International Journal of Cross
                Cultural Management
                                                http://...
Cultural Perspectives                                                                              CCM          Internatio...
78   International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1)

     This article examines the relationship                 ...
Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 79

interdependence (a collectivistic attitude),...
80   International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1)

          Allen and Meyer’s (1990) formulation              ...
Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 81

tions were more strongly correlated with AC ...
82   International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1)

     a job and some particular aspects of it                ...
Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 83

the public organization’s context tended to ...
84   International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1)

     Table 1     Contrasting approaches to employment in the...
Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 85

   Turning to the Meyer et al. (1993) meas- ...
86   International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1)

                                                            ...
Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 87

Table 3   Distribution of commitment profile...
88   International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1)

     Table 4a      Analysis of variance for private sector (...
Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 89


       6



     5.5


                    ...
90   International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1)

     P5 created very high levels of extrinsic satis-        ...
Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 91

Table 5 Descriptive statistics (means, stand...
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Organizational Behavior

3,064 views
2,989 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,064
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
82
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Organizational Behavior

  1. 1. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management http://ccm.sagepub.com Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction among Greek Private and Public Sector Employees Yannis Markovits, Ann J. Davis and Rolf van Dick International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 2007; 7; 77 DOI: 10.1177/1470595807075180 The online version of this article can be found at: http://ccm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/1/77 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com Additional services and information for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management can be found at: Email Alerts: http://ccm.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://ccm.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations (this article cites 14 articles hosted on the SAGE Journals Online and HighWire Press platforms): http://ccm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/7/1/77 Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  2. 2. Cultural Perspectives CCM International Journal of Cross Cultural 2007 Vol 7(1): 77–99 Management Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction among Greek Private and Public Sector Employees Yannis Markovits Aston University, Birmingham, UK, Ann J. Davis Aston University, Birmingham, UK, Rolf van Dick Aston University, Birmingham, UK and Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany ABSTRACT Recent research into organizational commitment has advocated a profiles-based approach. However, with the exception of Wasti, published findings are confined to North American samples. This article examines the relationships between organizational commitment profiles and job satisfaction in Greece. Greek organizations have rarely been the subject of detailed examination, so the study provides baseline information regarding levels of organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Greece. Both private sector (N = 1119) and public sector (N = 476) employees in Greece were surveyed, as this sectoral distinction is regularly associated with different patterns of job-related attitudes. The contrasts between Greek and Anglo-American values present a new challenge to the profiles approach. The results confirm the utility of the profiles approach to the study of organizational commitment. Affective organizational commitment was found to be most influential with respect to levels of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. This concurs with other studies of the behavioural outcomes of commitment. KEY WORDS • Greece • job satisfaction • organizational commitment profiles • private sector • public sector Copyright © 2007 SAGE Publications www.sagepublications.com DOI: 10.1177/1470595807075180 Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  3. 3. 