Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Chapter 2 Perception Sensation The immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth & fingers) to the basic stimuli such as light, color, sound, odor & texture. Perception The process by which people select, organize & interpret these sensation. Sensory stimuli Sensory Receptiors Sight Eyes Sounds Ears Smells Nose Exposure Attention Interpretation Taste Mouth Textures Skin Perception Sensation Exposure When a stimulus comes within the range of someone‟s sensory receptors OR Maximum & minimum level of sense called exposure e.g. A normal human being see anything the angel 180 degree & hear any voice 20 MHz to 20,000 MHz . Attention Focus of the process. Interpretation Assign the meanings. Hedonic Consumption The multisensory, fantasy & emotional aspects of consumer‟s interactions with products. Sensory Marketing It is new area of marketing where companies pay extra attention to impact of sensation on product experience. OR Marketing strategies that focus on the impact of sensation on our product experience. Vision Smell Sensory Hearing Mraketing Touch Taste 1)Vision Marketers communicate meanings on the visual channel through a product‟s color, size & styling. 1 Consumer Behavior| Zeeshan Tufail
  2. 2. Chapter 2 Perception Trade Dress Some color combinations come to be strongly associated with a corporation that they become known as company‟s trade dress. Red color creates feeling of arousal & stimulate appetite. Blue color creates more relaxing feelings. Black color is the sign of mourning. Research suggest that females see color better than males do & men are 16 times more likely to be color blind. Scientist & Philosophers talking about the color meanings since the time of Socrates in 5th century B.C. & Sir Isaac Newton’s observation. 2) Smell Scent Marketing This form of sensory Marketing is taking interesting turns as manufacturers find new ways to put scents into products, including men‟s suits, detergents & aircrafts cabins. 3) Hearing Functional Music such music that is played in stores, shopping malls & offices to either relax or stimulate consumers. Stimulus Progression Research shows that workers tend to slow down during midmorning & midafternoon so Muzak Corporation uses a system that increase the tempo during those slack times & with the help of this system reduction in absenteeism among factory workers this system is known as Stimulus Progression. 4) Touch Haptic(touch) Sense It appears to moderate relationship between product experience & judgment confidence, conforming the commonsense notion that we‟re more sure about what we perceive when we can touch it. Kansei Engineering A philosophy that translates customer‟s feelings into design elements. 5) Taste Flavor House Our taste receptors obviously contribute to our experience of many products so they keep busy developing new concoctions to please the changing palates of consumers. Exposure Subliminal Perception (Within the (Outside the range) range) 2 Consumer Behavior| Zeeshan Tufail
  3. 3. Chapter 2 Perception 1) Exposure When a stimulus comes within the range of someone‟s sensory receptors. 1.1) Sensory Thresholds(Boundaries)It means the boundaries of sensory, mean define the range of sensory e.g. A normal human being hear any voice 20 MHz to 20,000 MHz.It is the boundary of any normal human being ears that he can hear the sound minimum 20 MHz & maximum 20,000 MHz if sound is less than 20 MHz & more than 20,000 MHz it is out of the boundary we can‟t hear this sound. 1.2) Absolute Threshold When we define the lowestminimum intensity of stimulus that can be registered on a sensory channel e.g. any normal human being ears that he can hear the sound minimum 20 MHz we speak of it is Absolute Threshold. 1.3) Just Noticeable Difference(J.N.D)The minimum difference we can detect b/w two stimuli is the Just Noticeable Difference(J.N.D).It is the point where we just notice in problem e.g. we are reading, at one stage we feel thrust but we ignore it & busy in reading we can see that during reading we can face a problem what problem?? when we notice it we relay our body feel thrust.This is the initial point of the our problem(thrust). 1.4) The Differentiate Threshold Ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli. 1.5) Weber’s Law This law is presented by a Psychophysicist named by Ernst Weber Ford in 9th Century. K= i/I K=A constant (That can varies across the sense) I=Change in intensity of stimulus required to produce a j.n.d. I= Intensity of stimulus where changes occurs. Note If minimum difference is 20% then we can say that it is Differentiate Threshold. Subliminal Perception Another word for threshold is Limen(just remember of Sprite) When a stimulus out of the range of someone‟s sensory receptors or consumers awareness. Subliminal techniques Embeds These are tiny figures that are inserted into magazines advertising by using high-speed photography or airbrushing. These hidden figures usually a sexual nature, supposedly exert strong but unconscious influences on innocent readers. 3 Consumer Behavior| Zeeshan Tufail
