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- 1. Liquid Chromatography: Still Striving for High Efficiency Drexel University Literature Seminar by Anna Caltabiano 17 May 2010
- 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Chromatographic process – theoretical considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Variables that affect column efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Existing approaches to improve LC efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
- 3. Introduction
- 4. What is Chromatography? <ul><li>1993, IUPAC formulates: “Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of which is stationary (stationary phase) while the other (the mobile phase) moves in a definite direction”. </li></ul>Michael Semenovich Tswett Sakodynskii, Usp. Khromatogr. (1972), 9 (25), 9-25 <ul><li>March 8 th , 1903, Tswett emphasizes: “The method is based on the property of dissolved substances to produce physical adsorptive compounds with various mineral and organic solid substances”. </li></ul><ul><li>1906, Tswett names the newly discovered method: “Like light rays in the spectrum, the different components of a pigment mixture are resolved on the calcium carbonate column and then can be qualitatively and quantitatively determined. I call such a preparation a chromatogram , and the corresponding method a chromatographic method”. </li></ul>
- 5. Why use Chromatography? <ul><li>Separation of chemical components. </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity to a particular compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Purification of chemical components. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of chemical components. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantification of chemical components. </li></ul><ul><li>Great versatility (a variety of separation modes). </li></ul>
- 6. Chromatography today <ul><li>More than sixty variants of the technique have been developed. </li></ul><ul><li>HPLC, GC, SFC, and CE are the most frequently used. </li></ul><ul><li>HPLC: </li></ul><ul><li>almost universal </li></ul><ul><li>wide range of equipment and columns is commercially available </li></ul><ul><li>well-understood separation mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>sensitive, selective, precise and robust </li></ul><ul><li>easy to maintain instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>flexible in optimizing separations </li></ul><ul><li>less efficient than some of the separation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>GC is preferred to HPLC for analysis of gases, however approximately 75% of all known compounds cannot be separated by GC. </li></ul><ul><li>SFC is higher efficiency than HPLC, but it is limited to non-polar molecules when carbon dioxide is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) is a rival to HPLC, nevertheless the detection sensitivity is much lower than in HPLC. </li></ul>
- 7. Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) instrument Solvent delivery Pump Autosampler Column Detector Injector
- 8. The Chromatographic Process – Theoretical Considerations
- 9. Elution in Column Chromatography Mobile phase Stationary phase t 0 t 1 t 2 t 4 t 3
- 10. Intermolecular Interactions <ul><li>Dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>(induced dipole-induced dipole) </li></ul>δ - δ + δ + δ - δ + δ - b) Polar (dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole) δ - δ + e) Ionic H c) Hydrogen bonding NO 2 NO 2 d) Charge transfer
- 11. Chromatogram Column Time Chromatogram
- 12. Chromatogram (Cont) <ul><li>Ideally, the eluted peak would have the same form as the graphical representation of one dimension probability function of the normal distribution of random errors (i.e. Gaussian function). </li></ul>a) b) 2 0 -2 W = 4 σ W 0.607 = 2 σ W 0.5 = 2.354 σ <ul><li>The chromatogram represents the variation, with time, of the amount of the sample in the mobile phase recorded by the detector. </li></ul>
- 13. Retention Relationships t 0 t R t s t 0 – void volume; t R –retention time, t s – time spent in the mobile phase; L – column length; u 0 – superficial linear velocity of mobile phase; u – the average superficial linear velocity of analyte; V R – retention volume; F – flow rate; R – the fraction of the molecules present in the mobile phase at any time
- 14. Plate Number and HETP <ul><li>The band broadening process is measured by the column efficiency or plate number N: </li></ul>W 0.1 B A and reduced plate height: <ul><li>The efficiency of chromatographic columns increases with the increase in plate number, while plate height becomes smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>The variance per unit length of column can be used as a measure of efficiency: </li></ul>
- 15. Peak Capacity <ul><li>For complex multi-component compounds the relative performance of separation efficiency is measured by peak capacity instead of plate number. </li></ul><ul><li>The peak capacity is a hypothetical quantity, which is the total number of peaks that can fit side-by-side from start to finish in a chromatogram. </li></ul>For isocratic separations: k max is retention factor of the last peak; t g is the gradient time; w is the base peak width that is assumed to be constant For gradient separations: <ul><li>For small molecule, the peak capacity increases with gradient time and column length in a non-linear fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>The optimal flow rate for maximum peak capacity is higher than that for maximum theoretical plates. </li></ul>
- 16. Variables that Affect Column Efficiency
- 17. Band Broadening and Mobile Phase Velocity <ul><li>The column efficiency is a measure of band broadening. </li></ul><ul><li>Peak width and retention time determine plate number: </li></ul><ul><li>Various processes that occur inside and outside the column contribute to the peak width: </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul>d is contributions from longitudinal diffusion; sm – from stagnant mobile phase mass-transfer, s – from stationary phase mass-transfer, e – from eddy diffusion; m – from mobile phase mass transfer.