78 International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1) This article examines the relationship Eastern’ cluster (see Ronen and Shenkar, between organizational commitment and job 1985), including Arab countries, Spain, some satisfaction in Greece. Greece is represented Latin American countries and Turkey. in most major studies of cross cultural varia- Griffeth et al. (1985) cluster Greece with the tion (Hofstede, 1980, 2001; House et al., Latin European countries of Spain, Portugal 2004), however organizational commitment and Italy, and the Netherlands and Belgium. is barely reported from a Greek perspective. In terms of the societal values, institutional Following on from Myloni et al.’s (2004) collectivism and uncertainty avoidance are identification of the culture-specific nature of highly valued, while power distance and Greek human resource management (HRM) assertiveness are less valued than in most of practices, this article explores the outcomes the GLOBE participant countries. Of the of these practices in terms of organizational nine GLOBE dimensions, only gender egali- commitment and its relationship with job tarianism is both highly valued and widely satisfaction. practised in Greece. Societal practices (in In line with recent developments, we take contrast to values) are reported to be high on the approach of exploring the role of com- assertiveness and power distance, and low on mitment profiles (Meyer and Herscovitch, performance orientation, institutional collec- 2001). That is, the way in which different tivism, humane orientation and uncertainty commitment components combine to form avoidance. Hofstede’s findings are largely an overall pattern or profile of organizational similar, although he reported high power dis- commitment, and how these profiles influ- tance being valued rather than just practised. ence the outcomes of organizational commit- This shift from Hofstede’s study to the ment, specifically intrinsic and extrinsic job GLOBE findings may be a function of the satisfaction. economic development and related changes Finally, the article contrasts the responses that Greece has experienced in the past 30 of employees in the public sector with those years. in private sector employment in Greece. While Greek values have been explored, These sectors have different implications the impact of this value set on organizational for the likely nature of commitment profiles outcomes has not, in contrast to its neighbour generated and for job satisfaction. However Turkey, which has been the subject of an the approach to employment in the two sec- extensive series of studies on organizational tors in Greece differs markedly from the pat- commitment by Wasti (1998, 2003). The tern normally expected in Western European cross cultural studies that have included countries, which is also discussed. Greece reinforce the contrast between Greek attitudes, decision-making style, values and beliefs and those of more widely researched Greek Context and Culture contexts, primarily the UK and North Greece is rarely explored in management America (Schwartz, 1994). Bourantas et al. research (Myloni et al., 2004; Papalexandris, (1990) argue that Greek management is 1992) although it is represented in major characterized by a fear of responsibility and a studies of cross cultural variation. Indeed its low belief in others’ knowledge and capacity position in these studies is quite distinctive. – a characterization that accords with the The GLOBE studies (Global Leadership and GLOBE data. Organizational Behavior Effectiveness; House Green et al. (2005) clustered countries’ et al., 2004) locate Greece in the Eastern individualistic and collectivistic dimensions Europe cluster, while Hofstede’s earlier work on the basis of three attitudes: self-reliance (1980) locates Greece in a broadly ‘Near (an individualistic attitude), group-oriented Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  4. 4. Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 79 interdependence (a collectivistic attitude), Organizational Commitment and competitiveness (an attitude that is both and Commitment Profiles individualistic and collectivist). Greece was clustered into the self-reliant non-competitor Organizational commitment (OC) has been quadrant (together with Italy), whereas the a popular topic for research into work atti- USA was on the borders of the interdepen- tudes and behaviours in recent years (see dent competitor quadrant, and Turkey was Meyer et al., 2002). It has been formulated in located in the self-reliant competitor quad- a variety of ways, typically as a construct with rant. This seems to indicate an emergent multiple components describing individuals’ individualism within both Greece and feelings of attachment to, identification with Turkey. and obligation to the organization (e.g. Allen Taken as a whole, these and other studies and Meyer, 1990; Cook and Wall, 1980; (e.g. Bond et al., 2004, Smith et al., 2002) Mowday et al., 1979). support the assertion that Greece is clearly Cook and Wall (1980), working in a UK distinguishable from Anglo and East Asian context, view OC as the ‘feelings of attach- countries, but shares similarities with Latin, ment to the goals and values of the organiza- Eastern European and Arabic countries. tion, . . . and attachment to the organization Lammers and Hickson (1979) describe for its own sake rather than for its strictly Greece as akin to a typical bureaucracy, high instrumental values’ (p. 40). This attachment in power distance and with a strong rule ori- takes three forms: identification (a feeling of entation, the inverse of the Anglo pattern. pride and belonging to the organization); Kirkman and Shapiro (2001) argue that involvement (the willingness to invest personal there is a tendency for higher levels of collec- effort for the sake of the organization); and tivism to be associated with greater job satis- loyalty (attachment and obligation towards faction and organizational commitment, and the organization). This is operationalized in a tendency for lower levels of power distance the British Organizational Commitment to be associated with higher levels of organi- Scale (BOCS), modelled on Mowday et al.’s zational commitment. Clugston et al. (2000) (1979) Organizational Commitment Ques- argue that high power distance results in tionnaire, and has been widely used in the strong relationships with continuance and UK across a range of employment contexts normative commitment but not affective (e.g. Biggs and Swailes, 2006; Pendleton, commitment; individuals high on uncertainty 2003). Its psychometric properties have been avoidance develop continuance-type rela- extensively tested: a recent study by Mathews tionships across all foci; while collectivism and Shepherd (2002) supported the three- leads to more workgroup commitments as component structure, although like Guest well as normative commitments. According and Peccei (1993) a decade earlier, cautions to Smith et al. (2001) job satisfaction is remain regarding some negatively worded greater in individualistic than collectivist items. nations, possibly due to greater economic Internationally, the BOCS has been used and social prosperity. Against this back- in the USA (Madsen et al., 2005), in Israel ground, Greece would appear to be a good (Bar-Hayim and Berman, 1992), and in socio-cultural context to further examine Australia (Albrecht and Travaglione, 2003), organizational attitudes. however there are no reports of its use in the Near East (Israel is located in the Latin Europe cluster in the GLOBE studies and tends more towards northern Europe in Hofstede’s 1980 study). Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  5. 5. 80 International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1) Allen and Meyer’s (1990) formulation more predictive of OC in individualistic soci- also proposes a three-component model: eties, whereas post-materialistic job values affective commitment (employees remain (e.g. helping others) were more predictive of with the organization because they want to; OC in collectivistic societies. AC), continuance commitment (employees Research on the consequences of OC has remain because they need to; CC) and nor- found that OC in general is a more powerful mative commitment (they remain because predictor of job performance in nations they feel they ought to; NC). A self-report scoring high on collectivism (Jaramillo et al., measure of these three components has been 2005). Meyer et al. (2002) report AC in developed by Meyer et al. (1993). particular to be a powerful predictor of job The BOCS and Meyer and Allen’s con- outcomes in the (individualistic) US, with NC ceptualization share an ‘affective’ component becoming more important elsewhere (see (organizational identification or affective com- Gautam et al., 2005; Wasti, 2003). mitment), which is generally suggested to be Recent theoretical developments (Gellatly the main determinant of commitment-related et al., 2004; Meyer and Herscovitch, 2001; focal and discretionary behaviours (Meyer et Wasti, 2005) have begun to emphasize the al., 2002). They also share a broadly norma- importance of overall commitment profiles. tive component (NC or loyalty) emphasizing This goes beyond the extent to which indi- mutual obligation. The remaining compo- vidual components of commitment relate to nents (job involvement and continuance com- other variables, to looking at the combina- mitment) are not directly comparable. tions of those components and how they Meyer et al.’s (1993) measure has been interact as a whole to influence focal and dis- researched extensively across cultures. Its con- cretionary outcomes. A review of the litera- struct validity has been demonstrated in ture identified only limited research on com- Europe (Vandenberghe, 1996; Vandenberghe mitment profiles and their work-related et al., 2001), Nepal (Gautam et al., 2001), implications, and these have adopted Allen and the Middle East (Yousef, 2002), although and Meyer’s (1990) approach to OC. Until others question its validity in East Asian recently such studies have limited themselves samples (e.g. Chen and Francesco, 2003; to exploring only two-way interactions Cheng and Stockdale, 2003; Ko et al., 1997; among the three forms of OC. For example, Lee et al., 2001). The debate continues as to Meyer et al. (1989) and Randall et al. (1990) whether differences arise from translation associated the components of organizational problems (Lee et al., 2001) or cultural differ- commitment with job performance and ences in the OC construct: Wasti (2003) behavioural manifestations of job attitude. demonstrated the importance of developing Both studies reported differences in the ‘emic’ items when assessing ‘etic’ OC con- correlations of each component of commit- structs. ment with the predictor variables, and some The antecedents of OC appear to vary two-way interactions, but neither examined systematically with societal values, particu- three-way interactions. Subsequently, Somers larly collectivism. Wasti (2003) found that (1995) identified that while AC was the sole satisfaction with work and promotions were predictor of turnover and absenteeism, when the strongest predictors of OC among indi- observed in conjunction with NC a positive vidualists, whereas satisfaction with supervi- relationship with intent to remain emerged; a sor was an important predictor of OC among two-way interaction. However, the statistic- collectivists. Across seven nations, Mesner ally significant relationships among the   Andolsek and Stebe (2004) also found that variables were modest. Similar results were material job values (e.g. job quality) were found by Jaros (1997), where turnover inten- Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  6. 6. Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 81 tions were more strongly correlated with AC Wasti (2005) adopts a clustering procedure than with either NC or CC. In China, Cheng rather than explicitly exploring eight theo- and Stockdale (2003) found that NC reduced retically constructed profiles. This procedure the relationship between CC and job satis- identified six distinguishable commitment faction, and Chen and Francesco (2003) profiles in her Turkish data: the highly com- found that NC moderated the impact of AC mitted, the non-committed, the neutral, the on organizational citizenship behaviour and affective dominant, the continuance domi- performance, providing support for the pri- nant and the affective-normative dominant. macy of NC in non-western cultures. Despite the difference in approach, Wasti’s In their 2001 article, Meyer and Hersco- analysis indicated that, in line