Charging Ultracapacitors

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  • 1. Bram Bruekers & Bart Corstiaans June 17, 2003 Emergency supply with ULTRA CAPACITORS for HF-R ballast
  • 2.
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    Agenda Length of presentation +/- 50 minutes PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 3.
    • Philips Lighting
    • Problem situation
    • Problem theorem
    • Project assignment
    • Project goal
    • Method of investigation
    Introduction
    • Problem situation
      • Ni-Cd batteries are used in the present emergency ballast. These involve very high costs.
        • Checking
        • Replacing
    • Project assignment
      • Design an emergency ballast prototype using ultra capacitors
    • Problem goal
      • Investigate if ultra capacitors can be used for emergency lighting systems.
      • Ultra capacitors have many advantages compared to the currently used batteries, but certainly also disadvantages
    • Method of investigation
      • Study present emergency ballast
      • Behavior ultra capacitors
      • Topology
      • Calculations
      • Simulations
      • Implementations
      • Measurements
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 4.
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    Agenda PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 5.
    • Emergency standards
    • Schematic
    • Measurements
    Present emergency ballast PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 6. Emergency standards PDC, Eindhoven
    • Dimming light
    • One or three hour emergency lighting time
    • 1 lux at a half meter
    • Ni-Cd have to be checked and replaced
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 7. Schematic PDC, Eindhoven
    • Present emergency ballast
    battery- charger mains detection communication ballast battery pack DALI fluorescent lamp mains 230V~ 50Hz
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 8. Measurements PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 9. Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 10.
    • Specifications
    • Block diagram
    Overall design PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 11. Specifications
    • V in = 230Vac at 50-60Hz
    • P in_max  240W
    • Charge time about five minutes
    • V out = 400V
    • P out_emergency = 10W
    • DALI which provides a dim level for the fluorescent lamp
    • EMI friendly
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 12. Block diagram PDC, Eindhoven Charge Converter Ultra Caps Controller Mains Detector + Logic supply Mains 230V~ 50Hz 300-400V 0…10V Logic Supply 2 LED outputs DALI Flyback Converter Dim level  on/off on/off V caps DALI BUS
    • Detailed block diagram of the designed
    • emergency ballast
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    HF-R DALI ballast Emergency Supply with ultracaps Mains 230V~ 50Hz Fluorescent lamp 300- 400V DALI
    • Simplified block diagram of the designed
    • emergency system
  • 13. Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 14.
    • What is an ultra capacitor?
    • Equivalent circuit diagram
    • Calculations
    • Advantages and disadvantages when using ultra capacitors
    • Expectations
    Ultra capacitor PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 15. What is an ultra capacitor?
    • Doubled layer electrolyte capacitor
    • BCAP0010 2600F & 2.5V
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Very low ESR
    • I MAX =600A
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 16. Equivalent circuit diagram PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    • Specs of four ultracaps in series:
    • L total = 150nH = L wire total + 4  ESL
    • C total = 650F
    • Specs of one ultracap:
    • ESR = 0.7m 
    • C = 2600F
    • R leak = 17k 
  • 17. Calculations
    • E = ½CV 2 = ½ 650 10 2
    • = 32500Ws = 9Wh
    PDC, Eindhoven 8.2 Wh  49.2 minutes
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    8.2
  • 18. Advantages and disadvantages when using ultra capacitors
    • Advantages:
      • Emergency time of one hour instead
      • of three hour
      • Fast chargeable
      • On the fly testable
      • Longer lifetime
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Disadvantages:
      • Expensive
      • Dimensions
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 19. Expectations
    • Currently costs € 0.03 per Farad, € 78
    • Expected costs € 0.01 per Farad, € 26
    • Capacity will increase
    • Currently afwijking per batch is 10%
    • Expected afwijking per batch is <5%
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 20. But what if? PDC, Eindhoven V ultracapacitors = 10V, R load = 0.033Ω I = 10/0.033 = 333A P = V • I = 10 • 333 = 3330W
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 21. Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 22.
