Brisk Et Al 2010


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Teaching Writing in a Multilingual mainstream classroom.
Personal recounts and fictional narratives in a 4th grade classroom

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Brisk Et Al 2010

  1. 1. Teaching Writing in a Multilingual Mainstream Classroom María Estela Brisk, Boston College Deborah Nelson, Cheryl O'Connor Patrick Scialoia, Boston Public Schools
  2. 2. Halliday, M. A. K. (1994). Theory of Language Systemic Functional Linguistics Butt, D., Fahey, R., Feez, S., Spinks, S., & Yallop, C. (2000). Derewianka, B. (1990). Martin, J. (1992) Schleppegrell, M. (2004).
  3. 3. Meaning Making in Context for Bilinguals L CULTURE A A Context of Situation N F Register: medium G. F Field, tenor, mode Genre E C C H T O Lexical & Grammatical I C Phonology Gestures Graphology E TEXT
  4. 4. Context
  5. 5. Personal Recount Fictional Narrative Context of Situation Context of Situation - High stakes test Produce book in -  show off school - language knowledge What do novelist - Ability to write a do? coherent text Research a topic
  6. 6. REGISTER Field: Topic Purpose: Ideational function Genre Tenor: audience - writer; Voice,identity Interpersonal function Medium: Letter poem Mode: Book Oral/ written Multimodal Power point Textual function
  7. 7. REGISTER Field: Topic Ideational function
  8. 8. Field /topic •  Knowledge of the topic •  Language to express knowledge: –  Vocabulary –  Sentence structure –  Noun groups –  Verb groups –  Adverbials/circumstances –  Grammatical morphemes (L2 learners)
  9. 9. Vocabulary related to genre Procedure, action verbs. •  Put pork meat into boiling water until well cooked. •  Put shrimp into boiling water until well cooked. •  Put the bread in the toaster Fictional narrative, saying verbs. •  My mom said…. They said…. Hector said
  10. 10. Sentence Structure Combine sentences •  Jaguars live in alot of places. They live in wet lowlands areas, swampy grasslands. Break up and complete sentences After the penguins we saw, the sea turtles which was something wrong with it, five employees came to see what happed, I was in atonishment!
  11. 11. Verbs Groups –  omitting the s in 3rd person singular Also it weigh[s] 100 pounds. –  past tense, either omitting -ed or irregular past: they were not use[d] to. I brang a jug [brought] OR irregular + ed: we haded –  auxiliary to do for negation and questions –  person – verb tense agreement There was [were] two special clouds –  past participle: if you haven’t went[gone] to Santo Domingo
  12. 12. Noun groups article adjective Head 2 Head 1 •  Roar! [The loud cry /of a lion/ rubbing against trees.] Adjectival phrases apposition
  13. 13. Nouns Groups –  formation of plural childs or childrens –  omitting the subject pronoun If we have to go to school [it]is better –  possessive: the teachers[teacher’s] foult I is gonna be yours [your] falut –  under or overuse of the and a: we started to cook the rice (the not needed, she hadn’t mention rice before) –  prepositions: they have the most butiful beaches and[in] the world
  14. 14. Adverbials: He came. When? He came yesterday. How? Yesterday he came angry. Where? Yesterday he came home angry. With whom? Yesterday he came home angry with his friend. Why? He came because he wanted to see you.
  15. 15. REGISTER Field: Topic Ideational function Tenor: audience - writer; Voice,identity Interpersonal function
  16. 16. Tenor •  Audience – Relative relationship between writer and audience – Awareness of audience background knowledge •  Voice – Appropriate for the genre – Person – identity
  17. 17. REGISTER Field: Topic Ideational function Tenor: audience - writer; Voice,identity Interpersonal function Mode: Oral/ written Multimodal Textual function
  18. 18. Mode •  Oral, written, multimodal text •  Organization: –  Text structure given the genre –  Text structure given the medium •  Connecting devises: –  Theme –  Reference ties –  Lexical ties –  Rhetorical links •  Requirements of written language: –  Spelling –  conventions
  19. 19. REGISTER Field: Topic Ideational function Tenor: audience - writer; Voice,identity Interpersonal function Medium: Letter poem Mode: Book Oral/ written Multimodal Power point Textual function
  20. 20. Medium •  Letters •  Books: Picture, content area; chapter •  Dioramas •  poems •  Magazines •  Power points
  21. 21. REGISTER Field: Topic Purpose: Ideational function Genre Tenor: audience - writer; Voice,identity Interpersonal function Medium: Letter poem Mode: Book Oral/ written Multimodal Power point Textual function
  22. 22. Purpose: Genres of School •  Story Telling •  Recount (personal, factual, imaginative) •  Historical recount experiential •  Procedural recount (science, math) (chronological) •  Fictional Narrative •  Giving Instructions •  Procedure (Scientific Procedure) •  Organizing Information •  Report (scientific, social science, research report) •  Explanation (scientific, historical) •  Persuading logical •  Exposition •  Discussion •  Historical, scientific argument
  23. 23. Genre: Fictional Narrative Genre: Personal Recount Purpose: to entertain, to Purpose: to entertain teach something Field: unexpected Field: animal research for Tenor: a central character - Audience: outside Tenor: Audience: students evaluator in lower grades/peers - Voice: expert writer Voice: entertaining Mode: should be written Mode: written language language like like, avoid excessive Medium: how to write to a dialogue prompt Medium: a book
  24. 24. Genre “comparable texts which achieve the same general social purpose, and which therefore draw on the same relatively stable structural pattern” (Butt et al p. 214) Purpose GENRE Structural organization of text
  25. 25. Orientation Orientation Who, where, when, what Who, where, when, what Foregrounding Sequence of Events Sequence of Events (including complication, crisis) Resolution Ending Last event Conclusion Evaluation, feelings [optional or particular to a type of narrative, e.g. moral]