with previous vitch proposed eight theoretically distin- findings, the best job-related outcomes for guishable commitment profiles, derived from both employee and employer were exhibited splitting each component into high or low where affective commitment was high. Speci- scores (2 × 2 × 2). The existence of ‘pure’ fically the highly committed group (high on affective commitment was suggested to cre- all three commitment components), and ate the highest levels of both focal and dis- the affective-normative dominant group dis- cretionary behaviours, followed by those played significantly lower levels of turnover cases where AC is accompanied by high intention, and the affective-normative domi- levels of either NC or CC, or both. nant group showed significantly more loyal Herscovitch and Meyer (2002) report three boosterism (defending the organization studies exploring this model, demonstrating against co-worker criticism) than all other that commitment to change was positively groups except the highly committed group. correlated with compliance with the require- This contrasting approach lends further ments of change. However cooperation and support to the case for a distinctive contribu- championing of change were only correlated tion of a profile-based interpretation of com- with AC and NC. Overall, both articles mitment. The current article returns to supported the view that AC by itself or in the original approach from Meyer and conjunction with NC were the best predic- Herscovitch (2001), statistically generating tors of positive organizational behaviours. eight theoretically feasible groups within a Continuing this line of research, Gellatly three-component model. However, it explores et al. (2004) explored the association between two different three-component models of intention to stay and OC among Canadian commitment, those of Cook and Wall (1980) hospital staff. They report that intention to and Allen and Meyer (1990; Meyer et al., stay was strong when any one component of 1993), in terms of their relationships to commitment was strong and the other two intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. components weak. They further reported that normative commitment could take Job Satisfaction and different forms depending on its context. In Organizational Commitment conjunction with low affective commitment and high continuance commitment, norma- Job satisfaction is one of the most widely tive commitment reduced the display of discre- researched concepts in organizational behav- tionary behaviours. When coupled with iour, although to date no studies have been high levels of affective commitment however, published linking it to commitment profiles. normative commitment increased the likeli- Job satisfaction is typically construed either hood of engaging in discretionary behaviour. as an affective or emotional attitude of an In the first reported replication of the individual towards his or her job (James and profiles approach outside North America, Jones, 1980) or as a general attitude towards Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  7. 7. 82 International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1) a job and some particular aspects of it likely impact on commitment profiles that (Knoop, 1995). We take the position that job they may generate. Reports of differences in satisfaction has two facets relating to the attitudes among public and private sector extrinsic and intrinsic features of a job employees abound. For example, in Israel, (Cooper-Hakim and Viswesvaran, 2005), a Solomon (1986) reports that performance- formulation that can be traced back to based rewards and policies intending to pro- Herzberg (1968). Extrinsic job satisfaction mote efficiency lead to higher job satisfaction relates to satisfaction with, for example, pay, among private than public sector managers. physical conditions of the organizational Karl and Sutton (1998) found that private environment, human resource management sector employees placed higher value on policies and procedures, interpersonal rela- good wages, while public sector employees tionships, and so on. Intrinsic job satisfaction valued interesting work. Naff and Crum represents an employee’s satisfaction with the (1999) reached similar conclusions, identify- non-monetary, qualitative aspects of work, ing the different values and responses to dif- such as creativity, opportunity to develop, ferent incentives between the sectors in the ability utilization, feelings of personal achieve- USA. ment and accomplishment, and so on. These With respect to organizational commit- features are internal to a particular job and ment, studies using the OCQ and the BOCS are viewed and felt individually and differ- highlight that Australian private sector ently by each employee (Arvey et al., 1989). employees were more committed than their An examination of the relationships public sector counterparts (Rachid, 1995). between organizational commitment and its Cho and Lee (2001) argue that organiza- forms, and job satisfaction and its facets, tional culture and societal values determined demonstrates consistent and significant cor- the differences in commitment between relations, in particular with respect to the public and private sector managers in South affective component of commitment. The Korea. Goulet and Frank (2002), reporting meta-analysis by Meyer et al. (2002) reports on findings from the OCQ in the USA, iden- strong correlations between affective com- tified lowest levels of organizational com- mitment and overall job satisfaction (ρ = mitment in the public sector, with higher 0.65), extrinsic satisfaction (ρ = 0.71) and levels in the non-profit sector and still higher intrinsic satisfaction (ρ = 0.68). These rela- levels of commitment in the for-profit sector. tionships have been shown to be influenced The only study examining the differences by cultural context. between