136 ch7bone[1]
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136 ch7bone[1]

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Chapter Seven is the chapter that focuses on bone tissue. The anatomy, orgina and physiology of human bone tissue and how it is developed.

Chapter Seven is the chapter that focuses on bone tissue. The anatomy, orgina and physiology of human bone tissue and how it is developed.

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    136 ch7bone[1] 136 ch7bone[1] Presentation Transcript

    • Ch. 7 – Bone tissue
      • Skeletal system – composed of bone, cartilages, ligaments
      • Functions: support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood formation
    • Bone tissue
      • Fig. 7.1: bone shapes ( long, short, flat, irregular)
    •  
    •  
    • Fig. 7.2: anatomy of a long bone
        • Compact bone, spongy (cancellous) bone
    • Fig. 7.2: anatomy of a long bone
        • Compact bone, spongy (cancellous) bone
        • Diaphysis, epiphysis, marrow cavity (in the diaphysis; filled with yellow bone marrow)
        • Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage covering the epiphyses)
    • Fig. 7.2: anatomy of a long bone
        • Periosteum (serous membrane around the outside of the bone) , endosteum (lines the cavities inside bones)
        • Epiphyseal plate – hyaline cartilage; the site of long bone growth (in length ) – found only in children
        • Epiphyseal line – when long bone growth is completed, the plate turns into bone; full height has been achieved
    • Fig. 7.4: bone cells
      • Osteogenic cells – stem cells that give rise to other bone cells
      • Osteoblasts – bone-forming cells; make the boney matrix
    •  
    • Fig. 7.4: bone cells
      • Osteocytes
        • Former osteoblasts that are trapped inside the matrix they deposited
        • Lie in lacunae, which are connected by canaliculi
    • Fig. 7.4: bone cells
      • Osteocytes
        • Former osteoblasts that are trapped inside the matrix they deposited
        • Lie in lacunae, which are connected by canaliculi
          • Neighboring osteocytes are connected to each other via gap junctions in these canaliculi; this is how they pass nutrients and wastes to each other since they are far from blood vessels
    • Fig. 7.4: bone cells
      • Osteocytes
        • Former osteoblasts that are trapped inside the matrix they deposited
        • Lie in lacunae, which are connected by canaliculi
          • Neighboring osteocytes are connected to each other via gap junctions in these canaliculi; this is how they pass nutrients and wastes to each other since they are far from blood vessels
      • Osteoclasts
        • Dissolve bone
        • They contain lots of lysosomes (digestive enzymes)
    •  
    • Compact bone
      • Fig. 7.5: osteon (the structural unit of compact bone)
      • Concentric lamellae (layers of matrix)
    • Compact bone
      • Fig. 7.5: osteon (the structural unit of compact bone)
      • Concentric lamellae (layers of matrix)
      • Central canal (contains blood vessels and nerves)
      • Perforating canals (horizontal passageways that connect central canals)
    • Compact bone
      • Fig. 7.5: osteon (the structural unit of compact bone)
      • Concentric lamellae (layers of matrix)
      • Central canal (contains blood vessels and nerves)
      • Perforating canals (horizontal passageways that connect central canals)
      • Boney matrix is made of mineral salts (calcium and phosphate) crystallized onto collagen fibers
    • Spongy bone
      • Trabeculae form along stress lines
    • Bone marrow
      • Is located in the marrow cavity of long bones and in the spaces of spongy bone
      • Two kinds:
    • Bone marrow
      • Is located in the marrow cavity of long bones and in the spaces of spongy bone
      • Two kinds:
        • Red bone marrow makes blood cells
          • Located in spongy bone
        • Yellow bone marrow stores fat
          • Located in the marrow cavity of long bones
    • Bone development
      • Ossification , or osteogenesis – formation of bone
      • Fig. 7.10:
        • The fetal skeleton is made of hyaline cartilage; it ossifies during development (isn’t done until mid-20’s)
    •  
    • Bone development
      • Ossification , or osteogenesis – formation of bone
      • Fig. 7.10:
        • The fetal skeleton is made of hyaline cartilage; it ossifies during development (isn’t done until mid-20’s)
        • (Also see fig. 7.12 on your own) Fig. 7.2: the epiphyseal plate is the site of long bone growth (in length)
          • When this (hyaline) cartilage is depleted, becomes an epiphyseal line and growth has ended
    • Insight 7.2: achondroplastic dwarfism
        • Growth of long bones in length ends early (the epiphyseal plate closes very early)
          • Long bone growth is stunted (in length)
        • Pituitary dwarfism – deficiency in growth hormone, so all bones are affected, not just long bones
    • Bone remodeling
      • Continual remodeling throughout life
      • Stresses on bone create microscopic fractures, which stimulate osteoblast activity
    • Bone remodeling
      • Continual remodeling throughout life
      • Stresses on bone create microscopic fractures, which stimulate osteoblast activity
      • Also, osteoclasts release minerals into the blood when needed
      • This process reshapes bones in response to current needs/activities
    • Bone remodeling
      • Continual remodeling throughout life
      • Stresses on bone create microscopic fractures, which stimulate osteoblast activity
      • Also, osteoclasts release minerals into the blood when needed
      • This process reshapes bones in response to current needs/activities
      • If a stress is repeatedly applied to a particular area, osteoblasts will deposit more bone there, creating a bump or ridge
      • If excess bone is not needed, osteoclasts will remove it
    • Disorders
      • Insight 7.4: osteoporosis
        • Brittle bones from loss of matrix, particularly in spongy bone
        • Bones fracture easily
    • Disorders
      • Insight 7.4: osteoporosis
        • Brittle bones from loss of matrix, particularly in spongy bone
        • Bones fracture easily
        • Highest risk in postmenopausal white women; other risk factors: smoking, diabetes, poor diet, lack of weight-bearing exercise
        • Osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts
    • Disorders
      • (See table 7.3):
        • Rickets – softening of the bones; caused by insufficient sunlight or vit. D in children
          • Vit. D increases the absorption of calcium from food (in the digestive tract)