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Tissues
 

Tissues

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    Tissues Tissues Presentation Transcript

    • Body’s Foundation: Tissues Begin here.
    • Tissues
      • Groups of cells similar in function
      • Four primary tissues- epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle.
      • Main functions include cover, support, movement, and control
      . Epithelial . Connective . Nervous . Muscle . Credits
    • Epithelial Tissue
      • Sheet of cells that lines a body cavity or covers a body surface
      • Divided into covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium
      • Forms boundaries between environments
      • Functions include protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sensory reception
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Connective . Nervous . Muscle . Home
    • Simple Epithelial Tissue
      • Composed of a single cell layer
      • Usually found where secretion, filtration, or absorption occur
      • All cells usually have the same shape
      • Usually very thin; poor protection
      Epithelial . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
    • Simple Squamous Epithelium
      • Cells are flattened laterally, and have sparse cytoplasm
      • Thin and often permeable
      • Usually used for filtration
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
    • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
      • Made of single layer cells that are as tall as they are wide
      • Nuclei stain darkly
      • Important functions are secretion and absorption
      • Forms the walls of the smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules.
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Columnar . Home
    • Simple Columnar Epithelium
      • Single layer of tall, closely packed cells that are lined in a row
      • Lines the digestive tract
      • Absorption and secretion
      • Some display cilia on free surfaces
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Home
    • Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
      • Cells vary in height
      • Cells rest on a basement membrane, but tallest reach the free surface
      • False impression of several cell layers
      • Short cells relatively unspecialized
      • Specializes in secretion and absorption
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
    • Stratified Epithelial Tissue
      • Contain two or more layers of cells
      • Regenerate from below
      • More durable than simple epithelia
      Epithelial . Simple . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
      • Most widespread
      • Composed of several layers
      • Thick and suited for protection
      • Made of squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells
      • Found in areas subject to wear and tear
      • Skin is keratinized
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
    • Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
      • Quite rare
      • Found in ducts of some of the larger glands
      • Two layers of cuboidal cells
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Columnar . Home
    • Stratified Columnar Epithelium
      • Limited distribution
      • Found in pharynx, male urethra, and lining in some glandular ducts
      • In some transition areas between two epithelia
      • Only apical layer is columnar
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Home
    • Transitional Epithelium
      • Forms lining of hollow urinary organs
      • Can change shape
      • Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar
      • Apical cells vary in appearance depending on the organ’s need to stretch
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
    • Glandular Epithelial Tissue
      • Glands consist of one or more cells that make and excrete a product
      • Secretion is a water-based fluid usually containing proteins (with some variation)
      • Endocrine (internal secretion) and exocrine (external secretion)
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Endocrine . Exocrine . Home
    • Endocrine Glands
      • Usually lose their ducts
      • Produce hormones
      • Hormones prompt target organs to respond
      • Structurally diverse
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Home
    • Exocrine Glands
      • Numerous with many familiar products
      • Secrete products onto body surfaces or into body cavities
      • Diverse
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Endocrine . Unicellular . Multicellular . Home
    • Unicellular Exocrine Glands
      • Only important example is goblet cell
      • Shaped like a goblet
      • Produces mucin
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Endocrine . Multicellular . Home
    • Multicellular Exocrine Glands
      • Structurally more complex
      • Two basic parts are duct and secretory unit
      • Split into multiple and compound
      • Secrete in different ways
      Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Endocrine . Unicellular . Home
    • Connective Tissue
      • Found everywhere in the body
      • Four main classes and several subclasses
      • Does much more than connect
      • Comes from mesenchyme
      • Different degrees of vascularity
      • Largely nonliving extracellular matrix
      • Three main elements- substance, fibers, cells
      Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Home
    • Connective Tissue Proper