private and public sector employees in Greece was conducted by Bourantas and Differences between Public Papalexandris (1999). They showed that, apart from the structural and environmental and Private Sector in Greece differences exemplified between the private One final dimension of this study relates to and the public sector, there were also differ- the impact of the employment sector on ences in the personality characteristics of the commitment and job satisfaction. There are people attracted to each sector. In general, significant differences in the nature of em- Bourantas and Papalexandris argued that ployment in the public and private sectors in private sector employees tended to display Greece, which are likely to have different higher levels of activity, a greater sense of implications for the nature of commitment competence, more tolerance of ambiguity, a and the commitment profiles generated. stronger work ethic and higher growth need, Therefore it is appropriate to explore these all of which were believed to contribute to sectoral differences and speculate on the higher job performance. They conclude that Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  8. 8. Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 83 the public organization’s context tended to enhance satisfaction and motivation at work. attract people with certain characteristics, From the information presented so far a and that these characteristics did not pro- number of hypotheses can be generated mote positive work-related attitudes and regarding the nature of organizational com- behaviours. In summary, private and public mitment in Greece. Three hypotheses can be sector employees project different attitudes identified with respect to the likely impact of and behaviours towards their organizations commitment profiles on reported job satis- and jobs; however, specific influences on faction among Greek employees. Looking organizational commitment, job satisfaction first at the BOCS measure, high levels of and their relationships remain unexplored. organizational identification, job involve- Substantial differences in employment ment and loyalty are likely to result in relationships, status, wages, fringe benefits, satisfaction with both the intrinsic and the and HRM exemplify differences between extrinsic aspects of a job: private and public sector employment in Hypothesis 1a: Employees will be most satisfied, Greece. Table 1 summarizes the most impor- both extrinsically and intrinsically, if they are tant and significant of these differences totally organizationally committed (i.e. have high (derived from Papapetrou, 2006; Sotirakou scores on all three components: organizational and Zeppou, 2005). Unusually, the starting identification, job involvement and loyalty) compared to all other profiles. wage for Greek public sector employees is higher than for the private sector, and given Even if employees are not involved or its stability of employment and guarantee of loyal to their organization, the dominance of pay increases, it is a highly attractive career the affective aspect of commitment (organi- choice for young Greeks. Private sector zational identification) in predicting work- employment offers greater potential rewards, related outcomes suggests that where identi- but at greater risk. fication is present, higher satisfaction will be This research represents the first attempt found: at exploring commitment profiles among Hypothesis 1b: Employees reporting high levels Greek employees. It also provides an analysis of identification will exhibit higher mean val- of the nature of organizational commitment ues for extrinsic and intrinsic satisfaction than in Greece and its relationships to job satisfac- those reporting low identification, irrespective tion, and an exploration of the impact of the of loyalty and job involvement. employment sector on commitment and job While the nature of organizational com- satisfaction. mitment and job satisfaction between public Two studies are reported, one based in and private sector employees in Greece may the private sector and one in the public sec- vary in degree, it is unlikely that it will vary tor. Greek translations of Cook and Wall’s in type. Therefore these hypotheses hold (1980) BOCS and Meyer et al.’s (1993) orga- equally for both private and public sector nizational commitment questionnaire are employees. However, the role of loyalty may used. Initially, the two samples are analysed differ by sector. In particular, public sector separately to explore the roles of commit- employees are expected to both value and ment profiles derived from Cook and Wall’s express greater loyalty to their organization, model in influencing job satisfaction in the given the stability of employment and the private and the public sectors. This analysis is high cost of leaving: then repeated for the public sector sample Hypothesis 1c: Public sector employees will alone, using Meyer et al.’s scales. Conclu- report higher levels of extrinsic and intrinsic sions are drawn regarding the development satisfaction when loyalty is high than when of organizational commitment profiles to loyalty is low. Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  9. 9. 