The Iceberg phenomena is also applicable on human beings …
THE ICEBERG KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS KNOWN TO OTHERS SEA LEVEL UNKNOWN TO OTHERS ATTITUDE
In other words,
THE ICEBERG BEHAVIOR KNOWN TO OTHERS SEA LEVEL UNKNOWN TO OTHERS IMPACT VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS ATTITUDE MOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFS
ATTITUDE Attitudes are understood as the beliefs , feelings and action tendencies of an individual or group of individuals towards objects, ideas and people .
Nature of attitude 1. Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs of an individual or group of people. 2. Attitudes endure , unless something happens. ex- if x is transferred to day shift , his attitude may become positive. 3. Attitude are organized and are core to an individual. 4. All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes. 5.Attitude are invisible as they constitute a psychological phenomenon which cannot be observed directly.
COMPONENT OF ATTITIUDE AFFECTIVE – The feelings , sentiments , moods and emotions about some idea, person, event or object. COGNITIVE – The beliefs , opinion , knowledge or information held by the individual. BEHAVIOURAL - The predispositions to get on a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of something.
STIMULI Work Related Factors COGNITION “My supervisor is unfair” “Having a fair supervisor is important to me” AFFECT “I don’t like my supervisor” BEHAVIOUR “I am going to request a transfer” Managerial style Technology Noise Peers Reward System Career Opportunities Belief and values Feelings and emotions Intended behaviour
Information Emotional Beliefs, Knowledge & Values Feelings - Positive or Negative Predisposition to act External Behavior
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE EGO, DEFENSIVE ADJUSTMENT ATTITUDE VALUE EXPRESSION KNOWLEDGE
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE 1. Adjustment - Attitudes offen help people adjust to their work environment . When Employees are well treated , they are likely to develop a positive attitude towards management and the organisation . When employees are berated and paid poorly, they are likely to develop a negative attitude towards the firms and its owners . These attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and are a basis for future behaviour. example- if employees who are well treated are asked about management or the organization , they are likely to say good things , just the reverse may be true for those berated and are poorly paid. 2. Ego-defence - People often form and maintain certain attitudes to protect their own self-images . example-workers may feel threatened by the employment or advancement of minority or female workers in the organization . These threatened workers may develop prejudices against the new workers . They may develop an attitude that such newcomers are less qualified and they might mistreat these workers . Such an ego defensive attitude is formed and used to cope with a feeling of guilt or threat .
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE 3.Value Expression – The expressive function helps individual define their self-concept, and facilitates the adoption of sub-culture values considered important. For example – teenagers may dress and behave in a certain way in order to foster their status in a group. The expressive function also helps individuals adopt and internalize the values of a group they have recently joined and as a consequence , they are better able to relate to the group. For example – an individual who has joined an ecology group may now express values manifest in the purchase and use of a bicycle and the recycling of bottles . 4.Knowledge – Attitude provide the standards or frames of reference by which an individual judge objectives or events, and attitudes that provide consistency in our thinking are particularly relevant. It help us understand and predict how a certain person is likely to behave and it also help the manager to change the attitude of another person . For example – he can change people with low self-images by helping them increase their ability to solve their problem, or by providing them with positive feedback on what they accomplish.
SOURCES OF ATTITUDE MASS COMMUNICATION EXPERIENCE WITH OBJECT CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ATTITUDE ECONOMIC STATUS OPERANT CONDITIONING FAMILY & PEER GROUP NIEGHBOURHOOD VACARIOUS LEARNING
1.Direct experience with object – attitudes can develop from a personality rewarding or punishing experience with an object. Employees from attitudes about jobs on their previous experiences. example-if everyone who has held a job has been promoted within six months, current job holders are likely to believe that they will also be promoted within six month . Attitudes formed on experience are difficult to change. 2. Classical conditioning – One of the basic processes underlying attitude formation can be explained on the basis of learning principles. Repetition of anything help to learn attitude . The same classical conditioning processes that made Pavlov’s dogs salivate at the sound of a bell can explain how attitudes are acquired. 3. Operant conditioning – Attitude can be learned due to outcome, consequences, results. If result is positive than a person carry further his current attitude but if it is negative than he change his attitude.
4. Vicarious learning- this refers to formation of attitude by observing behaviour of others and consequences of that behaviour . It is through vicarious learning processes that children pick up the prejudices of their parents . example- if they have never met a blind person, children whose parents say that “blind people are incompetent “ may adopt s.uch attitudes themselves. 5. Family and peer groups – A person may learn attitude through imitation of parents. If parents have a positive attitude towards an object and the child admires his parents, he is likely to adopt a similar attitude, even without having direct experience. Similarly attitude are acquired from peer groups in colleges and organisations. 6. Neighbourhood- the neighbourhood we live in has a certain structure in terms of its having cultural facilities , religious grouping and possibly ethnic differences .further it has people who are neighbours. Every their neighbours.
7. Economic status and occupations- our economic and occupational position also contribute to attitudes formation . They determine , in part, our attitudes towards unions and management and our belief that certain laws are ‘good’ or “bad ” . Our socio – economic background influences our present and future attitudes. 8. Mass communication – All varieties of mass communications-television, radio, newspapers, and magazines feed their audience large quantities of information. The presentation of news or information is constructed so as to cater to the attitude of the audience. In turn, the audience select the specific form of mass communication that best reflects its attitude on various subjects. The material we select helps us either to substantiate our opinions or to establish new ones.