- 18. Band Broadening and Mobile Phase Velocity (Cont) <ul><li>Eddy Diffusion (a). Molecules undergo several diversions as they travel along the column. The lengths of the pathways differ significantly. </li></ul>a) Eddy Diffusion Mobile phase Particle b) Mobile Phase Mass-Transfer Particle <ul><li>Mobile Phase Mass-Transfer(b). Laminar flow between particles is faster in the stream center than it is near particles. </li></ul>
- 19. Band Broadening and Mobile Phase Velocity (Cont) <ul><li>Stagnant Mobile Phase and Stationary Phase Mass-Transfer (c). The rate of diffusion of the analyte molecules between the mobile phase outside the pores of the particles (flowing mobile phase) differs from the rate of diffusion within the pores of the particles (stagnant mobile phase). </li></ul>c) Stagnant Mobile Phase Mass-Transfer d) Longitudinal diffusion <ul><li>Longitudinal Diffusion (d). Solutes migrate from a more concentrated part of a medium to a more dilute region [14]. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-column contributions to band broadening. 1) volumetric - results from the volume of connecting tubing from the injector to the detector, the injection volume and the detector volume; and 2) time-related events - sampling rate and detector time constant. </li></ul>
- 20. Band Broadening and Mobile Phase Velocity (Cont) <ul><li>The magnitude of band broadening depends on the flow rate (the time of contact between the mobile phase and the stationary phase). </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship can be described by the van Deemter, the Giddings, the Knox, and several other equations. </li></ul>Van Deemter plot http://chromedia.org/chromedia
- 21. Column Length, Column Diameter and Particle Size η is the viscosity of the mobile phase ; K is the column permeability; dc is the column internal diameter. <ul><li>Efficiency can be increased by increasing column length or decreasing particle diameter: </li></ul><ul><li>However, these approaches are limited by pressure drop, P, across the column. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure drop is proportional to column length and inversely proportional to the particle diameter: </li></ul><ul><li>In theory, efficiency should not depend on column diameter, but practically it has been observed that narrower-diameter columns are usually less efficient that larger-diameter ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrower peaks are more susceptible to extra-column dispersion. </li></ul>
- 22. Temperature <ul><li>At the chemical equilibrium, the relationship between the equilibrium constant and the standard Gibbs free-energy: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature is an important variable in HPLC as it significantly impacts retention factor k : </li></ul><ul><li>Since viscosity is decreased at higher temperatures, pressure drop is decreased as well (allows higher flow rates at the same pressure): </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature increase promotes better diffusivity and mass transfer of the solutes (increases the molecular diffusion term, B-term, and decreases the mass-transfer term, C-term of the van Deemter equation). </li></ul><ul><li>Higher flow rates should be used in order to maintain the same efficiency at the elevated temperatures. Increasing flow rates, in turn, will result in an increase in pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of the elevated temperature is the reduction in the analysis time with negligible loss in column efficiency. </li></ul>kB is Boltzmann constant, d is the diameter of the solute
- 23. Existing approaches to improve LC efficiency
- 24. High Temperature Liquid Chromatography (HTLC) <ul><li>HTLC, operation at temperatures 40 - 200º C, was first proposed by Antia et al.. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretically increase in column temperature should provide increase in efficiency. However, practical results were thus far contradictory. In some instances, increase in column temperature led to improvement, had no effect, or even decreased column efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Guiochon postulated that the possible cause of theoretical vs. practical discrepancy are radial temperature gradients across the column. </li></ul><ul><li>Such temperature gradients should be kept to a minimum (not more than a few ºC) since even small gradients will cause large efficiency loss. </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature of incoming mobile phase should be controlled to prevent “thermal mismatch”. </li></ul>
