Tissues

3,243 views
3,183 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,243
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tissues

  1. 1. Body’s Foundation: Tissues Begin here.
  2. 2. Tissues <ul><li>Groups of cells similar in function </li></ul><ul><li>Four primary tissues- epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Main functions include cover, support, movement, and control </li></ul>. Epithelial . Connective . Nervous . Muscle . Credits
  3. 3. Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Sheet of cells that lines a body cavity or covers a body surface </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Forms boundaries between environments </li></ul><ul><li>Functions include protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sensory reception </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Connective . Nervous . Muscle . Home
  4. 4. Simple Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Composed of a single cell layer </li></ul><ul><li>Usually found where secretion, filtration, or absorption occur </li></ul><ul><li>All cells usually have the same shape </li></ul><ul><li>Usually very thin; poor protection </li></ul>Epithelial . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
  5. 5. Simple Squamous Epithelium <ul><li>Cells are flattened laterally, and have sparse cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Thin and often permeable </li></ul><ul><li>Usually used for filtration </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
  6. 6. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium <ul><li>Made of single layer cells that are as tall as they are wide </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei stain darkly </li></ul><ul><li>Important functions are secretion and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the walls of the smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules. </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Columnar . Home
  7. 7. Simple Columnar Epithelium <ul><li>Single layer of tall, closely packed cells that are lined in a row </li></ul><ul><li>Lines the digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption and secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Some display cilia on free surfaces </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Home
  8. 8. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium <ul><li>Cells vary in height </li></ul><ul><li>Cells rest on a basement membrane, but tallest reach the free surface </li></ul><ul><li>False impression of several cell layers </li></ul><ul><li>Short cells relatively unspecialized </li></ul><ul><li>Specializes in secretion and absorption </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
  9. 9. Stratified Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Contain two or more layers of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerate from below </li></ul><ul><li>More durable than simple epithelia </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
  10. 10. Stratified Squamous Epithelium <ul><li>Most widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of several layers </li></ul><ul><li>Thick and suited for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Made of squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells </li></ul><ul><li>Found in areas subject to wear and tear </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is keratinized </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
  11. 11. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium <ul><li>Quite rare </li></ul><ul><li>Found in ducts of some of the larger glands </li></ul><ul><li>Two layers of cuboidal cells </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Columnar . Home
  12. 12. Stratified Columnar Epithelium <ul><li>Limited distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Found in pharynx, male urethra, and lining in some glandular ducts </li></ul><ul><li>In some transition areas between two epithelia </li></ul><ul><li>Only apical layer is columnar </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Home
  13. 13. Transitional Epithelium <ul><li>Forms lining of hollow urinary organs </li></ul><ul><li>Can change shape </li></ul><ul><li>Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Apical cells vary in appearance depending on the organ’s need to stretch </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
  14. 14. Glandular Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Glands consist of one or more cells that make and excrete a product </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion is a water-based fluid usually containing proteins (with some variation) </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine (internal secretion) and exocrine (external secretion) </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Endocrine . Exocrine . Home
  15. 15. Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Usually lose their ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Produce hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones prompt target organs to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally diverse </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Home
  16. 16. Exocrine Glands <ul><li>Numerous with many familiar products </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete products onto body surfaces or into body cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Endocrine . Unicellular . Multicellular . Home
  17. 17. Unicellular Exocrine Glands <ul><li>Only important example is goblet cell </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped like a goblet </li></ul><ul><li>Produces mucin </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Endocrine . Multicellular . Home
  18. 18. Multicellular Exocrine Glands <ul><li>Structurally more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic parts are duct and secretory unit </li></ul><ul><li>Split into multiple and compound </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete in different ways </li></ul>Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Endocrine . Unicellular . Home
  19. 19. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Found everywhere in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Four main classes and several subclasses </li></ul><ul><li>Does much more than connect </li></ul><ul><li>Comes from mesenchyme </li></ul><ul><li>Different degrees of vascularity </li></ul><ul><li>Largely nonliving extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Three main elements- substance, fibers, cells </li></ul>Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Home
  20. 20. Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Two subclasses- loose and dense </li></ul><ul><li>All mature connective tissues except bone, blood, and cartilage </li></ul>Connective . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Home
