Meti Mallikarjun
Dept. of Linguistics
Sahyadri Arts College
In the present paper, we discuss some of the dynamic links between
Language and power, Language and hegemon...
indicators for characterizing the unity and diversity of this country.
Therefore, in the context of multilingual conscious...
language. We in Asia communicate with the world and one another by the
means. Therefore, the demand of English learning in...
this paper is to view language policy as not only the specific, the overt, the
explicit, the de-jury embodiment of rules i...
foreign language can estimate 115 million learners at school level the early
1970’s, (Gage and Ohannessian 1974; British c...
spoken) that the use of Hindi in the government services would
disadvantage them for employment in those areas. They thoug...
worldwide language, then also it has become a liberating force for
colonized and hegemonic-class of people. Mark Tully (19...
ashamed of their mother tongue and punished for speaking it. In
Karnataka, for example, speaking in vernaculars was forbid...
therefore, not surprising that English is being used in most all in functional
domains. English, today, is undoubtedly the...
Shriram). At the other side K V Narayana suggests that,” words from
English must be directly incorporated into the Kannada...
arguments, one can raise a question that this dominant language was not
under the control of any native elite guarding acc...
against Hindi, which is perceived as greater threat linguistic survival for
the Tamils. In other words, English is virus-p...
6. Cunningham, D and Hotoss, A: 2005 an International Perspective on Language
Policies, Practices and Proficiencies. (Eds)...
24. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Phillipson, R. (Eds.). (1994). Linguistic human rights:
Overcoming linguistic determination. Be...
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  1. 1. KANNADA VERSUS ENGLISH LOCAL AND GLOBAL CONSIDERATIONS Meti Mallikarjun Dept. of Linguistics Sahyadri Arts College Kuvempu University Shimoga-577203 metimallikarjun@yahoo.com meti.mallikarjun@gmail.com Abstract This paper intends to explore the interactions and interfaces between Kannada and English in terms of linguistic value, myth and danger in the process of Globalization i.e. the way in which linguistic hegemony and domination occur at the local and global level in the context of linguistic choice, preferences and use in the functional domains. The domains, which we take into consideration in order to understand the linguistic hegemony and domination are; education, science, technology and wider communication. The impact of globalization, internationalism, information technology, economical reformations and international relations on the local language i.e. Kannada is the major concern of this paper. At the same time, how English plays an important role in order to make the Indian languages as an unpredictable therefore, this paper discusses hybridity as a strategy of survival for those caught between the languages of their colonization and their indigenous languages and illustrates how, through hybridization, postcolonial subjects use colonial languages without privileging colonial languages. Drawing on Bakhtinian notion of hybridization, this paper shows colonial and indigenous languages contesting each other’s authority, challenging and unmasking the hegemony of English and to some extent Kannada is indigenous language spoken in Karnataka. However, this paper conceives the relationship of English and Kannada as not always contestatory but as accomodating. the paper extends our understanding of hybridity as marking both contestation and communion. Of particular significance is the way in which English is criticized even in the using of it in literature, education and science and technology. This analysis of hybridity highlights the contradictoriness of colonized identity and establishes and confirms the idea of a hybridized postcolonial cultural and linguistic identity.How are language and identity related? This exploratory essay probes the conceptual and logical connections between these two elemental factors of human existence, offers thoughts about an alternative discourse, and looks at suggestive data regarding the tie between violence and identity... In this argumentative essay, language is seen as forming a nucleus of identity, identity as being forged in conflict, and discourse marking our path to, through and out of linguistic war and peace. Abating identity threats through identity-affirming discourse may, I conclude, be the best and most lasting tool towards linguistic peace. 1
  2. 2. 1.Introduction In the present paper, we discuss some of the dynamic links between Language and power, Language and hegemony and Language and Globalization, to underscore their impact and relevance to the study of intra and inter linguistic groups’ relations. In particular, we address the means by which the dominance and hegemonic act of English on Indian languages or Kannada in particular-English as the world’s lingua-franca, language of science, technology, law, international relations and language of education. It is without doubt that, since the days of British Raj, English is language of the domination, status and privilege in India. The hegemonic colonial project in India was to create and maintain a class of administrative officers, clerks and compliant civil servants. To establish these agendas of British Raj, in year 1835, in March, Lord Macaulay, a member of the supreme council in India, brazenly declared that the task of British in India was to... “do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect” (1919:16). It suggests that the arrival and establishment of English in Indian situation is not a simple phenomena, of course, it is a complex phenomena. When English came to India, it came as weapon of