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    • Teens Conference 2009 What we really need, after all, is not to defend the Bible but to understand it. -Millar Burrows Sumair Mirza March 2009
    • Validity of the Bible
    • Teens Conference 2009 What we really need, after all, is not to defend the Bible but to understand it. -Millar Burrows Sumair Mirza March 2009
    • How can I trust How do I know that what the Bible it is from God? says? Why do Christians What does all this follow it? mean to you?
    •  1600 years old  40 authors  Three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic (e.g. Daniel 2-7, portions of Ezra, Jeremiah 10:10, etc.), Greek  70% of NT are letters  OT: Prophets, fire, clouds, glory of light in the temple • Hebrew scriptures = Masorectic Text (MT) • Greek translation = Septuagint (Lxx)  NT: Incarnate • Written in Greek + used Lxx because writing to Greek speaking audience God seems to yell louder as the Bible progresses
    •  Exegesis (Good): Draw meaning out of text  Eisegesis (Bad): Read one‘s ideas into the text  GODISNOWHERE (example of what scribes had to manage with) • GOD IS NOW HERE = Meaning #1 = state God exists  theism • GOD IS NOWHERE = Meaning #2 = state God does not exist  atheism • Scribes had to decipher no spaces (continuo scripto)  Oldest NT manuscripts
    •  Nehemiah 8:8: even prophets show interest in correct biblical understanding  John 6:30-33: Jesus corrects wrong scriptural understanding  Galatians 3:16: Paul careful interpreter (seed = one person = Jesus Christ)
    •  Scriptures were tailored to audience as any good presenter would do…  In New Guinea the pig is sacred and liver is the centre of emotions  Imagine… • Behold Jesus comes, the piglet of God….?! • My son Shechem has his liver set on your daughter. Please give her to him as his wife….?!
    • 1. God exists 2. NT is historically reliable 3. Miracles are possible 4. Miracles confirm Jesus‘ claim to be God 5. Whatever God teaches is true 6. Jesus (= God) taught that the Bible is the Word of God by confirming the OT and promising the NT. 7. Therefore, the Bible is the Word of God.
    • 1. Authority – Matt. 22:43 2. Reliability – Matt. 26:54 3. Finality – Matt. 4:4, 7, 10 4. Sufficiency – Luke 16:31 5. Indestructibility – Matt 5:17-18 6. Unity – Luke 24:27, 44 7. Clarity – Luke 24:27 8. Historicity – Matt. 12:40 9. Facticity (scientifically) – Matt 19:2-5 10.Inerrancy – Matt. 22:29; John 3:12, 17:17 11.Infallibility – John 10:35
    • Neo-evangelical Evangelical True in whole, but not all parts True in whole, and in all parts True spiritually, but not always historically True spiritually and historically True morally, but not always scientifically True morally and scientifically True in intention, but not in all affirmations True in intention and all affirmations Bible is infallible, but not inerrant Bible is infallible and inerrant Bible is God‘s instrument of revelation Bible is intrinsically a revelation Bible is God‘s record of revelation Bible is God‘s revelation God speaks through the words of the Bible God speaks in the words of the Bible Human language is inadequate to Human language is adequate but not communicate God exhaustive Much of higher criticism may be accepted None of higher criticism is accepted Faith is opposed to reason Faith is not opposed to reason
    • Argument Response Science is right about science and Jesus states ―I told you earthly things Bible is right about spiritual matters and you do not believe, how shall you believe if I tell you heavenly things?‖ (John 3:12) Criticism around certain passages Jesus clearly affirms these passages: Creation (Luke 11:51), Adam and Eve (Matt. 19:4-5), Noah and the Flood (Matt. 24:37-39), Sodom and Gomorrah (Luke 10:12), Jonah and the great fish (Matt. 12:39-41), Moses wrote Law (Mark 7:10; John 7:19) Not all of the Bible is the Word of God God said = Scripture said & Bible said = God said (Gen. 12:3 – Gal. 3:8, Ex. 9:6 – Rom. 9:17, Isa. 55:3 – Acts 13:34, etc.) What about books that were left out? No category of books initially accepted and later thrown out. 2 groups of books some say should be included (Apocrypha, Gnostic)