  21. 21. Loose Connective Tissues <ul><li>Made up of loose fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Includes areolar, adipose, and reticular tissues </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Adipose . Reticular . Home
  22. 22. Areolar Tissue <ul><li>Supports and binds other tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Holds body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Defends against infection </li></ul><ul><li>Stores nutrients as fat </li></ul><ul><li>Loose arrangement of fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoir of water and salts, </li></ul><ul><li>Soaks up fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Most widely distributed </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Adipose . Reticular . Home
  23. 23. Adipose Tissue <ul><li>Similar to areolar tissue but with stronger nutrient-storing abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Adipocytes account for 90% of mass </li></ul><ul><li>Could not live more than a few days without eating </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutes 18% of weight </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a shock absorber, insulation, and energy storing site </li></ul><ul><li>White stores nutrients, brown contains mitochondria </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Reticular . Home
  24. 24. Reticular Tissue <ul><li>Resembles areolar tissue but only has reticular fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Widely limited to certain sites </li></ul><ul><li>Forms a stroma </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Adipose . Home
  25. 25. Dense Connective Tissues <ul><li>Subclass of connective tissue proper </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers are predominant element </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic tissues </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Regular . Irregular . Elastic . Home
  26. 26. Dense Regular Tissue <ul><li>Closely packed collagen fibers going in the same direction </li></ul><ul><li>Tension in one direction results in white structures </li></ul><ul><li>Forms tendons </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Irregular . Elastic . Home
  27. 27. Dense Irregular Tissue <ul><li>Same structural elements </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers are thicker and arranged irregularly </li></ul><ul><li>Forms joint capsules and coverings </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Regular . Elastic . Home
  28. 28. Elastic Tissue <ul><li>Found in some ligaments </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Regular . Irregular . Home
  29. 29. Cartilage <ul><li>Stands up to both tension and compression </li></ul><ul><li>Tough but flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks nerve fibers and is avascular </li></ul><ul><li>Chondroblasts are key cell types in production </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Elastic . Fibrocartilage . Home
  30. 30. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>Most abundant cartilage type in body </li></ul><ul><li>Covers the ends of long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Composes almost the entire body before bone is formed </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Elastic . Fibrocartilage . Home
  31. 31. Elastic Cartilage <ul><li>Nearly identical to hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Many more elastin fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Where stretchability and strength are needed </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Fibrocartilage . Home
  32. 32. Fibrocartilage <ul><li>Perfect middle between dense connective tissues and hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrocytes alternate with rows of collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Compressible and resists tension </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage of knee and vertebral discs </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Elastic . Home
  33. 33. Bone <ul><li>Rocklike hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Supports and protects body structures </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to that of cartilage but more rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Has inorganic calcium salts </li></ul><ul><li>Well-supplied by blood vessels </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Blood . Home
  34. 34. Blood <ul><li>Fluid within blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Most atypical </li></ul><ul><li>Develops from mesenchyme and consists of cells, surrounded by blood plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Most are red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers are large, soluble protein molecules that precipitate </li></ul><ul><li>Transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system </li></ul>Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Home
  35. 35. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Main component of nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Contains neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of supporting cells that are nonconducting and insulates and protects the neuron. </li></ul>Home
  36. 36. Muscular Tissue <ul><li>Highly cellular, well-vascularized tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses myofilaments </li></ul><ul><li>Includes skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly voluntary </li></ul>Skeletal . Cardiac . Smooth . Home
  37. 37. Skeletal Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Packaged by connective tissue sheets into organs called skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Form the flesh of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Pull on bones or skin, causing movement </li></ul>Muscular . Cardiac . Smooth . Home
  38. 38. Cardiac Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Found only in wall of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts and propels blood through the body </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are striated </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are structurally different </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul>Muscular . Skeletal . Smooth . Home
  39. 39. Smooth Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Cells have no visible striations </li></ul><ul><li>Found mainly in hollow organ walls </li></ul><ul><li>Alternates contracting and relaxing to squeeze substances through </li></ul>Muscular . Skeletal . Cardiac . Home
  40. 40. Credits <ul><li>Pictures gathered from Flickr.com sources </li></ul><ul><li>including Akay and Jorrflv </li></ul><ul><li>Voice by Jamie Villella </li></ul><ul><li>Information from Human Anatomy and Physiology (Seventh Edition) by Elaine Marieb and Katja Hoehn </li></ul><ul><li>Hard work completed by Jamie Villella </li></ul>

×