colonial and imperialism not as a language of culture and knowledge. There fore, it is very important and necessary to realize the socio-cultural, political, and linguistic realities of Kannada in the context of globalization i.e. sociolinguistic globalization. India, being a multilingual and multicultural country for a long time, in this multiplicity, everyone experiences the heterogeneity in terms of linguistic, cultural and social values, beliefs, practice and behavior which attest the political and cultural nationality of India. It is true; the linguistic situation of India has been a quite crucial factor in understanding the ‘Indianess’ of course, there are myths and realities regarding Indianess, but here, this notion is taken as collective phenomena which may helps us to understand the heterogeneous realities of this country. This persisting fundamental diversity is being approached and reflected in this paper under the concepts of multi-perceptivity, multi- expressiveness and multi-lingualism. In this sense, India is to be considered as multi-lingual country at each of its conspicuous aspects, parts and concerns not just based on several languages are being spoken by Indians. Where as all socio-linguistic groups and communities having multiple modes of expressions and communication live side by side even overly each other, without, necessarily, entering in conflict with one another. Thus, language and its diversity is one of the significant 2
  3. 3. indicators for characterizing the unity and diversity of this country. Therefore, in the context of multilingual consciousness and identities, to examine the effects of the hegemony of English on the language attitudes of speakers of a given language at one hand at the other, to investigate the connections between the predominant use of English in education and other functional domains at the institutional level and the vitality or sub- ordination of selected Indian language i.e. Kannada. In this regard, the English language has become a dominant tool of communication, which raised several conflict and confusions in linguistic choice and preferences. 2.Linguistic and Cultural Conflict: Whether English is a Weapon or Liberating Force? It is widely debated and discussed that, the end of the twentieth century was becoming a major turning point in the linguistic and cultural context, as it changes from a multilingual to an English monolingual environment as for as Indian situation (it means, in the functional domains) is concerned. The concepts like ‘Global Language’ and ‘Global Village’ are perishing the indigenous linguistic and social diversities at local level, in the sense, nativizing English in India. The relationship of English with the Indian languages is legitimized by its nativization. It has been nativized in grammar, semantics, and pragmatic acquiring the features of Indian languages (E.Annamalai:2004). This development is reinforced in the process of globalization, in this process, where all linguistic and socio- cultural diversities are disappearing, in the sense, the concept of pluralism are replaced by the concepts like global village and global language. By this way, monoculture and mono-language situations are taking their establishment in the avatar of neo-colonialism, this is how, linguistic and cultural hegemony is spreading across the world. At the same time, it is very significant to reevaluate the impact and influence of ‘English language’ and ‘Westernization’ on Indian cultural and linguistic entities. It does not mean that, the above-discussed arguments are strateforword and simple enough to agree. Consequently, there are voices, which witness and attest the assumptions, aspirations and perceptions of English language in globalization. The vast majority of people who are learning English are doing so to be able to use this lingua franca. It means that, they are not learning English with express purpose of communicating with native speakers of English. Non-native speakers with other non-native speakers are using English. The English that they use need not therefore reflect any “Anglo” cultural values. This implies that English is no longer some colonial 3
  4. 4. language. We in Asia communicate with the world and one another by the means. Therefore, the demand of English learning in primary schools at first standard in Karnataka by backwards and Dalits has become very crucial phenomena. If at all Kannadigas would like to interact in intra- lingual situation in India itself, they can only choose English language. Such extended functions of English have a profound effect on the nature of multilingualism in India. The very disadvantage of this linguistic effect on Indian multiplicity of language and culture in terms, where the correlations interlinked between the great and little traditions (singer 1972) in the practiced of shared culture will be in endangered situation. The challenging task is, what are the mode of preserving strategies have to be followed by the indigenous speech communities in this socio-linguistic crises. In this respect, they have been practicing a happy but typical mixture of localization and globalization with reference to their mother tongue and the other tongue, English (A.P.Andrewskutty:2002). It may be the case of promoting ‘Local’ language and cultures has degree of importance for Indian (i.e. Kannada identity) identity, in that linguistic equality – or at least linguistic pluralism contributes to social cohesion (A.P.Andrewskutty:2002). Rehabilitating indigenous languages at the institutional level encourages the polity to engage with a shared history and has the effect of promoting national unity but as ‘legitimating symbols’ of a proto-nation state in era of globalization, pluri-lingual policies which promote languages are, on their own, not enough. There fore, it is felt that to