- 25. High Temperature Liquid Chromatography (HTLC) (Cont) <ul><li>At high temperatures some compounds may undergo rapid degradation in the column. </li></ul><ul><li>In some instances decreasing analyte’s residence on the column may and changing the type of the stationary phase may improve the peak shape. </li></ul><ul><li>The stationary phase has to be stable for an extended period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary phase and column hardware might be subject to differential expansion which would result in the formation of voids and channels in the packing material and lead to additional band broadening . </li></ul><ul><li>The mobile phase should be cooled down right after it elutes from the column and before it enters the detector, because the sensitivity of the detector is affected by the temperature of the mobile phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible future of HTLC is miniaturization. </li></ul>
- 26. Monolithic Stationary Phase <ul><li>This approach is based on reduction of the mass-transfer resistance by increasing the external porosity and the flow-through pore size of the packing. </li></ul><ul><li>A monolithic column consists of a single piece of solid material that is compoused of interconnected skeletons and interconnected flow paths. </li></ul><ul><li>The high porosity allows high permeability and thus low pressure drop. </li></ul><ul><li>Small-sized skeletons of the material offer high efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity of both the silica skeleton and the through-pores determines the efficiency of monolithic columns. </li></ul>Tanaka et al., Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry (2003), 376, 298-301
- 27. Monolithic Stationary Phase (Cont) <ul><li>Some drawbacks of silica-based monoliths include peak asymmetry (tailing), limited variety and dimensions of monolithic columns, limited stability at high pressures, temperatures and pH. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanaka et.al hopes that in the future the operation of monolithic columns on CEC and UHPLC would be possible. </li></ul>Wu et al., Analytica Chimica Acta (2004), 523, 149–156
- 28. Fused-Core Stationary Phase Particles <ul><li>Fused-core particle technology was introduced by Kirkland in 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>The approach is based on reduction of the diffusion distance of analytes to minimize stagnant mobile phase mass-transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>The shorter diffusion path reduces axial dispersion of solutes and minimizes peak broadening. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in axial dispersion enables higher flow rates without sacrificing column performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Fused-core particles are characterized by their narrow particle size distribution. </li></ul>http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Product_Information_Sheet/t407044.Par.0001.File.tmp/t407044.pdf Fekete et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2009), 49, 64-71
- 29. Fused-Core Stationary Phase Particles (Cont) <ul><li>Zheng et al. compared the efficiency of totally porous (3 μm), fused-core and monolithic silica based C18 columns for a pharmaceutical product, Celestoderm-V Ointment (an API and critical degradants). </li></ul>Zheng et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2009), 50, 815-822
- 30. Small-diameter (sub-2- μ m) totally porous stationary phase particles and UHPLC <ul><li>This technology is based on reduction of the distance that a solute would travel within the stationary phase. This would minimize eddy diffusion (A-term) and the contribution of mass-transfer in the stagnant mobile phase (C-term). </li></ul><ul><li>When the particle size is reduced, the minimum plate height is decreased and the optimum velocity is increased. </li></ul>de Villiers et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2006), 1127, 60-69
