Hoc Pedagogy And Diverse Needs

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The slides presented by Susan McKenney (Twente University) during her seminary Pedagogy and diverse needs @ HOCLAB Politecnico di Milano (February 4, 2010). You can watch the recorded seminar at the page: http://collab.switch.ch/p74402176

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  • 92 countries and 25 international organizations agreed that:
  • Scks Coordinating role
  • Hoc Pedagogy And Diverse Needs

    1. 1. Pedagogy and Diverse Needs Susan McKenney Curriculum Design & Educational Innovation
    2. 2. About today’s session <ul><li>Positioning the talk </li></ul><ul><li>Key concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Themes and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking about diverse needs </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for diverse needs </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching for diverse needs </li></ul>
    3. 3. Positioning the talk <ul><li>Susan McKenney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-school teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junior secondary remedial teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Themes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum theory, development & implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher professional development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special needs </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Some thoughts on technology, tools & research <ul><li>Roots in dissertation work </li></ul><ul><li>Refined through the years </li></ul><ul><li>Still evolving </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>THESES </li></ul><ul><li>accompanying the dissertation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based support for science education </li></ul><ul><li>materials developers in Africa: exploring potentials </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Susan McKenney </li></ul><ul><li>12 October 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Designers of educational innovations involving new technologies risk failure if they ignore or downplay the need for trade-off decisions between state-of-the-art possibilities and state-of-practice realities. </li></ul><ul><li>The coupling of generic design principles with specific, expandable sets of examples offers a powerful combination for culturally and topically portable performance support systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Development research yields greater mutual benefit to researchers and others participating in the study when both parties collaboratively (re)analyze the relevance and authenticity of their innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who would promote ICT infrastructure injections in southern Africa without providing for the lengthy process of building local know-how to deploy those facilities underestimate the severity and depth of the digital divide. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor tools impede and good tools facilitate, but quality creation depends primarily on the expertise of the craftsman. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory design is not an approach, but an attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not without irony that voice recognition software offers an effective route to coping with the physical injuries arising from (over) use of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the Dutch are so warm and tolerant in a reactionary protest to their chilly and dampening climate. </li></ul><ul><li>A journey progresses in the mind, long after the traveler has returned home. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Positioning the talk <ul><li>Aims of today’s session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom out and see technologies and pedagogies in a broader framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think individually and collectively about what inclusion and diversity mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing that, as Nicoletta says, ‘technology is but a pen’ and it is what you do with it that matters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on ‘what you do with it’ and the factors that influence those choices (not only on what to do, but also how to do it) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With the ultimate aim of facilitating implementation-oriented design </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Key concepts
    8. 8. Key concepts 1994 Unesco Salamanca Statement <ul><li>Every child has a basic right to education </li></ul><ul><li>Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs </li></ul><ul><li>Education services should take into account these diverse characteristics and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools </li></ul><ul><li>Regular schools with an inclusive ethos are the most effective way to combat discriminatory attitudes, create welcoming and inclusive communities and achieve education for all </li></ul><ul><li>Such schools provide effective education to the majority of children, improve efficiency and cost effectiveness </li></ul>
    9. 9. Key concepts Shared understanding & common language needed to: <ul><li>Ensure that every learner succeeds: set high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Build on what learners already know by carefully structuring and pacing teaching so children see what is to be learned, how & why </li></ul><ul><li>Make subject-area content real and vivid </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate learning through enjoyable and challenging techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Develop learning skills, thinking skills & personal qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment to plan learning and to make children partners in their own learning </li></ul>
    10. 10. Key concepts Personalized learning <ul><li>All learners, whatever their starting point, should be able to realize their potential </li></ul><ul><li>Interlinked pre-requisites to facilitate personalized learning include understanding of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How children and young people learn (pedagogies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What children learn (content) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When and how to monitor and diagnose learning progress and needs (formative and summative assessment) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Key concepts Diversity and inclusion <ul><li>Inclusion is the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children with diverse needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inclusive pedagogy means matching teaching approaches to learning needs, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring that difficulties in one area do not hold the learner back in another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using access strategies (sign, tactile print, wide range of examples and opportunities to understand and practice) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Key concepts Let’s talk: What do you think? <ul><li>What does inclusion mean to you? </li></ul><ul><li>What challenges do different learners pose for education? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you make your teaching more inclusive? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Issues & themes
    14. 14. Issues & themes What’s your attitude? <ul><li>Positive attitudes linked to inclusive practice and familiarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of social justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First reflective, then inclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse of inclusion vs. discourse of deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs and practice are closely linked </li></ul><ul><li>If this is all true, what can be the influence of training and literature? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Issues and themes Education’s historical ties with emancipation <ul><li>Education for the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Schooling as essential for progressive society </li></ul><ul><li>Education as essential to a knowledge economy </li></ul><ul><li>Education for citizenship-building </li></ul><ul><li>Education cultivates the rationalities that underpin groups and disciplines (marginalized or not) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Issues & themes Whose transformation? <ul><li>Integration : learner is made ready to enter the (unchanged) mainstream school </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion : the school must change to meet the diverse needs of its learners </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation at al levels (macro, meso, micro; maybe even supra & nano) </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation toward inclusion is fostered by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No professional development without personal development” (O’Hanlon, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing different voices (including those of teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision about justice and participation </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Issues & themes In a diverse learning community… <ul><li>Learners challenge educators to be more creative in their teaching </li></ul><ul><li>All kinds of learners learn about and support each other </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive refers to more than simply placement </li></ul><ul><li>The meanings and ambitions of education go beyond academic achievement alone </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula are revised to include diversity (cultural, social, intellectual, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Group work is enhanced through the sharing of different skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as: “distributed intelligence” (Goodley, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Issues & themes Personalization…for everyone? <ul><li>“ While Julie is appreciative of the diversity and individuality of her students … she frequently talks about them collectively. She constantly refers to what ‘everybody’ must have the opportunity to do, learn and experience … She makes her choices based on what weill make for better learning for everybody and not just better for ;some people.” (Hart, 2003, p. 226) </li></ul><ul><li>Note the tension between providing for everyone and meeting individual’s needs </li></ul>
