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Air Valve Basic Training

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Presentation explains all the basics about air valves including what are they for, what types are there, where do you use them, how big should they be, and many others.

Presentation explains all the basics about air valves including what are they for, what types are there, where do you use them, how big should they be, and many others.

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  • 1. Air Valve Basic Training
    OWEA Collection System Specialty Conference
    Dan Barr, PE
    Burgess & Niple, Inc.
  • 2. Overview
    Why Air Valves?
    Types of Valves
    Valve Locations
    Sizing Valves
    Valve Specifications
    Installations
    Questions
  • 3. Overview
    Information based on:
    AWWA Manual of Water Supply Practices M51 Air-Release, Air/Vacuum & Combination Air Valves
    Manufacturers' published information
    Our experience in design and the field
  • 4. Why Air Valves?
  • 5. Why Air Valves?
    Effects of Air and Vacuum Pockets in Pipelines
    Higher Headloss and Binding
    Pipe Breaks
    Erratic operation of pumps, meters, and control valves
    Collapsed pipes
  • 6. Why Air Valves?
    Sources of Air Entry in Pipelines
    Dissolved Air or Gas (2% at 1 atm)
    Air Valves
    Pumps
    Filling Empty Pipelines
  • 7. Why Air Valves?
    Sources of Vacuums in Pipelines
    Draining Pipelines
    Water Hammer
  • 8. Types of Air Valves
  • 9. Air and Vacuum Valve
    Super High Capacity Compound Lever Air Release Valve
    Dual Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve w/ High Capacity Air Release
    Stainless Steel Air & Vacuum Valve
    Wastewater Combination Air Valve
    Pressure Sewer Air Release Valve
    Universal Air Release Valve
    Wastewater Air/Vacuum Valve
    Sewage Air Valves
    “Minimatic” Air Release Valve
    Slow Closing Air/Vacuum Valves
    KINETIC Air & Vacuum Valve to 4“
    KINETIC Slow-Closing Air & Vacuum Valve
    Foot Valve
    Simple Lever Air Release Valve
    Combination Vacuum Breaking and Air Release Valve
    Low Vol. Pressure Air Release Valve
    Short Body Wastewater Air & Vacuum Valve
    Hydraulically Controlled Air/Vacuum Valves
    Midget Valve
    Pressure Air Release Valve
    Air and Vacuum Sewer Valve
    Negative Pressure Valve
    High Capacity Simple Lever Air Release Valve
    Single Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve
    Air Valves for Vertical Turbine Pumps
    High Capacity Wastewater Air Release Valve
    Well Service Air Valve
    Universal Sewer Air Release Valve
    Air Release Valve (Simple Lever Type)
    Vacuum Relief Air Inlet Valves
    Stainless Steel Single Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve
    All Stainless Steel Air Release Valve
    KINETIC Custom Slow Closing Combination Air Valve
    High Capacity Compound Lever Air Release Valve
    Wastewater Air & Vacuum Valve
    Combination Air Valve (Single Housing Type)
    Air Release Valve (Compound Lever Type)
    Stainless Steel Wastewater Combination Air Valve
    Compact KINETIC Combination Air Valve
    Air Release Valves (Sewage)
    Deep Well Valve
    Vacuum Relief Valve
    Short Body Wastewater Air Release Valve
    Vacuum Breaking Valve
    Dual Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve
    Sewage Air Release Valve
    Combination Air Valve
    KINETIC Custom Combination Air Valve
    Short Body Wastewater Combination Air Valve
    Combination Sewer Valve
    Compound Lever Air Release Valve
    Vacuum Relief Air Valve
    KINETIC Slow Closing Combination Air Valve
    KINETIC Deep Well Pump Air & Vacuum Valve
    Dual Air Valve
    Wastewater Air Release Valve
    Air/Vacuum Valve w/ Optional Surge Suppression Valve
    KINETIC Combination Air Valve
    Combination Vacuum Breaking and Air Release Valve for Wastewater
    Simple, right?
  • 10. Types of Air Valves
    Three Basic Types
    Air Release Valves
    Air / Vacuum Valves
    Combination Air Valves
  • 11. Air Release Valves
    Automatically releases small pockets of accumulated air while the pipeline operates under pressure.
  • 12. Air Release Valve Operation
    Pipeline Flowing
    Air Trapped
    Air Released
    Repeat Cycle
  • 13. Air / Vacuum Valves
    Designed to automatically:
    Exhaust large quantities of air during pipeline filling.
    Admit large amounts of air when the internal pressure drops below atmospheric.
  • 14. Air / Vacuum Valve Operation
  • Air / Vacuum Valve Operation
    • Pipe Drains
