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Hoc Pedagogy And Diverse Needs

Hoc Pedagogy And Diverse Needs



The slides presented by Susan McKenney (Twente University) during her seminary Pedagogy and diverse needs @ HOCLAB Politecnico di Milano (February 4, 2010). You can watch the recorded seminar at the ...

The slides presented by Susan McKenney (Twente University) during her seminary Pedagogy and diverse needs @ HOCLAB Politecnico di Milano (February 4, 2010). You can watch the recorded seminar at the page: http://collab.switch.ch/p74402176



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Hoc Pedagogy And Diverse Needs Hoc Pedagogy And Diverse Needs Presentation Transcript

  • Pedagogy and Diverse Needs Susan McKenney Curriculum Design & Educational Innovation
  • About today’s session
    • Positioning the talk
    • Key concepts
    • Themes and issues
    • Thinking about diverse needs
    • Planning for diverse needs
    • Teaching for diverse needs
  • Positioning the talk
    • Susan McKenney
      • Pre-school teacher
      • Junior secondary remedial teacher
      • Educational designer
      • Consultant
      • Researcher
    • Themes
      • Curriculum theory, development & implementation
      • Teacher professional development
      • Educational technologies
      • Special needs
  • Some thoughts on technology, tools & research
    • Roots in dissertation work
    • Refined through the years
    • Still evolving
    • THESES
    • accompanying the dissertation
    • Computer-based support for science education
    • materials developers in Africa: exploring potentials
    • Susan McKenney
    • 12 October 2001
    • Designers of educational innovations involving new technologies risk failure if they ignore or downplay the need for trade-off decisions between state-of-the-art possibilities and state-of-practice realities.
    • The coupling of generic design principles with specific, expandable sets of examples offers a powerful combination for culturally and topically portable performance support systems.
    • Development research yields greater mutual benefit to researchers and others participating in the study when both parties collaboratively (re)analyze the relevance and authenticity of their innovations.
    • Those who would promote ICT infrastructure injections in southern Africa without providing for the lengthy process of building local know-how to deploy those facilities underestimate the severity and depth of the digital divide.
    • Poor tools impede and good tools facilitate, but quality creation depends primarily on the expertise of the craftsman.
    • Participatory design is not an approach, but an attitude.
    • It is not without irony that voice recognition software offers an effective route to coping with the physical injuries arising from (over) use of the computer.
    • Perhaps the Dutch are so warm and tolerant in a reactionary protest to their chilly and dampening climate.
    • A journey progresses in the mind, long after the traveler has returned home.
  • Positioning the talk
    • Aims of today’s session
      • Zoom out and see technologies and pedagogies in a broader framework
      • Think individually and collectively about what inclusion and diversity mean
      • Recognizing that, as Nicoletta says, ‘technology is but a pen’ and it is what you do with it that matters:
        • Focus on ‘what you do with it’ and the factors that influence those choices (not only on what to do, but also how to do it)
        • With the ultimate aim of facilitating implementation-oriented design
  • Key concepts
  • Key concepts 1994 Unesco Salamanca Statement
    • Every child has a basic right to education
    • Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs
    • Education services should take into account these diverse characteristics and needs
    • Those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools
    • Regular schools with an inclusive ethos are the most effective way to combat discriminatory attitudes, create welcoming and inclusive communities and achieve education for all
    • Such schools provide effective education to the majority of children, improve efficiency and cost effectiveness
  • Key concepts Shared understanding & common language needed to:
    • Ensure that every learner succeeds: set high expectations
    • Build on what learners already know by carefully structuring and pacing teaching so children see what is to be learned, how & why
    • Make subject-area content real and vivid
    • Stimulate learning through enjoyable and challenging techniques
    • Develop learning skills, thinking skills & personal qualities
    • Use assessment to plan learning and to make children partners in their own learning
  • Key concepts Personalized learning
    • All learners, whatever their starting point, should be able to realize their potential
