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Tissues Tissues Presentation Transcript

  • Body’s Foundation: Tissues Begin here.
  • Tissues
    • Groups of cells similar in function
    • Four primary tissues- epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle.
    • Main functions include cover, support, movement, and control
    . Epithelial . Connective . Nervous . Muscle . Credits
  • Epithelial Tissue
    • Sheet of cells that lines a body cavity or covers a body surface
    • Divided into covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium
    • Forms boundaries between environments
    • Functions include protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sensory reception
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Connective . Nervous . Muscle . Home
  • Simple Epithelial Tissue
    • Composed of a single cell layer
    • Usually found where secretion, filtration, or absorption occur
    • All cells usually have the same shape
    • Usually very thin; poor protection
    Epithelial . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
  • Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Cells are flattened laterally, and have sparse cytoplasm
    • Thin and often permeable
    • Usually used for filtration
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
  • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Made of single layer cells that are as tall as they are wide
    • Nuclei stain darkly
    • Important functions are secretion and absorption
    • Forms the walls of the smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules.
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Columnar . Home
  • Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • Single layer of tall, closely packed cells that are lined in a row
    • Lines the digestive tract
    • Absorption and secretion
    • Some display cilia on free surfaces
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Home
  • Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Cells vary in height
    • Cells rest on a basement membrane, but tallest reach the free surface
    • False impression of several cell layers
    • Short cells relatively unspecialized
    • Specializes in secretion and absorption
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Glandular . Simple Squamous . Simple Cuboidal . Simple Columnar . Home
  • Stratified Epithelial Tissue
    • Contain two or more layers of cells
    • Regenerate from below
    • More durable than simple epithelia
    Epithelial . Simple . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
  • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • Most widespread
    • Composed of several layers
    • Thick and suited for protection
    • Made of squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells
    • Found in areas subject to wear and tear
    • Skin is keratinized
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
  • Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Quite rare
    • Found in ducts of some of the larger glands
    • Two layers of cuboidal cells
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Columnar . Home
  • Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Limited distribution
    • Found in pharynx, male urethra, and lining in some glandular ducts
    • In some transition areas between two epithelia
    • Only apical layer is columnar
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Home
  • Transitional Epithelium
    • Forms lining of hollow urinary organs
    • Can change shape
    • Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar
    • Apical cells vary in appearance depending on the organ’s need to stretch
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Stratified Squamous . Stratified Cuboidal . Stratified Columnar . Home
  • Glandular Epithelial Tissue
    • Glands consist of one or more cells that make and excrete a product
    • Secretion is a water-based fluid usually containing proteins (with some variation)
    • Endocrine (internal secretion) and exocrine (external secretion)
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Endocrine . Exocrine . Home
  • Endocrine Glands
    • Usually lose their ducts
    • Produce hormones
    • Hormones prompt target organs to respond
    • Structurally diverse
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Home
  • Exocrine Glands
    • Numerous with many familiar products
    • Secrete products onto body surfaces or into body cavities
    • Diverse
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Endocrine . Unicellular . Multicellular . Home
  • Unicellular Exocrine Glands
    • Only important example is goblet cell
    • Shaped like a goblet
    • Produces mucin
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Endocrine . Multicellular . Home
  • Multicellular Exocrine Glands
    • Structurally more complex
    • Two basic parts are duct and secretory unit
    • Split into multiple and compound
    • Secrete in different ways
    Epithelial . Simple . Stratified . Transitional . Pseudostratified . Glandular . Exocrine . Endocrine . Unicellular . Home
  • Connective Tissue
    • Found everywhere in the body
    • Four main classes and several subclasses
    • Does much more than connect
    • Comes from mesenchyme
    • Different degrees of vascularity
    • Largely nonliving extracellular matrix
    • Three main elements- substance, fibers, cells
    Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Home
  • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Two subclasses- loose and dense
    • All mature connective tissues except bone, blood, and cartilage
    Connective . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Home
  • Loose Connective Tissues
    • Made up of loose fibers
    • Includes areolar, adipose, and reticular tissues
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Adipose . Reticular . Home
  • Areolar Tissue
    • Supports and binds other tissues
    • Holds body fluids
    • Defends against infection
    • Stores nutrients as fat
    • Loose arrangement of fibers
    • Reservoir of water and salts,
    • Soaks up fluids
    • Most widely distributed
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Adipose . Reticular . Home
  • Adipose Tissue
    • Similar to areolar tissue but with stronger nutrient-storing abilities
    • Adipocytes account for 90% of mass
    • Could not live more than a few days without eating
    • Constitutes 18% of weight
    • Acts as a shock absorber, insulation, and energy storing site
    • White stores nutrients, brown contains mitochondria
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Reticular . Home
  • Reticular Tissue
    • Resembles areolar tissue but only has reticular fibers
    • Widely limited to certain sites
    • Forms a stroma
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Areolar . Adipose . Home
  • Dense Connective Tissues
    • Subclass of connective tissue proper
    • Fibers are predominant element
    • Made up of dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic tissues
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Regular . Irregular . Elastic . Home
  • Dense Regular Tissue
    • Closely packed collagen fibers going in the same direction
    • Tension in one direction results in white structures
    • Forms tendons
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Irregular . Elastic . Home
  • Dense Irregular Tissue
    • Same structural elements
    • Fibers are thicker and arranged irregularly
    • Forms joint capsules and coverings
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Regular . Elastic . Home
  • Elastic Tissue
    • Found in some ligaments
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Loose . Dense . Regular . Irregular . Home
  • Cartilage
    • Stands up to both tension and compression
    • Tough but flexible
    • Lacks nerve fibers and is avascular
    • Chondroblasts are key cell types in production
    Connective . Proper . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Elastic . Fibrocartilage . Home
  • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Most abundant cartilage type in body
    • Covers the ends of long bones
    • Composes almost the entire body before bone is formed
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Elastic . Fibrocartilage . Home
  • Elastic Cartilage
    • Nearly identical to hyaline cartilage
    • Many more elastin fibers
    • Where stretchability and strength are needed
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Fibrocartilage . Home
  • Fibrocartilage
    • Perfect middle between dense connective tissues and hyaline cartilage
    • Chondrocytes alternate with rows of collagen fibers
    • Compressible and resists tension
    • Cartilage of knee and vertebral discs
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Blood . Hyaline . Elastic . Home
  • Bone
    • Rocklike hardness
    • Supports and protects body structures
    • Similar to that of cartilage but more rigid
    • Has inorganic calcium salts
    • Well-supplied by blood vessels
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Blood . Home
  • Blood
    • Fluid within blood vessels
    • Most atypical
    • Develops from mesenchyme and consists of cells, surrounded by blood plasma
    • Most are red blood cells
    • Fibers are large, soluble protein molecules that precipitate
    • Transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system
    Connective . Proper . Cartilage . Bone . Home
  • Nervous Tissue
    • Main component of nervous system
    • Contains neurons
    • Made up of supporting cells that are nonconducting and insulates and protects the neuron.
    Home
  • Muscular Tissue
    • Highly cellular, well-vascularized tissue
    • Possesses myofilaments
    • Includes skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
    • Mostly voluntary
    Skeletal . Cardiac . Smooth . Home
  • Skeletal Muscle Tissue
    • Packaged by connective tissue sheets into organs called skeletal muscles
    • Form the flesh of the body
    • Pull on bones or skin, causing movement
    Muscular . Cardiac . Smooth . Home
  • Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    • Found only in wall of the heart
    • Contracts and propels blood through the body
    • Cells are striated
    • Cells are structurally different
    • Involuntary
    Muscular . Skeletal . Smooth . Home
  • Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • Cells have no visible striations
    • Found mainly in hollow organ walls
    • Alternates contracting and relaxing to squeeze substances through
    Muscular . Skeletal . Cardiac . Home
  • Credits
    • Pictures gathered from Flickr.com sources
    • including Akay and Jorrflv
    • Voice by Jamie Villella
    • Information from Human Anatomy and Physiology (Seventh Edition) by Elaine Marieb and Katja Hoehn
    • Hard work completed by Jamie Villella