    • 18. Air Intake
  • Air / Vacuum Valve Cycle
  • Combination Air Valves
    Perform both as air release and air/vacuum valves.
  • 24. Combination
  • 25. Combination Air Valve Operation
  • 26. Locating Air Valves Along a Pipeline
    (Or Thinking like an Air Bubble)
  • 27. Locating Air Valves
    Install valves where air will be trapped or vacuum pockets will form!
  • 28. Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main
    Lift Station
    Manhole
    Pumps Operating and Line is Full
  • 29. Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main
    Lift Station
    Manhole
    Pumps Operating and Line is Full
  • 30. Locating Air Valves Along a Force Main
    Air Release
    Lift Station
    Air Release
    Manhole
    Pumps Operating and Line is Full
  • 31. High Points
    Potential Vacuum
    Lift Station
    Manhole
    Pumps Stopped and Line is Draining
  • 32. High Points
    Lift Station
    Manhole
    Pumps Start and Vacuum Pockets Close with Pressure Spikes
  • 33. High Points
    Combination Air Valve
    Combination Air Valve
    Lift Station
    Manhole
    Pumps Stopped, Line is Drained, and High Points are Full of Air
  • 34. High Points
    Manhole
    Lift Station
    Any Air Valves?
  • 35. High Points
    Manhole
    Lift Station
    No Vacuum Points!
  • 36. High Points
    Air Trapped
    Manhole
    Lift Station
  • 37. High Points
    Manual Air Release
    Automatic Air Release
    Manhole
    Lift Station
  • 38. Pumps
    Carefully review deep pump installations when over 20 feet deep.
    May need Air/Vac valve
    Examples include: vertical turbines and deep submersibles.
  • 39. Pumps
    Line Full
    Pump On
  • 40. Pumps
    Pump Off
    Vacuum Develops
  • 41. Pump Turns On
    Pumps Against Vacuum
    Slams Check Valve
    Pumps
  • 42. Pumps
    Add Air/Vac Valve
    Air Enters System to Eliminate Vacuum
  • 43. Pumps
    Add Air/Vac Valve
    Air Enters System to Eliminate Vacuum
    Air Released at Controlled Rate
  • 44. Sizing Valves
  • 45. Air Release
    Convert pipeline flow rate to Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM).
    Multiply CFM by 0.02 to estimate dissolved air in water.
    Determine the working pressure at the valve.
    Refer to Orifice Air Capacity Table in AWWA manual or manufacturer tables.
  • 46. Air Release
  • 47. Air/Vac Valves
    Determine required valve size for both filling and draining independently
    Use the larger diameter for air/vac valve sizing
  • 48. Pipeline Filling
    Calculate the venting flow rate in CFM.
    Venting Flow Rate = Fill Rate (CFM) * [(Pressure Differential across valve + 14.7 psi)/14.7 psi]
    Refer to sizing tables to select Air/Vac valve diameter.
    Use a 2 psi differential generally.
  • 49. Pipeline Filling
  • 50. Pipeline Draining or Vacuum Prevention
    Determine the allowable negative pressure for the pipeline with a safety factor. Assume 5.0 psi for a max.
    Calculate the slope of the pipeline in ft/ft.
    Use following figure to determine the required CFM.
    Refer to table to select the required air/vac valve diameter.
  • 51. Pipeline Draining or Vacuum Prevention
    Table for Determining Air Flow when Draining Pipelines
  • 52. Pipeline Draining or Vacuum Prevention
    Table for Sizing Air/Vac Valves when Draining Pipelines
  • 53. Valve Specifications
  • 54. Air Release Valves
    Orifice Size (1/16” to 1”)
    NPT Inlet size (1/2” to 3”)
    Maximum Working Pressure (75 psi and up)
    Minimum Sealing Pressure (softer seats needed when under 25 psi)
    Valve Materials (Ductile or Cast Iron, St. Stl)
    Accessories (check valve, back flush, flow regulators, etc.)
    Service (Wastewater or Clean Water)
  • 55. Air/Vac Valves
    Similar to Air Release Valves
    Inlet/Outlet sizes (1” to 20”)
    Type of Connections (NPT and Flanged)
    Maximum Working Pressure (150 to 300 psi)
  • 56. Combination Air Valves
    All of the above
    Body Configuration (Single versus Dual)
    Dual Body Single Body
  • 57. Installation and O&M
  • 58. Installation
    Connections
    Inlet piping and isolation valve should be same size as valve inlet
    Short Inlet Piping and Vent Lines
  • 59. Installation
    Location
    Need protection from freezing, contamination, flooding, and vandalism
    Needs access
    Watch valve clearances
  • 60. Operation and Maintenance
    Inspections and Flushing
    At least annually
    More often for valves that operate continuously
    Watch for external leakage
  • 61. QUESTIONS
    Dan Barr, PE – dbarr@burnip.com
    (614) 459-2050