the outside world any Indian language will not survive in the functional domains. Consequently, “the oppressed social groups want to appropriate English to serve them in their battle against upper castes, who have come to control the major Indian languages and the benefits from them. While becoming a powerful cousin to help the disadvantaged, English has simultaneously acquired a native elite cutting across regions and castes, and has spread from cerebral domains to expressive domains, which have been exclusive to Indian languages, in the name of modernity and cosmopolitanism” (E.Annamalai:2004). It is very much necessary to make English available to downtrodden and other Dalits and Backwards Classes in the domains like education alongside their local language. In this, way unprivileged social groups can be benefited the linguistic opportunities at global level. This also recognizes the role of language as the main vehicle for the construction, replication, and transmission of culture itself. Though language itself is a cultural construct, this does not imply that it can be deconstructed, changed, or radically altered by the application of particular political scrutinizes of one sort or another. Language (and languages) means different things to different people, and policy- formulation is often vague and ill defined. Perhaps the main contribution of 4
  5. 5. this paper is to view language policy as not only the specific, the overt, the explicit, the de-jury embodiment of rules in laws or constitutions, but as a broader entity, rooted in covert, implicit, grass- roots, unwritten, de facto practices that go deep into the culture. In the end, every language policy is culture-specific, and it is in the study of linguistic culture that we will come to understand why language policies evolve the way they do, why they work (or do not work) the way they are planned to work, and how peoples' lives are affected by them. The challenge in the study of language policy is that there are so many variables that must be dealt with and those simplistic notions or one-note theories cannot hope to capture the complexity that is language and linguistic culture (Harold F. Schiffman: 1996). There is no danger that any group will learn English, so the politics of elite centricity must be seen as an attack on unprivileged social groups where they can be benefited the linguistic opportunities. 3.Language Use in Functional Domains: Linguistic Priority and Choice Language is a communication medium for turning a power base into influence. However, more than that, the creation of power and its maintenance or change can also occur in and through language. The way in which language choice takes place based on linguistic priority in a multilingual situation is very complex factor. In which linguistic preference interplays between native language and English in various functional domains. What is especially interesting in this paper is that it analyses the different ways in which English as a means of communication is evolving, developing into literally separate languages, yet which are still understandable by those who speak any version of English. English is important not just for ‘competitiveness’ with regard to the IT sector but also because it has gone on to become glue for the whole of India which has several official languages to preserve. Indian English is really a language on its own, as evidenced by the body of Indian writing in English, and the fact that practically all higher education is in the English language. In fact, it is explaining very well how many Indians use only English to speak with each other. English is as Indian a language as any other is. English has a dominant position in science, technology, medicine, and computers, in research, books, periodicals, and software, in transnational business, trade, shipping and aviation; in diplomacy and international organizations; in mass media entertainment, news agencies, and journalism; in youth culture, sports; in education systems. As the most widely learnt, 5
  6. 6. foreign language can estimate 115 million learners at school level the early 1970’s, (Gage and Ohannessian 1974; British councilling report 1989/9). English education has become most desirable thing for professional jobs and a mark of status in India where as, Kannada and other Indian languages do not fulfill their expectations in terms of economic and societal aspects. However, English has given a prominent place among elite and middle-class people. It is true; Kannada is oldest language, heritagious and got literary tradition than English. Nevertheless, in the global context, the amount of importance and privilege is given to English just because of it was a language of colonialism, imperialists and modernity i.e. enlightenment. Therefore, the traditional Hindu-intellectuals demanded the English language for education and other functional usages. This can be proved by stating Surendranath Banerjee, a Bengali intellectual, “English education has uplifted all who have come under its influence to a common platform of thoughts, feelings and aspirations. Educated Indians whether of Bengal, Madras, Bombay, or northwestern provinces are brought up under the same intellectual moral and political influences, kindred hopes, feelings and ideas are thus generated. The educated class of India is thus brought nearer together....” (N.krishnaswamy and Lalitha krishnaswamy: 2006: p-78) Its importance as a language of vital opportunities and international contact has become increasingly clear. On the other hand, all the major Indian languages and the number of minority and tribal languages that are claiming their share in the country is educational and power structure is increasingly multiplying. Nor could anyone deny the significance of Hindi developing as a national link language. Thus, the