CHANGING ATTITUDE Employee attitude need to be changed, particularly when they are unfavourable . It is in the best interest of the organization to change attitude. But changing attitude is a difficult task because of insufficient information about peoples attitude. Attitude need to be changed at two fronts : 1. changing one’s own attitude 2. changing employee’s attitude
1. Changing Attitude of self – The following hints can help the individual change his or her attitude : Be aware of one’s attitude – People who are optimistic have higher levels of job satisfaction. The individual needs to maintain positive attitude consciously. Think for self – The individuals should develop his or her own attitude based on other’s input. Keep an open mind – The individuals should listen to other people’s input and use it to develop positive attitudes. Get into continuous education programme. Build a positive self esteem. Stay away from negative influence, such as smoking, drugs, alcohol, movies and television programs that build negative attitude.
CHANGING ATTITUDE CHANGING ATTITUDE OF SELF Because of one’s Understand that negative Get into continuous Attitude think for Attitude has no benefit. education , Build Self Keep on open mind positive self, Stay away from negative influence.
2. Changing Attitude of employees - The following hints can help a manager change attitudes of his or her employees : 1. Give feedback – Employees to be told about their negative attitudes, if any, and their harmful consequences. The manager need to offer alternative attitudes. 2. Accentuate positive conditions – Employees tend to develop positive attitudes towards the work they do well. Manager should make sure that the working conditions are pleasant and also that the employees have all the resources and training to do a good job. 3. Positive role model – If the manager has a positive attitude, employees may also have similar attitudes. 4. Providing new information – New information will help change attitudes. Negative attitudes are mainly formed owing to lack of or insufficient information. Once they came to know how the management cares for the welfare of the workers, they change their attitude and might turn pro-management.
5. Use of fear – Fear can change attitude. If low levels of fear arousal are used, people often ignore them. If moderate level of fear arousal are used, people often become aware of the situation and will change their attitudes. However, if high degrees of fear arousal are used, people often reject the message, because it is too threatening and thus not believable. So moderate level of fear may helpful in changing attitude of employees. 6. Influence of friends or peers – Change of attitude can come about through persuasion of friends or peers. Credibility of the others, specially peers, is important to effect change. Peers with high credibility shall exercise significant influence on change. The same is not true with peers who have low credibility. 7. The co-opting approach – Co-opting is another way of changing attitude. This means taking who are dissatisfied with a situation and getting them involved in improving things. 8. Others – Individual is more likely to change a privately held attitude than one he has stated publicly. It is, therefore, necessary that a situation is avoided where the individual makes his attitude public prior to the change attempt.
CHANGING ATTITUDE CHANGING ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYEES Give Feedback, Providing new information Forced contact Accentuate positive use of fear Co-opting strategy Conditions,Positive influence of friends Not making the stand role model or peers public
“THE TERM JOB SATISFACTION A POSITIVE FEELING ABOUT ONE’S JOB RESULTING FROM AN EVALUATION OF ITS CHARACTERISTICS.”
IT MEANS A PERSON WITH A HIGH LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION HOLDS POSITIVE FEELINGS ABOUT THE JOB WHILE OTHER PERSON HAVE DISSATISFACTION HOLDS NEGATIVE FEELINGS ABOUT THE JOB.
RELATED ELEMENTS OF JOB SATISFACTION SOCIALLIFEFAMILYJOB POLITICS LEISUREELIGION RELISION
SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION WAGES WORKING CONDITION JOB SATISFACTION PROMOTION WORKING GROUP SUPERVISION
Wages -IT IS MOST LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION. ANY ORGANISATION PAY OF SALARY TO HIS WORKER ACCORDING TO TIME OR NOT IN SALARY THE COMPANY IS PROVIDING OTHER CHARGES OR NOT MANY OF ORGANISATION PAY INCENTIVES, TRANSPORTATION CHARGES EPLOYEE HAVE MANY OF NEEDS, FOR FULL FILL OF THESE NEEDS HE WANT SALARY ON TIME AND WITH ADD CHARGES WORKING CONDITION-WC SHOULD BE BETER FOR EMPLOYEE IN AN ORGANISATON IT INCLUDES MANY OF INTERNAL FACILITIES,OFFICE ENVIRONMENT IS COMFORTABLE OR NOT,SAFTY OF WORKERS
WORK GROUP-SATISFACTION ALSO DEPAND ON GROUP IN DECISION MAKING,PLANNING GROUP PERFORMANCE IS MOST IMPORTANT IF ANY OF CONFLICTION PRESENT IN GROUP THAN DISSATISFACTION WILL APPEAR BN EMPLOYEES AND GROUP JOB AND PRODUCTIVITY WILL DECREASE SUPERVISION-IT RELATS TO AUTHORITY AND BEHAVIOUR OF MANAGER IF BEHAVE IS GOOD THAN EMPLOYEE UNDERSTAND RESPONSIBILITY OF WORK IF HE USE HARD AND WRONG MANNER THAN EMPLOYEES SHOW DISSATISFACTION OF JOB PROMOTION-