    • Interlinked pre-requisites to facilitate personalized learning include understanding of:
      • How children and young people learn (pedagogies)
      • What children learn (content)
      • When and how to monitor and diagnose learning progress and needs (formative and summative assessment)
  • Key concepts Diversity and inclusion
    • Inclusion is the
      • Presence,
      • Participation, and
      • Achievement of
      • Children with diverse needs
    • Inclusive pedagogy means matching teaching approaches to learning needs, e.g.
      • Ensuring that difficulties in one area do not hold the learner back in another
      • Using access strategies (sign, tactile print, wide range of examples and opportunities to understand and practice)
  • Key concepts Let’s talk: What do you think?
    • What does inclusion mean to you?
    • What challenges do different learners pose for education?
    • How could you make your teaching more inclusive?
  • Issues & themes
  • Issues & themes What’s your attitude?
    • Positive attitudes linked to inclusive practice and familiarity
      • Sense of social justice
      • Personal interest
    • First reflective, then inclusive
    • Discourse of inclusion vs. discourse of deviance
    • Beliefs and practice are closely linked
    • If this is all true, what can be the influence of training and literature?
  • Issues and themes Education’s historical ties with emancipation
    • Education for the masses
    • Schooling as essential for progressive society
    • Education as essential to a knowledge economy
    • Education for citizenship-building
    • Education cultivates the rationalities that underpin groups and disciplines (marginalized or not)
  • Issues & themes Whose transformation?
    • Integration : learner is made ready to enter the (unchanged) mainstream school
    • Inclusion : the school must change to meet the diverse needs of its learners
    • Transformation at al levels (macro, meso, micro; maybe even supra & nano)
    • Transformation toward inclusion is fostered by
      • Practical guidance
      • Deep reflection
      • “ No professional development without personal development” (O’Hanlon, 2003)
      • Valuing different voices (including those of teachers)
      • Vision about justice and participation
  • Issues & themes In a diverse learning community…
    • Learners challenge educators to be more creative in their teaching
    • All kinds of learners learn about and support each other
    • Inclusive refers to more than simply placement
    • The meanings and ambitions of education go beyond academic achievement alone
    • Curricula are revised to include diversity (cultural, social, intellectual, etc)
    • Group work is enhanced through the sharing of different skills
      • Also known as: “distributed intelligence” (Goodley, 2009)
  • Issues & themes Personalization…for everyone?
    • “ While Julie is appreciative of the diversity and individuality of her students … she frequently talks about them collectively. She constantly refers to what ‘everybody’ must have the opportunity to do, learn and experience … She makes her choices based on what weill make for better learning for everybody and not just better for ;some people.” (Hart, 2003, p. 226)
    • Note the tension between providing for everyone and meeting individual’s needs
  • Issues & themes Let’s talk: What do you think?
    • Can we support a “definition of curriculum which is at once common (for all) and accommodating of human differences”? (Skidmore, 2004)
    • If everyone participates, everyone is involved, everyone is treated as worthwhile, and everyone has learning potential, then how do we work to personalize and differentiate?
    • Doesn’t personalization translate into practices which are inequitable?
  • Thinking about diverse needs
  • Thinking about diverse needs Overview
    • Diversity can relate to all kinds of aspects, including:
      • Gender, class, race, sexuality, culture, religion, intellect, physical abilities, etc.
    • Most aspects relate to one or more of these three sectors
      • Educational sector
      • Social sector
      • Medical sector
  • Thinking about diverse needs Most teachers familiar with own sector supports, e.g.
      • Remedial teaching
      • Occupational therapy
      • Physical therapy
      • Personal assistant
      • Special needs coordinator
      • Can you name some others…?
  • Thinking about diverse needs What educational professionals often do not see
    • Medical
      • Regular evaluations, tests, assessments
      • Medications, treatments, side effects
      • Interfacing with multiple players: neurologist, pediatric specialist, physical therapist, etc.
    • Social
      • Depression/stress/physical exhaustion of parents
      • Full calendars with appointments poorly aligned with ‘extra’ work
      • Linguistic, cultural, or economic backgrounds may be at odds with the mainstream
