeal under this Section is not duly executed by the proper Provincial Authority in that Behalf, then and in every such case, and as far only as the Circumstances of each Case require, the Parliament of Canada may make remedial Laws for the due Execution of the Provisions of this Section and of any Decision of the Governor General in Council under this Section.
A Fundamental Understanding
They are created by
and can be
School Boards Are “Creatures” of Provincial Governments .
Saskatchewan Act, 1905
17 Section 93 of the British North America Act, 1867, shall apply to the said province, with the substitution for paragraph (1) of the said Section 93, of the following paragraph:
1. Nothing in any such law shall prejudicially affect any right or privilege with respect to separate schools which any class of persons have at the date of the passing of this Act, under the terms of chapters 29 and 30 of the Ordinances of the Northwest Territories, passed in the year 1901, or with respect to religious instruction in any public or separate school as provided for in the said ordinances.
2. In the appropriation by the Legislature or distribution by the Government of the province of any moneys for the support of schools organized and carried on in accordance with the said Chapter 29 or any act passed in amendment thereof, or in substitution therefore, there shall be no discrimination against schools of any class described in the said Chapter 29 .
3. Where the expression “by Law” is employed in paragraph 3 of the said Section 93, it shall be held to mean the Law as set out in the said Chapters 29 and 30, and where the expression “at the Union” is employed in the said paragraph 3, it shall be held to mean the date at which the Act comes into force.
Ordinances of the North-West Territories, 1901 Chapter 29, An Ordinance Respecting Schools
41. The minority of ratepayers in any district whether Protestant or Roman Catholic may establish a separate school therein and in such case the ratepayers establishing such Protestant or Roman Catholic separate school shall be liable only to assessments of such rates as they impose upon themselves in respect thereof.
42 The petition for the erection of a separate school district shall be signed by three resident ratepayers of the religious faith indicated . . . .
43 The persons qualified to vote for or against the erection of a separate school district shall be the ratepayers in the district of the same religious faith, Protestant or Roman Catholic, as the petitioners.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137 No religious instruction except as hereinafter provided shall be permitted in the school of any district from the opening of such school until one half hour previous to the closing in the afternoon after which time any such instruction permitted or desired by the board may be given.
(2) It shall however be permissible for the board of any district to direct that the school be opened by the recitation of the Lord’s Prayer .
138 Any child shall have the privilege of leaving the school room at the time at which religious instruction is commenced as provided for in the next preceding section or of remaining without taking part in any religious instruction that may be given if the parents or guardians so desire.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Constitution Act, 1982
52. (1) The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of Canada, and any law that is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution is, to the extent of the inconsistency, of no force and effect.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
being Schedule B of the Constitution Act, 1982
Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of Law:
Guarantee of Rights and Freedoms
1. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Guarantees the rights and freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society.
2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:
(a) freedom of conscience and religion
(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communications;
(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and
(d) freedom of association.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
7. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.
8. Everyone has the right to be secure against unreasonable search or seizure.
12. Everyone has the right not to be subjected to any cruel and unusual treatment or punishment.
15. (1) every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
(2) subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups, including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Minority Language Educational Rights
23. (1) Citizens of Canada
(a) whose first language learned and still understood is that of the English or French linguistic minority population of the province in which they reside, or
(b) Who have received their primary school instruction in Canada in English or French and reside in a province where the language in which they received that instruction is the language of the English or French linguistic minority population of the province,
Have the right to have their children receive primary and secondary school instruction n that language in that province.
(2) Citizens of Canada of whom any child has received or is receiving primary or secondary school instruction in English or French in Canada, have the right to have all their children receive primary and secondary school instruction in the same language.
(3) The right of citizens of Canada under subsection (1) and (2) to have their children receive primary and secondary school instruction in the language of the English or French linguistic minority population of a province
(a) Applies wherever in the province the number of children of citizens who have such a right is sufficient to warrant the provision to them out of public funds of minority language instruction; and
(b) Includes, where the number of those children so warrants, the right to have them receive that instruction in minority language educational facilities provided out of public funds.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
24. (1) Anyone whose right or freedoms, . . . have been infringed or denied may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction to obtain such remedy as the court considers appropriate and just in the circumstances.
25. The guarantee in this Charter of certain rights and freedoms shall not be construed so as to abrogate or derogate from any aboriginal, treaty or other rights or freedoms that pertain to the aboriginal peoples of Canada including
(a) Any rights or freedoms that have been recognized by the Royal Proclamation of October 7, 1763; and
(b) Any rights or freedoms that may be acquired by the aboriginal peoples of Canada by way of land claims settlements.
27. This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians.
29. Nothing in this charter abrogates or derogates from any rights or privileges guaranteed by or under the constitution of Canada in respect to denominational, separate or dissentient schools.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Application of Charter
32. (1) This Charter applies
(a) to the Parliament and government of Canada . . . and
(b) to the legislature and government of each province . . . .
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), section 15 shall not have effect until three years after this section comes into force .
33. (1) Parliament or the legislature of a province may declare in an Act of Parliament or of the legislature, as the case may be, that the Act or a provision thereof shall operate notwithstanding a provision included in section 2, or sections 7 to 15 of this Charter.
. . . .
(3) A declaration made under subsection (1) shall cease to have effect five years after coming into force or on such earlier date as may be specified in the declaration.
The Supreme Court of Canada: The National School Board?
Mike Manley-Casimir and Terri Sussel argue that decisions made in the higher (appeal) courts of the provinces, and more particularly in the Supreme Court of Canada, will have a leveling or nationalizing effect on educational policy across traditional jurisdictional boundaries. How could such decisions have such a "nationalizing influence"?
Constitution Statutes Regulations Common Law Supreme Court of Canada Provincial Appeal Courts Lower Courts P r e c e d e n t