constitution also provides for the rights of its citizens to make representation in any language to the state. It also provides for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minorities the multiplicity of languages in the country and the continued presence of English for a variety of important functions made it clear that no straightforward simplistic solution could sustain the participatory nature of democracy in a plurilingual society. It is therefore not surprising that the three- language formula evolved as a consensus in 1961 even before India gained its independence in 1947; there were attempts to evolve a policy that would be more suitable to the needs of a self-governing India than that which was in effect in the British Raj, i.e. a policy that favored English. Consequently, negative attitudes have been developed among Indians especially among south Indians, thinking that Hindi is neither our official and nor the national language… where as, colonial rule has gone a long way in diluting negative feelings towards the English language. In the 1960s, a bitter conflict considering the status of various languages in India arose from concerns of the southern states (in which Hindi is not widely 6
  7. 7. spoken) that the use of Hindi in the government services would disadvantage them for employment in those areas. They thought, also, that it was unfair for them having to learn both Hindi and English, whereas native speakers of Hindi would only have to learn English. Thus, in India, there is a great number of sociolinguistic pressures influencing the development of language education; Spolsky (1978: 55-64) has stated that the language policy of the school system is both a result of the pressures and a source of pressure itself. He, too, claims that education to be the strongest weapon for enforcing language policy. He proves by listing the following pressures to have an effect on language planning in a society: family (attitudes at home), religion (if the maintenance of a language is based on a belief in a "holy tongue"), ethnicity, political pressures (aiming at establishing national unity; a language tradition is acknowledged as a powerful force within a nationalist movement), cultural pressures, economic pressures (which include commerce, advanced science and technology: the idea is that not all languages have modern technological vocabulary and it is more rational to adopt a language such as English for this purpose), the mass media (e.g., if there is no media in a particular language, there will be strong pressure to learn another language which is better provided), legal pressures (lack of the official language can often become the basis for discrimination), military pressure (desirability to use one common language)” (Spolsky 1978: 53-63). In India, as in other linguistically and culturally pluralistic societies, the position of English is determined by various political, cultural and social considerations. English as a symbol of modernity for elites and Hindu-intellectuals-at the same time, English is also available for Dalits and other downtrodden people from setting-out of the socio-cultural exploitations and hegemony. In addition, the implicit intentions are always towards English education among middle-class for so many socio-cultural and political reasons and compulsions. Due to the colonialism, globalization and IT revolution, in the process, in which, the Indian languages are confronting several issues where it is necessary to make many considerations to bring at the mainstream at least in the local context. The issues and problems related to languages are not just linguistic problems; they are also socio-cultural conflicts and political issues. Therefore, it is very significant to discuss now the position of Kannada in the globalization context. Despite some priorities the very strange development has taken place is, demanding classical status for Kannada- it is very difficult to judge that how for it is relevant to declare a particular one, as a classical language in a multilingual situation. In the Info-Age and IT-revolution, the priorities must set as pro-common people not for specific group of people at least for near future, where as English has all the characteristics that make it likely to remain the dominant 7
  8. 8. worldwide language, then also it has become a liberating force for colonized and hegemonic-class of people. Mark Tully (1997:161-162) points out that the elitist status of English in India creates problems for the economic development because that means that the education of the mass of people will be ignored. He argues that the solution for the situation would be that the spread of English throughout India would be encouraged so that it would become a "genuine link language of the country, not just, as it is at present, the link language of the elite.” That is how; Globalization has also favored the growing need to learn foreign languages. This language learning, in order to contribute to peace, has to be accompanied by the transmission of the culture that is behind these languages. At least, there can also be a language, which promotes tolerance, diversity and peace among Indians. 