Over 75% of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer are age 50 or older. Men can get breast cancer, although this is very rare. For every man who is diagnosed, over 100 women are found to have breast cancer. Most women — about 80% — who get breast cancer do not have a sister or mother who has breast cancer. Excluding skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. 1990s the breast cancer death rate declined by the largest amount in over 65 years. Heart disease is the leading killer of women. Approx 97% of women diagnosed with breast ca at an early stage survive 5 yrs or more. There is no single cause of breast cancer. Research has shown that several different factors increase the risk of breast cancer. Genetic and lifestyle differences increase the risk for some cancers.
Presented by: Dr. Sk. Sabir Ahmed Chairperson: Prof. Dr. Chikkannachari
Venous drainage: the superficial veins radiate from breast & are characterized by their proximity to skin.
They are accompanied by lymphatics & drain to axillary, internal mammary & intercostal vessels.
Phlebitis of one of these superficial veins feel like a cord immediately beneath the skin. The condition produces no discoloration & may be tensed like bowstring by putting traction on it (Mondor’s disease).
Nerve supply: the secreting tissue is supplied by sympathetic nerves(2 nd -6 th intercostal nerves). The overlying skin is supplied by the ant & lat branches of 4 th , 5 th & 6 th intercostal nerves.
Beatson , a surgeon in glasgow cancer hospital was the first to demonstrate that BL oophorectomy can lead to metastatic breast cancer.
Huggins, reemphesized oophorectomy & demonstrated the effectiveness of adrenalectomy in treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
But endocrine ablation therapy has been replaced by antiestrogen therapy.
is the first line treatment of estrogen sensitive breast cancer.
Class Common examples Clinical use Selective estrogen receptor modulator(SERMS) Tamoxifen, Raloxifen, Toremifen Adjuvant therapy for metasttic disease Aromatase inhibitors(AIs) Anastrazole Letrozole Exemestane Adjuvant therapy for metasttic disease Pure antiestrogen Lutinizing hormone- releasing hormone(LHRH) Fluvistrant Goserelin Leuprolide -2 nd line therapy for metastatic disease -Adjuvant therapy for metasttic disease Progestational agents Megestrol 2 nd line therapy for metastatic disease Androgens Fluoxymesterone 3 rd line therapy for metastatic disease High dose estrogens Diethylstilbestrol 3 rd line therapy for metastatic disease