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  • 1. Carl Wernicke By Charles Lok, Sunwoo Park, & Leslie Chan
  • 2. Wernicke’s Area
  • 3. Location and Function
    • Located at the junction of the partiety, temporal, and occipital lobes in the left hemisphere
    • Responsible for:
      • Language Comprehension
      • Semantic Processing
      • Language Recognition
      • Language Interpretation
  • 4. Discovery
    • Wernicke (1874) observed that patients with damage to the left temporal lobe had difficulty with speech and understanding sentences
    • Hypothesized that an area in the left temporal lobe was responsible for speech processing
  • 5. Evaluation
      • Technology was not available at the time to scan patients so there was not much else that could have been done
  • 6. Wernicke’s Aphasia
    • A.K.A – Receptive Aphasia
    • Results from damage to the Wernicke’s area
  • 7. Research
    • Wernicke (1874) found that patients who had sustained damage to the left temporal cortex had difficulty in speaking
  • 8. Method
    • Post-Mortem Studies
  • 9. Symptoms
    • A person with Wernicke’s aphasia will most likely:
      • Speak in a regular pace however interchange certain words for others making their sentences near impossible to comprehend
      • Have difficulty understanding speech
      • Their speech is unaffected however they do not know that what they are saying is wrong
      • Reading is near impossible
      • They do not understand what others say
  • 10. Evaluation
    • Wernicke’s aphasia and damage to the Wernicke’s area have been frequently correlated
    • Studies treat Wernicke’s aphasia as a given and expand upon
      • Wernicke's aphasia and normal language processing: A case study in cognitive neuropsychology.
      • An On-Line Analysis of Syntactic Processing in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia
      • Recovery from wernicke's aphasia: A positron emission tomographic study
  • 11. Wernicke-Geschwind Model
    • Initially, proposed by Carl Wernicke in 1870s
    • In 1965, Norman Geschwind renewed the theory in 1955
    • Model of language
    • Accounts for hearing, speaking, and reading
  • 12. Process
  • 13. Hearing
    • Spoken Word  Area 41  Wernicke’s Area  Hear and Comprehend Word
    • Hearing: the hearing process starts off with a spoken word, the sounds of the spoken words are sent through the auditory pathway to Area 41 (primary auditory cortex) also known as the Heschl's gyrus. Subsequently, the sounds of the spoken words continue on to Wernicke's area, where the meaning is educed.
  • 14. Speaking
    • Cognition  Wernicke’s Area  Broca’s area  Facial Area of Motor Cortex  Cranial Nerves  Speak
    • Speaking: the meaning of words are process in Wernicke's area and then sent to Broca's area, which stores motor programs for speaking words. Moreover, morphemes (the smallest linguistic that has sementic meaning) are assembled here. Therefore, the model suggests that broca's area is in charge of articulating words. Subsequently, the  instructions for words are sent to the facial area of motor cortex and then sent to the facial motor neurons in the brain stem, which then sends out orders to facial muscles in order to produce sound.
  • 15. Reading
    • Written word  Area 17  Area 18, 19  Area 39 (angular gyrus)  Wernicke’s area  Read
    • Reading: the visual perception of words are sent to the area 37, angular gyrus (in the parietal lobe), and then to Wernicke's area (for silent reading), if its "reading out loud" then it works together with Broca's area.
  • 16. Method of Research
    • Observing damaged patients
    • Geschwind’s aphasic patients
  • 17. Limitations
    • Limited
    • = Research based on aphasic patients so it does not apply to normal people
    • Studies that went against it (Penfield and Roberts) in 1959
    • = effects of the surgical removal of language ares from the W-G model had no correlation to the deficits consistent with the model’s predictions
  • 18. Strengths
    • Experiments that supported the model
    • = Hecaen and Angelergues (1964)
    • -- they came to the same conclusion with 215 patients suffering brain damage in the left-hemisphere
    • = Ojemann (1983)
    • --- electrically stimulated W-G areas
  • 19. Link to video
    • This will enhance your understanding of the model
    • http://www.sagepub.com/garrettbb2study/animations/9.23.htm
  • 20. Works Cited
    • http://pages.slc.edu/~ebj/IM_97/Lecture10/L10.html
    • http://everything2.com/title/Wernicke-Geschwind+model
    • Glassman
    • Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner
    • Myers