- 31. Small-diameter (sub-2- μ m) totally porous stationary phase particles and UHPLC (Cont) <ul><li>When the particle size is reduced, the backpressure is increased. </li></ul><ul><li>MacNair et al. predicted theoretical plates, analysis time, and column pressure drop as a function of particle diameter for a small organic analyte with a mobile-phase diffusion coefficient of 6.7 x cm²/s and a capacity factor of 2 </li></ul>1.7um porous particle (Waters UPLC BEH) Fekete et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2009), 49, 64-71 where is the flow resistance factor related to the column packing structure Φ is the flow resistance factor related to the column packing structure
- 32. Small-diameter (sub-2- μ m) totally porous stationary phase particles and UHPLC (Cont) <ul><li>At high flow rates, the friction of the mobile phase against the stationary phase generates heat . The rate of heat generation (power dissipation) is the result of pressure drop and flow rate: </li></ul><ul><li>The heat, convectionally transported by the mobile phase along the column, conducts in the axial and radial directions, and evacuates into the air through the column walls and end-fittings. </li></ul>Gritti et al., Analytical Chemistry (2009), 81, 3365-3384
- 33. Small-diameter (sub-2- μ m) totally porous stationary phase particles and UHPLC (Cont) <ul><li>Since the detector measures the average concentration in the effluent from the column, and the radial concentration profiles of the analytes form an arc in the column (radial band velocity profile) the loss of efficiency is observed. </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum amplitude of the radial temperature gradient (ΔT) between the column wall and its center: </li></ul><ul><li>The frictional heating effect can be reduced by: </li></ul><ul><li>decreasing the column diameter; </li></ul><ul><li>not controlling the temperature of the column wall and allowing the column wall to be in contact with air; </li></ul><ul><li>cooling the temperature of the entering mobile phase. </li></ul><ul><li>At high flow rates using shorter columns should be used for better performance. </li></ul><ul><li>At optimal flow rates using longer columns will yield very high efficiency. </li></ul>q is the heat flux, Rc the column radius, and λ is the radial heat conductivity of the column packing
- 34. Conclusions
- 35. Conclusions <ul><li>The following approaches have been explored in order to improve HPLC efficiency and speed of analysis: high temperature LC, and monolithic, fused-core, sub-2-μm totally porous column particles technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The limitations of the HTC technique are uncertainties in column stability and possible on-column degradation of analytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Monolithic columns offer high efficiency and high speed due to high porosity and small skeleton size, which allow operation at high flow rates on longer columns. However, monolithic columns have limited stability at higher pressures, temperatures and pH. In addition, the limited variety of monolithic columns does not meet the demands for a wide range of industrial applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-2-μm totally porous particle technology offers high efficiency and shorter analysis times, however it comes at cost of the high pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Fused-core technology is relatively young, but it has already demonstrated the great potential in obtaining high efficiency. This technology allows to maintain approximately 80% of the efficiency of totally porous particles at half of the back-pressure, and thus can be used as an alternative to columns packed with sub-2-μm totally porous particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, the manifested trend of HPLC technology towards smaller particle sizes of stationary phases and narrower column inner diameters clearly indicates the direction of future HPLC development towards miniaturization (HPLC-chip technology). </li></ul>
- 36. References <ul><li>Sakodynskii, Usp. Khromatogr. (1972), 9 (25), 9-25 </li></ul><ul><li>Tswett, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft (1906), 24, 316-23 </li></ul><ul><li>Tswett, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft (1906), 24, 384-93 </li></ul><ul><li>Ettre, Pure &Appl, Chem (1993), 65 (4), 819-872 </li></ul><ul><li>Snyder et al., J. Wiley & Sons , (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Meyer, J. Wiley & Sons, (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Pai, Jo urnal of Chromatography A (2004), 1028, 89-103 </li></ul><ul><li>Lough et al., Blackie Academic & Professional (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Jeansonne et al., Journal