  • Thinking about diverse needs Let’s talk: What do you encounter?
    • What kinds of diverse needs are present in your classrooms?
    • What do you know about those children and families, outside of school?
    • What do you wonder about those children and families, outside of school?
  • Shall we take a break? When we get back, let’s think about what all of this means in the classrooms
  • Planning for diverse needs
  • Planning Some starting points
    • Strategies for reaching diverse needs attuned to many types
      • Socio-economic (poverty, language, violence, etc.)
      • Physical (gross, fine motor, illness prone, etc.)
      • Mental (retardation, perception disorders, learning disabilities, etc.)
      • Emotional (Autism spectrum, depressive, OCD, etc.)
    • Where feasible, consider the whole child
      • Potential remedial overload
      • Balance
      • Family abilities
  • Planning Diagnostics
    • Very difficult for most teachers
      • Most mainstream teachers are not given much training for working with special needs children
      • The range of special needs can be extremely broad
    • Getting help for careful assessment is often useful
      • Abilities may be masked by handicaps
      • Conventional measures may not work
  • Planning Selecting and adjusting curricula
    • Alternate delivery modes may be needed
    • Adjustments might be needed in what children are asked to do/produce
    • Decisions should be linked to curricular goals
  • Planning Let’s talk: What do you encounter?
    • It can be easy to over-estimate the abilities of a classroom aid – British example
    • What supports are available to help you plan?
    • What supports do you need?
  • Evidence base for practice Based on EPPI centre systematic reviews of research literature
  • Evidence base for practice No recipes for success
    • Shortage of evidence about teaching approaches which effectively meet the needs of diverse learners
    • “ Generic approaches to special needs teaching does not reflect the unique demands of the subject-specific content, and are generally not recognized as advancing the learning of all students” (Palincsar, et al, 2001)
    • Complexities in diverse mainstream classrooms require teachers to:
      • Understand their own role
      • Learn to adapt their curricula and teaching
      • Be willing and able to encourage participation of all through flexible grouping and roles
  • Evidence base for practice Peer group interaction conditions
    • Student as learner – active in knowledge construction
    • Academic and social considerations
    • Organizational and organized support
    • Holistic views of basic skills; skills development made socially meaningful
    • Shared philosophy among teacher team
  • Evidence base for practice Interaction and…
    • The mediating role of the teacher - positive attitude improving quality of interaction and pupils’ self-concept
    • Cognitive level and engagement - higher among teachers who saw themselves as responsible for all learners
    • The learner’s voice – helping pupils to identify their thoughts and document them
    • Knowledge as contextually-grounded - learning for everyday use
    • Classroom management - Less successful efforts were focused more on procedures, behaviors and general classroom management
  • Evidence base for practice Whole-class, subject-based approaches
    • Pedagogic community – support is essential
    • Social engagement – interaction for academic and social inclusion
    • Modality of activities – visual, verbal, kinesthetic
    • Scaffolding – understanding the needs of the learner and the development of their understanding
    • Authentic tasks – contextualized in real-life or learner-relevant inquiry
  • Evidence base for practice Let’s talk: What do you think of this advice to teachers?
    • (1/2) On outlook:
    • Recognize your central responsibility for all pupils
    • Engage with a teacher community on how children learn
    • See other adults (in the community) as teachers and learners
    • Develop a shared philosophy around respecting everyone and all their learning
    • Recognize that social interaction is a means through which learner knowledge is developed
  • Evidence base for practice Let’s talk: What do you think of this advice to teachers?
    • (2/2) On practice:
    • Understand the aims of curricular programs and associated characteristics, skills and knowledge
    • Plan to scaffold a subject’s cognitive and social content
    • Carefully plan group work, indicating roles for learners
    • Explore pupil understanding and encourage questioning
    • Work on basic skills in a holistic way – embedded in classroom activity and subject knowledge
    • Utilize pupils as a resource for learning
    • Use activities which pupils find meaningful
    • Use a range of different modalities
  • THANK YOU!!!