    19. 19. Issues & themes Let’s talk: What do you think? <ul><li>Can we support a “definition of curriculum which is at once common (for all) and accommodating of human differences”? (Skidmore, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>If everyone participates, everyone is involved, everyone is treated as worthwhile, and everyone has learning potential, then how do we work to personalize and differentiate? </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t personalization translate into practices which are inequitable? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Thinking about diverse needs
    21. 21. Thinking about diverse needs Overview <ul><li>Diversity can relate to all kinds of aspects, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender, class, race, sexuality, culture, religion, intellect, physical abilities, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most aspects relate to one or more of these three sectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical sector </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Thinking about diverse needs Most teachers familiar with own sector supports, e.g. <ul><ul><li>Remedial teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal assistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special needs coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you name some others…? </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Thinking about diverse needs What educational professionals often do not see <ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular evaluations, tests, assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications, treatments, side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfacing with multiple players: neurologist, pediatric specialist, physical therapist, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression/stress/physical exhaustion of parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full calendars with appointments poorly aligned with ‘extra’ work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic, cultural, or economic backgrounds may be at odds with the mainstream </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Thinking about diverse needs Let’s talk: What do you encounter? <ul><li>What kinds of diverse needs are present in your classrooms? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about those children and families, outside of school? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you wonder about those children and families, outside of school? </li></ul>
    25. 25. Shall we take a break? When we get back, let’s think about what all of this means in the classrooms
    26. 26. Planning for diverse needs
    27. 27. Planning Some starting points <ul><li>Strategies for reaching diverse needs attuned to many types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic (poverty, language, violence, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical (gross, fine motor, illness prone, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental (retardation, perception disorders, learning disabilities, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional (Autism spectrum, depressive, OCD, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where feasible, consider the whole child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential remedial overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family abilities </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Planning Diagnostics <ul><li>Very difficult for most teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most mainstream teachers are not given much training for working with special needs children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The range of special needs can be extremely broad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Getting help for careful assessment is often useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities may be masked by handicaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional measures may not work </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Planning Selecting and adjusting curricula <ul><li>Alternate delivery modes may be needed </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustments might be needed in what children are asked to do/produce </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions should be linked to curricular goals </li></ul>
    30. 30. Planning Let’s talk: What do you encounter? <ul><li>It can be easy to over-estimate the abilities of a classroom aid – British example </li></ul><ul><li>What supports are available to help you plan? </li></ul><ul><li>What supports do you need? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Evidence base for practice Based on EPPI centre systematic reviews of research literature
    32. 32. Evidence base for practice No recipes for success <ul><li>Shortage of evidence about teaching approaches which effectively meet the needs of diverse learners </li></ul><ul><li>“ Generic approaches to special needs teaching does not reflect the unique demands of the subject-specific content, and are generally not recognized as advancing the learning of all students” (Palincsar, et al, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Complexities in diverse mainstream classrooms require teachers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand their own role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to adapt their curricula and teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be willing and able to encourage participation of all through flexible grouping and roles </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Evidence base for practice Peer group interaction conditions <ul><li>Student as learner – active in knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>Academic and social considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational and organized support </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic views of basic skills; skills development made socially meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Shared philosophy among teacher team </li></ul>
    34. 34. Evidence base for practice Interaction and… <ul><li>The mediating role of the teacher - positive attitude improving quality of interaction and pupils’ self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive level and engagement - higher among teachers who saw themselves as responsible for all learners </li></ul><ul><li>The learner’s voice – helping pupils to identify their thoughts and document them </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as contextually-grounded - learning for everyday use </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom management - Less successful efforts were focused more on procedures, behaviors and general classroom management </li></ul>
    35. 35. Evidence base for practice Whole-class, subject-based approaches <ul><li>Pedagogic community – support is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Social engagement – interaction for academic and social inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Modality of activities – visual, verbal, kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding – understanding the needs of the learner and the development of their understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic tasks – contextualized in real-life or learner-relevant inquiry </li></ul>
    36. 36. Evidence base for practice Let’s talk: What do you think of this advice to teachers? <ul><li>(1/2) On outlook: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize your central responsibility for all pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Engage with a teacher community on how children learn </li></ul><ul><li>See other adults (in the community) as teachers and learners </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a shared philosophy around respecting everyone and all their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that social interaction is a means through which learner knowledge is developed </li></ul>
    37. 37. Evidence base for practice Let’s talk: What do you think of this advice to teachers? <ul><li>(2/2) On practice: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the aims of curricular programs and associated characteristics, skills and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to scaffold a subject’s cognitive and social content </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully plan group work, indicating roles for learners </li></ul><ul><li>Explore pupil understanding and encourage questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Work on basic skills in a holistic way – embedded in classroom activity and subject knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize pupils as a resource for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use activities which pupils find meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Use a range of different modalities </li></ul>
    38. 38. THANK YOU!!!

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