of Chromatography (1989), 461, 149-163 </li></ul><ul><li>Rouessac et al., John wiley and Sons (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Foley et al., Analytical Chemistry (1983), 55, 730-737 </li></ul><ul><li>Guo et al., Chromatographia (2009), 70, 1045-1054 </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkup et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2004), 1030, 25-31 </li></ul><ul><li>Fountain et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2009), 1216, 5979-5988 </li></ul><ul><li>http://chromedia.org/chromedia </li></ul><ul><li>de Villiers et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2006), 1127, 60-69 </li></ul><ul><li>Giddings, Chromatographic Science Series, Vol. 1 (1965), 336 </li></ul><ul><li>Knox, Journal of Chromatographic Science (1977), 15, 352-364 </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkup et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2004), 1030, 25-31 </li></ul><ul><li>Usher et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2008), 1200, 122-128 </li></ul><ul><li>Eghbali et al., Analytical Chemistry (2009), 81, 705-715 </li></ul><ul><li>Mazzeo et al., Analytical Chemistry (2005), 77(23), 460 A–467 A </li></ul><ul><li>Wu et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2006), 1131, 142-150 </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia Britannica on-line: http://www.britannica.com </li></ul><ul><li>Yang et al., Analytica Chimica Acta (2006), 558, 7-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Antia et al., Journal of Chromatography (1988), 435(1), 1-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Yang et al., Journal of Chromatographic Science (2002), 40(2), 107-112. </li></ul>
- 37. References (Cont) <ul><li>Kondo et al., Analytica Chimica Acta (2003), 494(1-2), 157-166. </li></ul><ul><li>Warren et al., Analytical Chemistry (1988), 60, 2821-2824 </li></ul><ul><li>Guiochon, Journal of Chromatography A (2006), 1126, 6-49 </li></ul><ul><li>Thompson et al., Analytical Chemistry (2002), 74(16), 4150-4159. </li></ul><ul><li>Giegold et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2008), 46(4), 625-630 </li></ul><ul><li>Teutenberg, Analytica Chimica Acta (2009), 643, 1-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Hjerten et al., Journal of Chromatography (1989), 473(1), 273-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Tanaka et al., Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry (2003), 376, 298-301 </li></ul><ul><li>Altmaier et al., Journal of Separation Science (2008), 31, 2551-2559. </li></ul><ul><li>Ikegami et al., Elsevier. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology (2004), 8, 527-533 </li></ul><ul><li>Wu et al., Analytica Chimica Acta (2004), 523, 149–156 </li></ul><ul><li>Ikegami et al., Elsevier. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology (2004), 8, 527-533 </li></ul><ul><li>Kele et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2002), 960, 19-49 </li></ul><ul><li>Guillarme et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2007), 11 (1), 20-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkland, Analytical Chemistry (1992), 64(11), 1239-45. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Supelco/Product_Information_Sheet/t407044.Par.0001.File.tmp/t407044.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Fekete et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2009), 49, 64-71 </li></ul><ul><li>Gritti et al., Journal of Chromatography, A (2007), 1157(1-2), 289-303 </li></ul><ul><li>Zheng et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2009), 50, 815-822 </li></ul><ul><li>Cunliffe et al., Journal of Separation Science (2007), 30, 3104-3109 </li></ul><ul><li>Abrahim et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2010), 51, 131-137 </li></ul><ul><li>Gritti et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2010), 1217, 1589-1603 </li></ul><ul><li>Wu et al., Journal of Separation Sciences (2007), 30,1167-1182 </li></ul><ul><li>MacNair et al., Analytical Chemistry (1999), 71, 700-708 </li></ul><ul><li>Gritti et al., Analytical Chemistry (2009), 81, 3365-3384 </li></ul><ul><li>Gritti et al., Analytical Chemistry (2008), 80, 5009-5020 </li></ul><ul><li>Kaczmarski et al., Journal of Chromatography A (2009), 1216, 6575-6586 </li></ul>
- 38. Thank You! Tswett’s column Waters Acquity BEH (UPLC) column Agilent HPLC-Chip

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