    • Specifications
    • Quasi resonant converter (QRC)
    • Transformer
    • Control
    • Overall simulations & measurements
    Charge converter PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 23. Specifications
    • Input
    • Mains in = 230V AC +/- 10% at 50-60Hz
    • No requirements for mains harmonics reduction
    • Galvanically isolated logic on / off input
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Output
    • Galvanically isolated from mains
    • I OUT = 24A
    • V OUT = 0…10V
    • P OUT_max  240W when output voltage is 10V
    • Maximum on time : 5 minutes
    • EMI friendly
    • Output overvoltage protected
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 24.
    • Circuit diagram
    • Equivalent schematic
    • Working
    • Calculations
    • Simulations
    • Components
    Quasi resonant converter (QRC) PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 25. QRC, Circuit diagram PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 26. QRC, Equivalent schematic PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 27. QRC, principle PDC, Eindhoven 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’ 0 tx1 T/2 tx2 T Time I OUT I I V_HB’ V_BH’
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 28. QRC, calculations PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 29. QRC, simulations PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 30.
    • Requirements
    • Copper foil or litzwire
    • Transformer with integrated L r
    • Small leakage transformer
    • Placing L r at primary side
    • Placing L r at secondary side
    • Summary
    Transformer PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 31.
    • Turns-ratio of 8
    • L r = 50 uH or L leakage = 50 uH
    • I primary = 10 Amp peak-peak
    • I seconday = 90 Amp peak-peak , maximum
    Transformer, Requirements PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 32.
    • Copper foil or litzwire ?
    Transformer Litzwire : - Relatively low current - Litzwires parallel for high currents - Almost no Skin-effect - different winding layouts possible Copper foil : - High current - Equalizing currents when parallel - Thin foil to minimize Skin-effect - Special foil needed to create high leakage PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 33. Transformer with integrated L r 3 mm Plastic isolator Secondary 7 mm 9 mm 12.6 mm Primary PQ 35 / 35 core
    • + Only one magnetic component needed
    • + Compact design
    • + Good galvanically isolation
    • Possibly a bigger core size
    • Locally high temperatures
    • Special foil needed to create high leakage
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 34. Low leakage transformer + Coresize can be smaller + Low power dissipation + Compact design - External inductor needed PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    Secondary Primary PQ 35 / 35 core
  • 35.
    • Placing L r at primary side
    Transformer
    • + Smaller transformer possible
    • + Relativly low current through L r
    • Extra magnetic component (PQ 20/16 core)
    • More volume
    Secondary 24 : 3 41.6 uH 7 uH Primary Transformer PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 36.
    • Placing L r at secondary side
    Transformer
    • + Smaller transformer possible
    • High current through L r
    • High dissipation
    • Thick litzwire needed
    Secondary 24 : 3 781 nH 7 uH Primary Transformer PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 37.
    • Summary
    Transformer Integrated L r possible, bigger core or special construction needed. External primary inductor is a good option. Secondary inductor difficult to realize due to high currents. PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 38.
    • Current feedback
    • TEA1610 swingchip
        • Max/min freqs
        • Max/min currents
    Control PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 39.
    • Simulated schematic
    • Waveforms
    Simulations PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 40.
    • Schematic
    • Waveforms
    • Performance
    Measurements PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 41. Schematic PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 42.
    • Schematic
    • Waveforms
    • Performance
    Overall simulations & measurements PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 43. Schematic PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 44. Waveforms PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 45.
    • Output current : 31 down to 15 A
    • Frequency range : 61…206 kHz
    • Efficiency : 90-94% maximum
    Performance Charge times: V IN = 240V 5 minutes and 2 seconds V IN = 320V 4 minutes and 32 seconds V IN = 360V 4 minutes and 24 seconds PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 46. Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 47.
    • Possible to charge four ultracaps in series within five minutes
    Conclusions and recommendations PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 48. Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
    PDC, Eindhoven
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 49. Discussion PDC, Eindhoven Why don’t you just…..? What will happen if…..? What was meant by…..? Is it possible to…..?
    • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Present emergency ballast
    • Overall design
    • Ultra capacitor
    • Charge converter
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Discussion
  • 50. Thank you for your attention!