    •  Accepted as scripture by Augustine and Syrian church in 4th century (later added by Catholic church)  Jews never accepted as Scriptures  Curious timing,1546 (council of Trent) was added because of ―Christian usage‖ and 29 years after Protestant reformation  No book in group claims to be inspired, and some deny it (1 Maccabees 9:27)
    • in 2nd and 3rd century with names of  Written apostles even though they didn‘t write them (e.g. Acts of John, Gospel of Peter)  Books taught 2 early heresies: (1) Jesus was only a spirit that looked like a man and (2) His resurrection was a return to spiritual form  Heretical groups created them  No early church fathers accepted these and writings are not consistent with rest of Scriptures
    •  Evangelicals do not try to prove that the Bible has no mistakes so that they can be sure the Bible is the Word of God.  Christians hold the Bible to the Word of God (and inerrant) because they are convinced that Jesus believed it and taught it
    • Incarnate Inspired Hidden in God from eternity Eternal thoughts of God (John 1:1) (Ps. 119:89, Eph. 3:9) Conceived by Holy Spirit Inspired by Holy Spirit (Luke 1:35) (2 Tim. 3:16, 2 Peter 1:21) Born a common man Written in common language (Phil. 2:7) (1 Cor. 2:4-10) Perfect; sinless Perfect; inerrant (John 8:46, Heb. 4:15) (John 17:17, Ps. 19:8) Bore witness to Scriptures Bore witness to Christ (Matt. 5:17-18) (Luke 24:27) Reveals the Father Reveals the Son (John 1:18, Heb. 1:1-2) (John 5:39) God can produce both a Person and a Book that are without error.
    • Book Rationale Hebrews Author unknown. James Conflict with Paul‘s faith alone 2 Peter Style variance from 1 Peter 2 and 3 John Author (Peter) is called ―elder‖ Jude Refers to Book of Enoch and Assumption of Moses Revelation Teaches thousand year reign for Christ (taught by a cult)
    •  Third-Party Verification - a plethora of external sources and facts outside the Bible corroborate what is found in the Bible.  Historical Reliability - The Bible's message is a sharp contrast to the pagan fertility religions and philosophies of the ancient world as revealed through history.  Fulfilled Prophecy - Events demonstrate that the Biblical prophets accurately predicted events hundreds of years before they occurred.  Archaeological Evidence - Archaeological evidence demonstrates the historical and cultural accuracy of the Bible.
    •  TheSumerian King List, lists kings who reigned for long periods of time.  Then a great flood came. Following the flood, Sumerian kings ruled for much shorter periods of time.  Men had long life spans before the flood and shorter life spans after the flood.
    •  Sumerian tablets record the confusion of language as we have in the Biblical account of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9).  Therewas a golden age when all mankind spoke the same language.  Babylonianshad a similar account in which the gods destroyed a temple tower and "scattered them abroad and made strange their speech.‖
    • 1. Campaign into Israel by Pharaoh Shishak (1 Kings 14:25-26), recorded on the walls of the Temple of Amun in Thebes, Egypt. 2. Revolt of Moab against Israel (2 Kings 1:1; 3:4-27), recorded on the Mesha Inscription. 3. Fall of Samaria (2 Kings 17:3-6, 24; 18:9-11) to Sargon II, king of Assyria, as recorded on his palace walls. 4. Defeat of Ashdod by Sargon II (Isaiah 20:1), as recorded on his palace walls. 5. Campaign of the Assyrian king Sennacherib against Judah (2 Kings 18:13-16), as recorded on the Taylor Prism. 6. Siege of Lachish by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:14, 17), as recorded on the Lachish reliefs. 7. Assassination of Sennacherib by his own sons (2 Kings 19:37), as recorded in the annals of his son Esarhaddon. 8. Fall of Nineveh as predicted by the prophets Nahum and Zephaniah (2:13-15), recorded on the Tablet of Nabopolasar.