  4. 4. Chapter 2 Perception Subliminal Problems 1) Individual Difference 2) Distance & Position 3) Absolute Attention 4) General Attention A) Personal Selection Factor (P.S.F) B) Stimulus Selection Factor (S.S.F) A) Personal Selection Factor (P.S.F) 1) Experience The result of acquiring & processing stimulation over time OR Combination of errors. Perceptual Filter The process of eliminating /filtering the bad experience products from consideration (features of any product) list. OR It is based on our past experiences influence what we decided to process. 2) Perceptual Vigilance (Active) Such factors that consumer likely to be aware of stimuli that relate to their current need. A customer who rarely notices car ads will become very much aware of them when he/she is in the market of new car. 3) Perceptual defense This is the flip side of perceptual vigilance, it means that people see what they want to see---and what they don‟t want to see. Adoption The degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time.This process occurs when consumers no longer pay attention to a stimulus because it is so familiar OR The process of habituate. Factors lead to adaptors 1) Intensity Light color & soft sounds habituate due to less sensory impact on the other hand dark color not easily habituate due to strong sensory e.g. in billboards usually used dark colors so that they can‟t easily habituate. 2) Duration Time period/Attention span of habituate any product. Less Time Less time of Time period/Attention span. More Time Moderate Time period/Attention span. Much More Time Late Time period/Attention span. 3)Discrimination(Prominent, Unique) Simple stimuli habituate because they don‟t require attention to detail OR Different from routine work e.g. Sprite ads it is near to the reality & unique from there competitors. 4) Exposure Frequently encountered stimuli habituate as the rate of exposure increase. 5) Relevance Current need relevant Late habituate Current need not relevant Early habituate 4 Consumer Behavior| Zeeshan Tufail
  5. 5. Chapter 2 Perception Stimulus Selection Factors 1) Size Bigger is better because Large billboard More attention Small billboard Less attention 2) Color is a powerful way to draw attention to a product or to give it a distinct identity. See page 2 for more detail about color. 3) Position In stores products displayed in front at eye level & in news paper front page advertisement & left & right side of pages in Urdu & English magazines as well as during watching drama in break if 1st ads is interesting all these are late habituate and win to pay attention. 4) Novelty It means fantasy.Stimuli that appear in unexpected ways or places there will be less competition attention.These places are back of shopping carts, walls of tunnels, floor of sports stadiums and even of public restrooms. Interpretation Process of assigning meaning on the base of stimulus. 1) Schema The meaning we assign to a stimulus on the base of knowledge, personality, thought, background & feelings OR An organized collection of beliefs & feelings represented in a cognative category. 2) Priming Properties of a stimulus that evoke a schema that leads us to compare the stimulus to other similar ones we encountered in the past. Stimulus organization Gestalt It is a German word mean whole, pattern or configuration and we summarize this term as “the whole is greater than the sum of parts.” OR Whenever we don‟t completely know about something we don‟t assign meaning about it. Gestalt principles 1) Closure Principle when we see any incomplete things we try to complete it. Marketers deliberately do this so that they pay attention of the consumers. 2) Principle of Similarity Try to linked the same things e.g. Green color is adopted by the Superior Groups of College when we see green color our mind directly linked it with Superior due to green color. 3) Figure –ground Principle It is states that one part of the stimuli will dominate (figure) & the other parts recede into the background (the ground) Background Dull 4 ground(Logo, brand,….) Prominent The eye of the Beholder It is a process of “seeing what you want to see” Semiotics Science of symbols mean how we convey our message by using signs…. Stimuli=Text + Symbols (Signs) 5 Consumer Behavior| Zeeshan Tufail
  6. 6. Chapter 2 Perception Three basic components of Semiotics 1) Object It is a semiotics term, is the product that is focus of the image e.g. Lux soap. 2) Sign Sensory image that represent the intended meaning of the object e.g. Iman Ali in Lux ads. 3) Interpretant The meaning that derived from sign or symbol e.g. in Lux ads interpretant is Beauty. Signs are related to objects in 3 ways Icon It is a sign that resembles the product in some way. Index It is sign that is connected to a product because they share some property. Symbols It is sign that is related to a product through either conventional or agreed association. Hyperreality The process of create initially simulation/artificial personality then become a part of real life. Perceptual positioning Perceptual Map A vivid way to paint a picture of where products or brands are located in consumer‟s mind. Positioning Strategies An organization „s strategies that use of elements in the marketing mix to influence the consumer‟s interpretation of a product‟s. 1) Lifestyle(Only uses branded products e.g. Blackberry, Nikon …) 2) Price leadership(Provide maximum value within minimum price e.g. Gourment Bakery..) 3) Attributes(Quality, Style, Feature & Design) 4) Product class(Food items & non-food items are two class & each class further divided into sub classes) 5) Competitors 6) Occasions(Pepsi in Cricket World Cup, Coca Cola in Basant) 7) Users 8) Quality 6 Consumer Behavior| Zeeshan Tufail