      • Two subclasses- loose and dense
      • All mature connective tissues except bone, blood, and cartilage
      Connective . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Home
    • Loose Connective Tissues
      • Made up of loose fibers
      • Includes areolar, adipose, and reticular tissues
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Adipose . Reticular . Home
    • Areolar Tissue
      • Supports and binds other tissues
      • Holds body fluids
      • Defends against infection
      • Stores nutrients as fat
      • Loose arrangement of fibers
      • Reservoir of water and salts,
      • Soaks up fluids
      • Most widely distributed
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Adipose . Reticular . Home
    • Adipose Tissue
      • Similar to areolar tissue but with stronger nutrient-storing abilities
      • Adipocytes account for 90% of mass
      • Could not live more than a few days without eating
      • Constitutes 18% of weight
      • Acts as a shock absorber, insulation, and energy storing site
      • White stores nutrients, brown contains mitochondria
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Reticular . Home
    • Reticular Tissue
      • Resembles areolar tissue but only has reticular fibers
      • Widely limited to certain sites
      • Forms a stroma
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Adipose . Home
    • Dense Connective Tissues
      • Subclass of connective tissue proper
      • Fibers are predominant element
      • Made up of dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic tissues
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Regular . Irregular . Elastic . Home
    • Dense Regular Tissue
      • Closely packed collagen fibers going in the same direction
      • Tension in one direction results in white structures
      • Forms tendons
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Irregular . Elastic . Home
    • Dense Irregular Tissue
      • Same structural elements
      • Fibers are thicker and arranged irregularly
      • Forms joint capsules and coverings
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Regular . Elastic . Home
    • Elastic Tissue
      • Found in some ligaments
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Regular . Irregular . Home
    • Cartilage
      • Stands up to both tension and compression
      • Tough but flexible
      • Lacks nerve fibers and is avascular
      • Chondroblasts are key cell types in production
      Connective . Proper . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Elastic . Fibrocartilage . Home
    • Hyaline Cartilage
      • Most abundant cartilage type in body
      • Covers the ends of long bones
      • Composes almost the entire body before bone is formed
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Elastic . Fibrocartilage . Home
    • Elastic Cartilage
      • Nearly identical to hyaline cartilage
      • Many more elastin fibers
      • Where stretchability and strength are needed
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Fibrocartilage . Home
    • Fibrocartilage
      • Perfect middle between dense connective tissues and hyaline cartilage
      • Chondrocytes alternate with rows of collagen fibers
      • Compressible and resists tension
      • Cartilage of knee and vertebral discs
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Elastic . Home
    • Bone
      • Rocklike hardness
      • Supports and protects body structures
      • Similar to that of cartilage but more rigid
      • Has inorganic calcium salts
      • Well-supplied by blood vessels
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Blood . Home
    • Blood
      • Fluid within blood vessels
      • Most atypical
      • Develops from mesenchyme and consists of cells, surrounded by blood plasma
      • Most are red blood cells
      • Fibers are large, soluble protein molecules that precipitate
      • Transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system
      Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Home
    • Nervous Tissue
      • Main component of nervous system
      • Contains neurons
      • Made up of supporting cells that are nonconducting and insulates and protects the neuron.
      Home
    • Muscular Tissue
      • Highly cellular, well-vascularized tissue
      • Possesses myofilaments
      • Includes skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
      • Mostly voluntary
      Skeletal . Cardiac . Smooth . Home
    • Skeletal Muscle Tissue
      • Packaged by connective tissue sheets into organs called skeletal muscles
      • Form the flesh of the body
      • Pull on bones or skin, causing movement
      Muscular . Cardiac . Smooth . Home
    • Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      • Found only in wall of the heart
      • Contracts and propels blood through the body
      • Cells are striated
      • Cells are structurally different
      • Involuntary
      Muscular . Skeletal . Smooth . Home
    • Smooth Muscle Tissue
      • Cells have no visible striations
      • Found mainly in hollow organ walls
      • Alternates contracting and relaxing to squeeze substances through
      Muscular . Skeletal . Cardiac . Home
    • Credits
      • Pictures gathered from Flickr.com sources
      • including Akay and Jorrflv
      • Voice by Jamie Villella
      • Information from Human Anatomy and Physiology (Seventh Edition) by Elaine Marieb and Katja Hoehn
      • Hard work completed by Jamie Villella