    • 9. Fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (2 Kings 24:10- 14), as recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles. 10. Captivity of Jehoiachin, king of Judah, in Babylon (2 Kings 24:15-16), as recorded on the Babylonian Ration Records. 11. Fall of Babylon to the Medes and Persians (Daniel 5:30-31), as recorded on the Cyrus Cylinder. 12. Freeing of captives in Babylon by Cyrus the Great (Ezra 1:1-4; 6:3-4), as recorded on the Cyrus Cylinder. 13. The existence of Jesus Christ as recorded by Josephus, Suetonius, Thallus, Pliny the Younger, the Talmud, and Lucian. 14. Forcing Jews to leave Rome during the reign of Claudius (A.D. 41-54) (Acts 18:2), as recorded by Suetonius.
    •  Jews buried flawed and worn-out copies  Only have a few OT manuscripts  All manuscripts agreed to a great extent even with Septuagint, Dead Sea Scrolls, writings in Qumran caves.  Nothing was to be written by memory  Any copy with one mistake was destroyed  95% word-for-word identical
    •  5,600+ manuscripts available  Most textual difficulties are slight (e.g. Word order)  Some say 200,000 ―errors‖ in Bible but only 10,000 variants  < 40 places where original is not 100% known  Have 100% of NT and are certain about 99.5%
    • * Source: Evidence that demands a verdict, Josh McDowell
    •  The name "Canaan" was in use in Ebla, a name critics once said was not used at that time and was used incorrectly in the early chapters of the Bible.  The word "tehom" ("the deep") in Genesis 1:2 was said to be a late word demonstrating the late writing of the creation story. "Tehom" was part of the vocabulary at Ebla, in use some 800 years before Moses.
    •  Many thought Solomon's wealth was greatly exaggerated. Recovered records show that wealth in antiquity was concentrated and Solomon's prosperity was entirely feasible.  Claimed there was no Assyrian king named Sargon (Isaiah 20:1). Then, Sargon's palace was discovered in Khorsabad, Iraq. The very event, his capture of Ashdod, was recorded on the palace walls.
    • Selected Important Old Testament Archaeological Finds
    • Selected Important New Testament Archaeological Finds
    •  The OT foretells His place of birth as Bethlehem — Numbers 24:17, 19, Micah 5:2  His lineage from Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and David — Gen: 12:3, 21:12, 2 Samuel 7:13  His forerunner, John the Baptist — Isaiah 40:3, Malachi 3:1  His vicarious suffering and death — Isaiah 53  His crucifixion, before crucifixion was a mode of execution — Psalm 22:16, Zechariah 12:10  His execution with common criminals — Isaiah 53:9, 12  His divinity — Isaiah 9:6, Jeremiah 23:6, Micah 5:2
    • 1. He will be betrayed by a friend (Psalm 41:9; Matthew 26:49) 2. The price of his betrayal will be thirty pieces of silver (Zechariah 11:12; Matthew 26:15) 3. His betrayal money will be cast to the floor of my temple (Zechariah 11:13; Matthew 27:5) 4. His betrayal money will be used to buy the potter‘s field (Zechariah 11:13; Matthew 27:7) 5. He will be forsaken and deserted by his disciples (Zechariah 13:7; Mark 14:50) 6. He will be accused by false witnesses (Psalm 35:11; Matthew 26:59-60) 7. He will be silent before his accusers (Isaiah 53:7; Matthew 27:12) 8. He will be wounded and bruised (Isaiah 53:5; Matthew 27:26) 9. He will be hated without a cause (Psalm 69:4; John 15:25) 10. He will be struck and spit on (Isaiah 50:6; Matthew 26:67) 11. He will be mocked, ridiculed, and rejected (Isaiah 53:3; Matthew 27:27-31; and John 7:5, 48)