4.Wider Communication: Is English For All? The spread of English is a significant in its way as is the modern use of wider communication and Info-technology. Within a short span of time (Minor language in 1600 AD), the remarkable development of English is ultimately the result of between 17th to 20th century British success in conquest, colonization, and trade. Nowadays, it is also felt that with the winds of change setting in with globalization and the advancement in IT, the need to communicate in English has acquired greater importance. It is beyond doubt that English being a global tongue can function as a bridge between language barriers. Approximately 700 million speakers use it, by the bulk of the world mailing system and electronic information services (A.P.Andrewskutty:2002). The question arises is that will it possible for Indian languages to take a technological and economic leap, without this language in future. At this moment, it is very difficult to predict the position of Kannada or any other Indian languages, as we shall see; English is one of the several languages, which are promoted internationally in similar ways. This shall explore why English has become the dominant international language and how language pedagogy has contributed to its hegemony. As a result, English has also become a lingua- franca to the point that any literate educated person in a very real sense deprived if he does not know English. English is a colonial language, and it continued to be the official language after independence, virtually, in Indian States that were under British rule. In some cases, it was retained to avoid ethnic tensions; in all cases, it was retained because of its prestige and association with power. In contrast, the vernaculars were viewed as backward and inferior so were not developed. Students were made to feel 8
  9. 9. ashamed of their mother tongue and punished for speaking it. In Karnataka, for example, speaking in vernaculars was forbidden in schools and punished (i.e. in convent schools). It is also felt that, today it is difficult to use indigenous languages because they have not been codified and standardized. Therefore, there is not a systematic curriculum as for as language texts and trained teachers are concerned in the vernaculars. Moreover, this has often been used as an excuse for not adopting the innovative and modern linguistic aspects in vernaculars in schools. Even the terms used to refer to vernacular languages are controversial. They include such terms as dialects, minority languages and undeveloped languages - all of which suggest that the languages are not rich in expression and are unsuitable for modern needs. The long-standing neglect of indigenous languages has resulted in the popular belief that they are incapable of imparting a modern education, including science and technology. The prestigious status of the English language and its dominant role in globalization, added to the absence of the political will to implement policies that promote the use of indigenous languages, have led to the almost complete marginalization of mother-tongue education in most of the Indian private schools. A lack of resource-producing and the multiplicity of indigenous languages have also responsible to this socio-linguistic problems. Indians speak 1652 distinct languages- Where as, English still holds control despite a policy of medium of instruction in mother tongues. However, UNESCO has made up firm decisions to encourage the indigenous languages in schooling, as for as human/linguistic rights are concerned. Nevertheless, all the time the promotion of local languages will remain merely rhetorical. In addition, English will continue to take the pride of place at the expense of local languages. Which is the main medium of instruction at the postgraduate level, and it is taught as a second language in all states of India. In such a linguistic crisis, how would it be possible to bring the native languages to the main stream or at the global level? It does not mean that Indian languages are not potential to grow but they are potential, due the lack of socio-political interests, they have not been implemented. However, it is significant that what Kachru (1986b:20) sees primarily three questions which continue to be discussed. The first question concerns the position of English in early and in higher education. The second question is concerned with the roles of the regional language, Hindi and English. The third question deals with the model of English which, presented to Indian learners, and how that presentation can be made uniformly and effectively. The Government of India has primarily been concerned with the first two questions, which are directly related to language planning at both the national and state levels. There are, yet, no acceptable answers to any of these questions (Kachru 1986b:20). It is 9
  10. 10. therefore, not surprising that English is being used in most all in functional domains. English, today, is undoubtedly the most powerful and viable international lingua franca. It represents a bridge across languages and their speakers and, in this sense, it has made a significant contribution to the development of transnational, international, and global identities (A .hatoss & D. Cunningham: 2004). At the same time, this is necessary to note that English-speaking community does not constitute a speech community. Similarly, it cannot be a either linguistic or cultural identity marker. Every Indian asserts his identity either through native language or through indigenous cultural vitality/ethos, thus, this attitudinal feature reinforce to preserve the native linguistic and cultural identity even in the globalization process. From another less optimistic perspective, the worldwide dominance of English is causing much agonizing over fear of encroaching ‘westernization’. It is seen as threatening cultures and values (c.f.Phillipson2003, Skutnab Kangas: 2000). As it is already mentioned that English is not a colonial language anymore, therefore, we could able to protect and preserve our linguistic and cultural ethos and identities. 