Inequality in Running

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Inequality in Running

  1. 1. Inequality in Marathons<br />Steve Pilch<br />CES 301 Conclusions<br />
  2. 2. Topics to Discuss<br />Overview of Topic<br />Historical Development of the Marathon<br />Intro. of Running Cultures into Western Competitions<br />Running Cultures<br />An Understanding to Change Perceptions<br />
  3. 3. Overview of Unequal Running<br />Marathons in Western Societies is relatively recent development in the History of Running.<br />Long distance running has been practiced long before the Olympic Marathon<br />Some cultures have retained this practice in:<br />Persistence Hunting<br />The Marathon Monks<br />The Tarahumara<br />Running Societies have had their cultural practices used in Western Marathons<br />
  4. 4. History of Marathon<br />The Marathon is fabled after Pheidippides’s run to Athens after the Battle of Marathon<br />Often Credited as being the ultimate test of human capability<br />Olympic Marathon (26.2 miles) was made official in 1921<br />Predominantly European descent countries held top places <br />
  5. 5. Running Cultures in Marathons<br />The Introduction of Kenya into the World Races<br />Cybernetics of Kenyan Running- R.E. Mayes<br />1982: World Road Race Rankings- 2 of 10 top rankings were Kenyan<br />1990: Kenya’s Commissioner of Sports lifted Travel and Agent restrictions<br />1992: World Road Race Rankings- 9 of 10 top rankings were Kenyan<br />The Marathon was established long before Agents could implement Kenyan Runners into competitions <br />
  6. 6. Running Cultures in Marathons<br />Different perceptions of Competition<br />African Approach to Competition- Geoff Fenwick<br />“Running is for capture or escape…It is difficult to explain to a tribesmen the purpose of running around an oval track…To lure him you need a cow for a prize or a bicycle. The pastoralist, for all his talent, has his own preconceived notions concerning the true nature of competition. (pg. 23)”<br />Kenya has been one isolated instance that has been able to adapt its runners into the marathon competition<br />There are other running cultures that do not compete in marathons because they have no reason to compete.<br />
  7. 7. Running Cultures<br />Marathon Monks<br />53 mi/day for 100 days as<br />part of spiritual enlightenment quest<br />Reasons for running have no <br /> connection to Marathon Competition<br />Tarahumara Culture, Mexico<br />Champion Runner totaled 435mi run without rest<br />Isolated Culture/ Difference in Competitive Ideals has hindered inclusion in Marathons<br />
  8. 8. A Change of Perspective<br />There is no single culture that is the Champion Running Culture<br />Historical transitions between record holders<br />Culture may define beneficial <br /> lifestyles but does not dictate<br /> an advantage<br />Application:<br />Cultural practices cannot be exploited for others competition<br />
  9. 9. Works Referenced<br />Data on Kenyan Running in World Competitions<br />Mayes, Randall E. The Cybernetics of Kenyan Running.<br /> North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 2005. Print.<br />Quotations on African Cultural Attitudes on Competition<br />Fenwick, Geoff. The African Approach to Competition.<br /> Mountain View, CA: World Publications, 1975. Print.<br />Data on Tarahumara Running<br />McDougall, Christopher. Born to Run.<br /> New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. Print.<br />

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