    • 12. He will collapse from weakness (Psalm 109:24-25; Luke 23:26) 13. He will be taunted with specific words (Psalm 22:6-8; Matthew 27:39-43) 14. People will shake their heads at him (Psalm 109:25; Matthew 27:39) 15. People will stare at him (Psalm 22:17; Luke 23:35) 16. He will be executed among ―sinners‖ (Isaiah 53:12; Matthew 27:38) 17. His hands and feet will be pierced (Psalm 22:16; Luke 23:33) 18. He will pray for his persecutors (Isaiah 53:12; Luke 23:34) 19. His friends and family will stand afar off and watch (Psalm 38:11; Luke 23:49) 20. His garments will be divided and won by the casting of lots (Psalm 22:18; John 19:23-24) 21. He will thirst (Psalm 69:21; John 19:28) 22. He will be given gall and vinegar (Psalm 69:21; Matthew 27:34) 23. He will commit himself to God (Psalm 31:5; Luke 23:46)
    • 24. His bones will be left unbroken (Psalm 34:20; John 19:33) 25. His heart will rupture (Psalm 22:14; John 19:34) 26. His side will be pierced (Zechariah 12:10; John 19:34) 27. Darkness will come over the land at midday (Amos 8:9; Matthew 27:45) 28. He will be buried in a rich man‘s tomb (Isaiah 53:9; Matthew 27:57-60) 29. He will die 483 years after the declaration of Artaxerxes to rebuild the temple in 444 B.C. (Daniel 9:24)
    •  Jesusfulfilled 60 Old Testament prophecies made 400 years before his birth 1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000 = the probability of just 8 prophecies being fulfilled in one person supported by work from Peter Stoner validated by the American Scientific Affiliation
    • Remember… To doubt God is the first step to muffle God‘s voice To criticize God is the first step to gag God‘s voice
    • How can I trust How do I know that what the Bible it is from God? says? Why do Christians What does all this follow it? mean to you?
    • Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart;  How to read the Bible for all it‘s worth  How to read the Bible Book by Book William Klein, Bloomberg;  Introduction to Biblical Interpretation D.A. Carson;  Exegetical fallacies Norman Geisler;  When critics ask: Popular Handbook of Bible Difficulties  When skeptics ask: A Handbook on Christian Evidences Jr., Gleason L. Archer;  New International Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties
    • If you are interested in apologetics, please feel free to write down your name and email address.
    • ―For the time will come when men will not put up with sound doctrine. Instead, to suit their own desires, they will gather around them a great number of teachers to say what their itching ears want to hear.‖ - Paul (2 Timothy 4:3)
    •  Who caused David to take a census of Israel?  A. God (2 Sam. 24:1) or B. Satan (1 Chron. 21:1) • Western thinking leads to disjunctive choice (e.g. A or B) (Aristotelian thinking) • Eastern Jewish can be both (e.g. A+B) • God permits Satan to act (Job 1-2) (Satan can‘t do anything without God‘s consent (Luke 22:31)
    •  Who killed Goliath? • 1 Sam. 17:50 says David OR 2 Sam. 21:19 says Elhanan? • Answer: 1 Chron. 20:5 • David, accidental/incidental scribal error resulted in dropped ―brother‖
    •  Do not judge, or you too will be judged. (Matt. 7:1)  Stopjudging by mere appearances, and make a right judgment." (John 7:24)  What is going on here? • Read Context: It‘s about hypocritical judgment
    •  Psalm 82:6 "I said, 'You are "gods"; you are all sons of the Most High.‗…‖  We are gods?!  Answer: read context… read before and after… • ―Provide justice‖ • ―Like mere men‖ • Similar theme in Exodus 7:1 with Moses but merely talks about presiding justice/authority (Exodus 21:6; 22:8) • God is the real judge (Psalm 50:6)
    •  Muslim‘s say Paul corrupted Christianity... Why?  James 2:20,24 (Jesus‘ bro says works + faith?) vs. Rom. 3:28, 4:4-5 (Paul seems to say faith alone?) • Seemingly contradicts Sola Fide? (Faith Alone) • Response:  James is talking about works of faith (faith before men)  Paul is talking about works of law (faith before God)  How do we know? (James 2:14 – ―to the brethren‖, ―that faith‖  should result in works (matches Eph. 2:8-10))
