The Effects of L2 Learner‘s
Developmental Readiness and Field
Independence on the Efficacy of
Recast for Morphosyntax
Acqu...
   L: Jack die yesterday.
   T: Jack died yesterday?
   L: Yes, he died yesterday.

    “…a reformulation of all or par...
   Why recast?
                                     Prior
                    Joint
    Feedback                     comp...
Erroneous
            Recast
   form


   Psychological
      factors


     Cognitive
    comparison




                ...
   One of the unresolved issues:                    (Long, 2007;
    Leeman, 2002; Ortega & Long, 1997; Goldschneider & D...
   Statement of the problem:




         MORPHOSYNTAX
   Acoustic salience

   Semantic salience

   Communicative sa...
   Statement of the problem




      Developmental            Field
        readiness          independence




        ...
 Research           questions:
1- Whether learners’ developmental readiness to learn
  English morphosyntactic features a...
   Participants:

40 EFL learners after being pretested in terms of a) level of
  proficiency; b) ability in oral product...
   Pretest materials:
1- Oxford placement test.

2- A test developed by the researcher to pretest intermediate
   and beg...
   Target forms:
The target forms chosen to be addressed in the focused
  recasts were plural –s, past –ed, and progressi...
   The tasks:
In this study three picture-description tasks were
  used. Each picture had the potential to provide at
  l...
   Data analysis procedure and results:
The scores obtained form transcribing the audio-recorded
  descriptions were subm...
Thank you …

Ahmadian.edu@gmail.com
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The Effects of L2 Learner‘s Developmental Readiness and Field Independence on the Efficacy of Recast for Morphosyntax Acquisition

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Over the last decade or so, recasts have been the object of intensive inquiry. Notwithstanding this, little is currently known about the role that the learner’s developmental readiness and field independence play in determining the efficacy of recasts as an acquisitional mechanism. Drawing extensively on Pienemann's Processability theory and on recent findings vis-à-vis miscellaneous functions of recast, the present research has investigated a) whether learners’ developmental readiness to learn English morphosyntactic features affects the extent to which they can incorporate the features, addressed in the recast, into their interlanguages or not; and b) whether or not L2 learners’ field independence impacts the extent to which they can incorporate the features, addressed in the recast, into their interlanguages. In this study GEF test was administered to EFL intermediate- and beginning-level learners (n=40) in order to distinguish FIs from FDs. Participants were, then, assigned to four groups (i.e. field dependent beginning-level learners, field independent beginning-level learners, field dependent intermediate-level learners, and filed independent intermediate-level learners). Results revealed that learners’ developmental readiness and field independence significantly affected the degree to which language learners made use of recast (p < .05). Field dependent beginning-level learners were virtually unable to use the morphosyntactic features, addressed in the recasts, in subsequent use of the same grammatical structure (namely –ed). On the contrary, field independent intermediate-level learners, who were assumed to be developmentally ready, were able to use the morphosyntactic feature, presented to them through recasts, in subsequent use of the target grammatical structure.

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The Effects of L2 Learner‘s Developmental Readiness and Field Independence on the Efficacy of Recast for Morphosyntax Acquisition

  1. 1. The Effects of L2 Learner‘s Developmental Readiness and Field Independence on the Efficacy of Recast for Morphosyntax Acquisition Mohammad Javad Ahmadian M.A. STUDENT University of Isfahan TEFL Conference University of Isfahan, January 2009©
  2. 2.  L: Jack die yesterday.  T: Jack died yesterday?  L: Yes, he died yesterday. “…a reformulation of all or part of a learner’s immediately preceding utterance in which one or more non-target-like […] items are replaced by the corresponding target language form(s), and where, throughout the exchange, the focus of the interlocutors is on meaning, not language as object.”(Long, 2007, p.67)
  3. 3.  Why recast? Prior Joint Feedback comprehension attentional in context focus Form-function Noticing mapping Contingency Cognitive Focus on window meaning
  4. 4. Erroneous Recast form Psychological factors Cognitive comparison LEARNIN Noticing the G GAP
  5. 5.  One of the unresolved issues: (Long, 2007; Leeman, 2002; Ortega & Long, 1997; Goldschneider & Dekeyser, 2001) PERCEPTUAL SALIENCE  Acoustic salience  Semantic salience  Communicative salience  Frequency-driven salience THUS, RECAST IS NOT EFFECTIVE FOR ALL STRUCTURES!! BUT, THAT’S NOT THE END OF THE STORY…
  6. 6.  Statement of the problem: MORPHOSYNTAX  Acoustic salience  Semantic salience  Communicative salience
  7. 7.  Statement of the problem Developmental Field readiness independence EFFICACY OF RECAST
  8. 8.  Research questions: 1- Whether learners’ developmental readiness to learn English morphosyntactic features affects the extent to which they can incorporate the features, addressed in the recast, into their interlanguages or not? 2- Whether or not L2 learners’ field independence impacts the extent to which they can incorporate the features, addressed in the recast, into their interlanguages?
  9. 9.  Participants: 40 EFL learners after being pretested in terms of a) level of proficiency; b) ability in oral production of morphosyntax; c) field (in)dependence, were assigned to four groups:
  10. 10.  Pretest materials: 1- Oxford placement test. 2- A test developed by the researcher to pretest intermediate and beginner-level learners’ ability in oral production of morphosyntax. Learners were coded for correct/incorrect use of morphosyntax. 3- GEF test; to distinguish field independent form field dependent learners.
  11. 11.  Target forms: The target forms chosen to be addressed in the focused recasts were plural –s, past –ed, and progressive –ing. The rationale behind choosing these forms…  Focused Recast was used
  12. 12.  The tasks: In this study three picture-description tasks were used. Each picture had the potential to provide at least 5 obligatory contexts for one of the target forms. The formula for obligatory occasion analysis: (Ellis & Barkhuizen, 2005; Pica, 1994)
  13. 13.  Data analysis procedure and results: The scores obtained form transcribing the audio-recorded descriptions were submitted to two-way ANOVA. Results revealed that field independence and developmental readiness significantly affected the utility of recasts (p < .05). The interaction effect of the field independence and developmental readiness was not statistically significant, hence the possibility to make stronger claims based on the results.
  14. 14. Thank you … Ahmadian.edu@gmail.com

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