5.Linguistic Borrowings: Linguistic contestatory or accomodating There is one more perception, which can be employed to understand language is linguistic borrowings. In the process of linguistic contact, it so happens that is its function as a cultural or sub-cultural indicator. This is reason enough to indicate the prevalence of the multifarious dialects in Kannada and even in English. A linguistic borrowing is a historical process in multilingual-multicultural situation. One influences another one at the same time, it will be reciprocal process in most of the cases. As for as Indian languages are concerned either they borrow (linguistic) lexical items, concepts from Sanskrit or from English language in general. It is also noticeable that, regarding literary and socio-cultural concepts, either registers or lexical items are normally borrowed from Sanskrit at the other hand, linguistic borrowings related to science, technology and social science are from English. In most of the cases, these borrowings would be nativized by just adding ‘u’ at the word final. There fore, it is felt by U R Ananthamurthy in the context of nativizing the place names like Bangalore will be bengalooru etc that, “The intention is that even a foreigner who visits the city will use a kannada-sounding word by calling the city Bengalooru. The ‘u’ vowel distinguishes our language, just like the ‘o’ in kolkata is distinct to Bengali. By adding the ‘u’, even words like chair-u and table-u become Kannada” (c.f. Desha Kaala: II vol: V by M S 10
  11. 11. Shriram). At the other side K V Narayana suggests that,” words from English must be directly incorporated into the Kannada vocabulary is refreshing when seen against the banal literal translation of terms, which do not connote any thing naturally (c.f. The Hindu: 20-1-2006: Friday Review’). Sociologically and linguistically, one needs little instruction to understand how vocabulary is borrowed from dominant languages for specialist uses, inter-lingual communication, and new occupations and so on and so forth (Sudhakar Marathe) as for as borrowing is concerned in any given language is not based on government polices or language planning. It is a common phenomenon, as and when the given speech community requires a lexical item based on availability, they just do it. There are apprehensions that linguistic borrowing causes a language loss/shift. In addition to this, linguistic borrowing may replace language diversities, for instance, in Kannada, ‘maduve, vivaaha, lagna, and kalyana’ all the lexical items more or less indicate the same meaning, ‘marriage or wedding’. However, the prevalence usage is marriage. It often occurs in case of kinship terms like; cousin is one of the profoundly used lexical items in almost all the languages despite the native kinship terms. One thing can be noticed this day is the language, which was being used in the cerebral domains now it has also entered to expressive and private domains. There fore, the apprehensions are taking place among native speakers of India. Contrary to this argument, there are opinions regarding linguistic borrowings are; language must be ‘receptive’ and ‘adaptive’ for this, English is the best example, by nativizing loan/borrowed words from different languages- English has enriched its vocabulary. At the present situation, all the native languages of India is tend to adapt the structural entities of English language which means, word-formation, lexicalization etc for example –ization, and -able, jaagatikaraNa, (globalization) noDeble (seeable) and tinneble (eatable) respectively. Apart from this, there are other kinds of borrowings also are taking place; creating literary sense and concepts and lexical innovations, which may be called, as hybrid innovations are common phenomena. 6. Conclusion: As it is argued, so for the position and appropriation of Kannada and English are in the context of local and global considerations are intend to explore very crucial linguistic and cultural realities. At one hand, it suggests that accepting English as a second language, there is no threat and at the other, due to the domination and hegemony of English, the indigenous languages are under endangerment. Keeping in mind these two 11
  12. 12. arguments, one can raise a question that this dominant language was not under the control of any native elite guarding access to it (like Sanskrit was under the control of Brahmins and Persian under the Muslim elite). This gave the dominant language English the image of having open access through education and standing apart from other native dominant languages. [Dua: 1994 and Annamalai: 2004]. There fore, it is felt that, English came to be viewed as the language of rational and scientific (as opposed to religious) thought and material (as opposed to spiritual) progress. It came to be viewed as fulfilling a need for the elite to work together on their political and economic agendas... (Annamalai: 2004) that is why, today cautions against the English language acquiring a monopoly over the Internet and computer media, and said this would stifle the development and growth of Indian languages. Undoubtedly, it can be declared that English pre-dominates in the domain of information technology. None of the languages of world has got this much of privilege. The requirement of English in every domains itself is a threat. It is also spreading from cerebral domains to private and expressive domains. Unless and until English constitutes as a speech community in India, there is no threat, as for as socio-cultural entities are concerned. However, in the domain of Internet it pre-dominates its domination. There fore, even in the context of a net search on "Kannada literature" yields about 500,000 results. In fact, with some exceptions such as Tamil, Hindi and Bangla, hits for most Indian languages fall somewhere in this region. A similar search on "English literature" would give you close to 300 million results. Hardly surprising, considering how language is one of the most important markers of the digital divide. However, even as English is increasingly becoming the language of information technology, there are parallel efforts at bending it to suit the local needs. One such