    • • ―…Father is greater than I‖ (John 14:28), how? Is Jesus saying the Father is better than himself? • Answer: Does ―greater‖ = ―better‖?  For example, is a parent greater than the child (e.g. Jesus submitted to Joseph and Mary) or the Prime Minister of Canada greater than us? (office of authority)  It is a reference to authority (hierarchy exists in the trinity)  Father elects for salvation  Son purchases with blood  Holy Spirit seals them
    •  Days contradiction? • Matt 17:1, Mark 9:2, Luke 9:28 • Answer: Luke is approximate says ―some‖, not concerned with exact # of days
    •  You may ask me for anything in my name, and I will do it. (John 14:14)  Ask God and he will give you anything? (John 14:14) • Answer: Tota Scriptura (1 John 5:14-15) • Paul rejoices in infirmities • C.S. Lewis ―God whispers to us in our joy but screams to us in our pain.‖
    •  Jonah was in a fish or whale?  How if whale is not a type of fish? • Jonah 1:17 • Matt. 12:40 • Answer: Dag is Hebrew word for ―fish‖, no word for ―whale‖ exists. Dag used in reference to sea animals
    •  Deuteronomy 34:5-8 • Who wrote about Moses‘ death? Couldn‘t be Moses (author of Deuteronomy)? • Answer: Likely Joshua, Moses‘ successor (Epilogue flows into Joshua 1:1) • Epilogue doesn‘t take away from authorship of book (often when an author passes away prior to completion of book a close friend will write epilogue, doesn‘t confuse authorship)
    •  Sign above cross (why all say different things?) • Matt. 27:37, Mark 15:26, Luke 23:38, John 19:19 • Answer: Sign in different languages (John 19:20 - Many of the Jews read this sign, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and the sign was written in Aramaic, Latin and Greek.) • Matthew: Hebrew/Aramaic  For Jews as their languages • Mark: Latin (Romans)  Romans ruling (usually only charge mentioned) • Luke: Greek  common language • John: Roman form of sign  (name of accused + charge) (probably from Pilate himself)
    • How was it tailored to Gospel Audience Focus audience? Matthew Jews What did • Frequently quotes OT Jesus say? to show Jesus fulfillment of the messianic prophecies • Quotes reflect the Hebrew text and the rest are from the Greek version (Septuagint) Mark Romans What did • Power Jesus do? • “Movie-like” snapshots (quick) Luke Greeks Who followed • Like birth stories Jesus? • Wisdom • Saviour of world John Believers Who was • Galilean mission to Jesus? Judea*
    • Prophetic Meaning Gospel Reflection Symbol Lion King Matthew* • Messiah King Ox Servant Mark* • Suffering Servant Jesus Man Humanity Luke* • Humanity, grew up 12 years old (b/c bar mitzvah age) • He is the perfect and ideal human who comes to reconcile both Jews and Gentiles to God • Emphasis on the Gentile outreach of Jesus Eagle Deity John • All about God and God is all and all is from him and for him * Synoptic gospels = ―see through one eye‖
    •  Narratives; mostly literal  Poetry; can contain metaphors (Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, etc.) • In Hebrew meanings rhyme not the words (e.g. Heavens vs. Firmament – Psalm 19)  Apocalyptic; highly symbolic (Daniel 2-7, some of Joel, some of Isaiah, etc.)  Prophetic; deals with present conditions and also future ones (some of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, some of Daniel, Hosea, Joel, etc.) • Propheme means ―To speak‖ , not always future‖
    •  Anthropomorphism; applying human like qualities to God (e.g. hands, eyes, nose, arm, etc.)  Zoomorphism; applying animal like qualities to God (e.g. lion (Hos. 13:8, Amos), she bear, wings, feathers, etc.)  Anthropopathism; applying human emotions to God (laughter (Psalms 2:4, 37:13), anger (Exodus 4:14), grieving, etc.) • Distinct difference is God is not controlled by emotions like us
    • 1. Was it written by a prophet of God? (Deut. 18:18, Heb. 1:1, 2 Peter 1:20-21) 2. Was he confirmed by an act of God? (Heb. 2:3-4) 3. Does it tell the truth about God? (Gal. 1:8, Deut. 18:22) 4. Does it have the power of God? (Heb. 4:12) 5. Was it accepted by the people of God? (1 Thes. 2:13, Deut. 31:24-26, Col. 4:16, 1 Thes. 5:27)