  26. 26. Teaching Personal Recounts to Prepare for a High Stakes Test
  27. 27. Minilessons •  Introductions •  Sequence of events timeline (using organizer) •  Topic related to former MCAS prompts
  28. 28. MCAS Writing Prompts •  Write a story about a special time that you spent with your favorite person. •  Write a story about when you did something for the first time. •  Write a story about a fun time that you had doing your favorite thing. •  Write a story about a time you were helpful.
  29. 29. Bilingual Learners Knowledge of Topic •  MCAS prompt: write a story about what you did when you had a snow day •  Yay! It,s snowing and it,s Christmas day that means there is no school.
  30. 30. Minilessons (cont.) •  Making up/embellishing when stuck on a question •  Showing not telling •  Transitional phrases •  Conclusions •  Scoring rubrics (looking at their own work as well as others) – understanding scoring system, trying to improve their own score
  31. 31. Mentor Texts •  Big Mama’s by Donald Crews •  The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant •  When I Was Young in the Mountains by Cynthia Rylant •  What You Knew First by Patricia MacLachlan •  Mint Snowbell by Naomi Shihab Nye •  Grandmama’s Kitchen Table by Cynthia Rylant •  Fireflies by Julie Brinckloe
  32. 32. Teaching Fictional Narratives
  33. 33. Minilessons •  Phase I: –  Researching an animal (character)from a scientific standpoint (graphic organizer for notetaking in packet)
  34. 34. animal Habitat What does it eat? Behaviors (nocturnal) Predators Continent where the are found Other questions I have researched _Q:__________________________ _A:___________________________
  35. 35. Minilessons Phase II: •  Planning using graphic organizers (in packet) •  Audience •  Point of view/perspective •  Setting (how it affects character development) •  Character development (character traits, character change, how do authors reveal character personalities?)
  36. 36. Character Traits –  Adventurous –  Friendly –  Rude –  Afraid –  Funny –  Shy –  Angry –  Generous –  Smart –  Bored –  Honest –  Successful –  Bossy –  Jealous –  Talented –  Brave –  Joyful –  Time –  Busy –  Loyal –  Trustworthy –  Cheerful –  Mature –  Unfriendly –  Dishonest –  Messy –  Wild –  Eager –  Patient –  Worried –  Energetic –  Responsible
  37. 37. Minilessons (cont.) •  Tone/mood •  Theme/moral •  Conflict and resolution •  Dialogue (quotations, saying verbs) •  Transitional phrases
  38. 38. Transitional Phrases •  To trigger addition: –  Finally •  To trigger a –  Additionally –  First relationship –  Besides –  In the meantime –  Because –  Furthermore •  To trigger summary: –  Consequently –  In addition –  Likewise –  As a result •  To trigger example: –  Nonetheless –  For example –  In conclusion –  In summary –  Similarly –  For instance –  Thus –  To sum up –  In other words •  To trigger a •  To trigger emphasis:•  To trigger granting a generalization: –  Above all point: –  All in all –  Certainly –  At any rate –  In general –  Of course –  Even so –  Typically –  Surely –  In any case –  Usually •  To trigger –  Nonetheless sequence: –  Afterward
  39. 39. Mentor Texts •  Bad Case of Stripes by David Shannon •  Thunder Cake by Patricia Polacco •  The Old Woman who Named Things by Cynthia Rylant •  In My Own Backyard by Judy Curijan •  Hurricane by David Weisner •  The Mitten by Jan Brett •  Three Snow Bears by Jan Brett •  Buffalo Hunt by Russell Freedman •  The True Story of the Three Little Pigs by Jon Scieszka •  Charlotte’s Web by E.B. White
  40. 40. Structural Elements •  Orientation –  Who, where, when, what –  Foregrounding •  Sequence of Events (including complication crisis) •  Resolution •  Conclusion –  Optional or particular to a type of narrative (e.g. moral)
  41. 41. Orientation Henry the Hyena was a mean, rude, bullying and picky hyena. Every morning he wakes up at 8:30 in the morning fresh as a daisy and goes to a banana tree to hang out with his friends. While their [there] at the banana tree miguel the monkey comes to the tree to get a banana.
  42. 42. Sequence of Events •  Once Henry the Hyena sees miguel getting a banana Henry just starts hurting miguel just to see him hurt, after all seeing people in pain is what he likes to see •  The next morning Henry and the rest of his hyena friends went to a different banana tree because today was the big banana contest and in this contest the first monkey to find the biggest banana wins the lake for a week… •  Henry snatched the big banana and broke it in half. “That’s it!” shouted miguel angrily. “I wish that you were a monkey so you will know how it feels to be picked on.” •  The next morning Henry woke up and saw that he had brown fur and saw that he was shorter so he went to the mirror. “Ahhh”!, shouted Henry. “It must’ve been when miguel the monkey said he wished I was a monkey which made in one.” ……
  43. 43. Resolution •  He walked to miguel’s house and started talking “Look miguel, I’m sorry for the way I was treating you , and you had to be mad at me and yes I now know it feels to be picked on. Look if you can forgive me and we can be friends that would be great.” “Apollogy accepted” replied miguel. “Great” said Henry. •  The next day Henry saw that he was back to normal . So was miguel. They both got to the banana tree at the same time. There was no teazing which meant everyone was friends.
  44. 44. Why is SFL good to inform instruction for bilingual learners? •  It helps uncover explicitly how English works •  It takes into account language and cultural context •  It is good for bilingual learners and for all students
  45. 45. •  Bilingual learners “can no longer be thought of as a group apart form the mainstream- in today’s culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms, they are the mainstream” (Gibbons, 2002, p. 13)