bridge-building effort is kannadasaahithya.com, a portal that has been putting Kannada literature on the global information network for five years now. Says Shekharpoorna, the editor of the portal: "Modern technology is immensely powerful. It can create, sustain or destroy. We must put our stamp on all major tools of modern technology in order to ensure that cultures, as well as the languages that sustain those cultures, are not swallowed up by the dominant language forces governing technology." It is very significant to quote that Harold F. Schiffman (1996), “As we have noted, language status management in post-colonial India has involved a policy, since 1950, of attempting to restrict the domains of English in India as a whole, where as in some linguistic states (such as Tamilnadu) the effort has been one of limiting the domains of Hindi and Sanskrit so that Tamil can recapture the domains elementary and secondary education, the media, and so forth. This regional policy, because English is perceived in some way as a ‘buffer’ 12
  13. 13. against Hindi, which is perceived as greater threat linguistic survival for the Tamils. In other words, English is virus-protection. English will not, it is believed, invade the cell in the same way that Hindi might; English is .safe. In addition, prophylactic, and will protect the inner domains from invasion, remaining safely in the outer ones. Earlier I might have agreed with this; today, with global job markets and other ways that English can be not only a useful part of a South Asian person’s linguistic repertoire, but also indeed a vital part, I am not so sure.” This signifies very clearly that between English and regional languages of India have linguistic accommodation rather contestation. Therefore, many people speak English. However, many of these people do not speak English as their first language. In fact, they often use English as a lingua franca in order to communicate with other people who also speak English as a foreign language. At this point students often wonder what kind of English they are learning. Are they learning English as it spoken in Britain? Alternatively, are they learning English as it is spoken in the United States, or Australia? No, in fact, English is being spoken in three different modes like what Braj Kacru (1986) classifies; as a native language, as a second language and as a foreign language which means inner circle, outer circle and expanding circle respectively. Thus, in India English is being taught as a second language more than that India has constituted that its own variety of English that is called Indian English. Indians can assert their identities through this variety of English as an Indian where as in side the country, there are sub varieties in which they can assert their identities like kanglish, tanglish, hinglish etc. References 1. Annamalai.E:2004: Nativization of English in India and its effect on multilingualism (151-162) - in journal of language and politics 3:1, John Benjamins publishing Company. 2. Anderson, B. (1990). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso. 3. Andrewskutty.A.P:1996: Globalization and Language: A case study of Malayalam in IJDL vol VI, No 2 4. Kachru, Braj B. 1983. The Indianization of English: the English language in India. Delhi and New York: Oxford. 5.Kachru, Braj B. 1986. The alchemy of English: the spread, functions, and models of non-native Englishes Oxford and New York: Pergamon. 13
  14. 14. 6. Cunningham, D and Hotoss, A: 2005 an International Perspective on Language Policies, Practices and Proficiencies. (Eds)Begrave: FIPLV. 7. David Crystal: 1997: English as a Global Language Cambridge University Press 8. Desha Kaala: II vol: V: 2006 9. Dua: 1994: Hegemony of English. Maysore: Yashoda Publications 10. Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 11. Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 12. Fairclough, N. (2001). Language and power. Harlow, UK: Longman. 13. Krishnaswamy.N & Lalitha Krishnaswamy : The Story of English, Foundation, Books 14. Mark Tully: 1997 :( 161-162. "English: an advantage to India?" In ELT Journal vol. 51 no. 2: 157-164 15. Narayana K V: 2005: Nammodane Namma Nudi, Lohia Prakashana 16. Ngugi wa Thiong’o. 1994. Decolonizing the Mind. The Politics of Language in African Literature. London and Portsmouth: James Currey Ltd. and Heinemann. 17. Pennycook, A. (1994). The cultural politics of English as an international language. Harlow, England: Longman. 18. Phillipson: 2003, English-Only Europe? Challenging Language Policy, Rout ledge 19. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 20. Phillipson, R., & Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1997). Linguistic human rights and English in Europe. 21: Singer, M. (1972) Weak States in a World of Powers (Free Press: New York). 22.Skutnab Kangas: 2000 Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2000). Linguistic genocide in education—or worldwide diversity and human rights. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum 23. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 2000, Linguistic Genocide in Education - Or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Mahwah, N.J. and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 14
  15. 15. 24. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Phillipson, R. (Eds.). (1994). Linguistic human rights: Overcoming linguistic determination. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 25. Schiffman, Harold F. 1996. Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. New York and London: Routledge. 26. Spolsky 1978:. Educational Linguistics: an Introduction. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. 27. The Hindu: 20-1-2006 28. Viswanathan, G. (1989). Masks of conquest: Literary study and British rule in India. New York: Columbia University Press 15