84 International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1) Table 1 Contrasting approaches to employment in the Greek private and public sectors Private sector Public sector Loyalty To the private sector employer To the government and the State. The new entrant gives an oath to the Greek Constitution Employment Individual-, company- or Government, regional government, contract sector-based local government-based Employment status Contracted employment (mainly Life-time and secured employment fixed term; rarely without time restriction) Type of employment Full-time, part-time and flexi-time Full-time Hours of work Mainly 40 hours per week, but 37.5 hours per week varies from sector to sector Policies and Determined by each private sector Determined by law and applied to all procedures organization employees Wages determination Individual, enterprise or branch National collective agreement – collective agreements – minimum minimum wages are guaranteed wages are not guaranteed across everywhere in the public sector sector Fringe benefits Not provided to everyone Provided to everyone by law and collective agreements Wage progression Determined by each private Determined by seniority and sector organization (according to educational background merits, achievements, company needs) Entrance wage Around 600 euros per month for a Around 900 euros for all employees full-time employee Wage differentials Substantial Marginal and provided as a fringe by rank benefit Hierarchical Unclear, depends from each After 12 years of public service an progression particular organization employee may become departmental manager Unionization Dependent on the industry. Essential for everyone Generally low Training and Dependent on the company. Scheduled and organized by the development Generally rare and unscheduled National Centre for Public Administration and Local Government Performance Unclear and unsystematic, Typically annually evaluation and dependent on organization assessment Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  10. 10. Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 85 Turning to the Meyer et al. (1993) meas- of business students from the Technological ure of commitment, comparable hypotheses Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. Partici- can be generated. The direct association pants’ organizations ranged from family identified earlier between organizational owned small businesses to medium-sized identification and affective commitment industrial or commercial enterprises, produc- would suggest a similar pattern should occur ing a response rate of 69%. A little less than with respect to affective commitment as for half the sample (45.3%) were male, with a identification: mean age of 33 years and mean organiza- Hypothesis 2a: Employees will be most satisfied, tional tenure of 6 years. Educational achieve- both extrinsically and intrinsically, if they are ment was varied, with 38.2% having com- totally organizationally committed (i.e. have high pleted secondary education, 29.3% having scores on all three components: affective, con- attended a technological educational insti- tinuous and normative commitment), com- tute, and 23.8% being university graduates. pared to all other profiles. The second set of data were collected Hypothesis 2b: Employees reporting high levels from a random sample of 476 public sector of affective commitment will exhibit higher employees from Northern Greece, working mean values for extrinsic and intrinsic satisfac- tion than those reporting low affective com- in government authorities, customs and pub- mitment, irrespective of levels of normative lic health care. The response rate from the and continuance commitment different areas of public sector employment ranged from 61% to 85%. Approximately In the literature drawing on Meyer et al.’s 40% of this sample were non-supervisory model, affective and normative commitment employees, while the remainder were mainly are highly correlated, and normative com- middle-level supervisors. All were employed mitment displays similar but distinguishable in secure, primarily white-collar civil service patterns of association with antecedent and employment. Again slightly less than half the consequential variables. Given the impor- sample (47.3%) were male, with the mean tance of job security in Greece and the way age being 41 years and the average tenure 11 in which normative commitment recognizes years. Education level was generally higher the binding of the employee to the organiza- than in the private sector sample, with 11.6% tion through a sense of obligation and its achieving only secondary education, 21.4% tendency to be more strongly represented technological educational institute and 67% within more collectivist cultures, we put for- university graduates. ward: Hypothesis 2c: Public sector employees who Measures report high levels of normative commitment All scales used were translated into Greek, in will report higher mean values for extrinsic and intrinsic satisfaction, irrespective of the some cases with minor modifications provid- value of continuance commitment. ing explanations of the concepts under study. The job satisfaction measure was based on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Method (MSQ) (Weiss et al., 1967) coupled with the questionnaire developed by Warr et al. Data Collection and Samples (1979). In total 21 items were included, each Data were collected from two different sets of scored on a 7-point scale (endpoints 1 = I am participants. The first was a random sample very dissatisfied, 7 = I am very satisfied). The of 1119 non-supervisory employees from 35 scale is divided into two facets: extrinsic satis- private sector organizations in the Northern faction (e.g. wage level, security and safety Central Greece, surveyed with the assistance offered by the job), and intrinsic satisfaction Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  11. 11. 86 International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1) (e.g. opportunity to use one’s own abilities, <.01 .71 <.01 <.01 <.01 feelings of accomplishment). For the public p sector sample, two additional items relating t-tests Table 2 Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients), Pearson correlations and t-tests for common to satisfaction with industrial relations and 5.65 0.37 2.86 4.83 7.91 with the trade union were included in the t extrinsic satisfaction scale. The measure of organizational commit- .38** 4 ment taken across both samples was the BOCS (Cook and Wall, 1980), with addi- .18** .26** .28** .51** .48** .64** tional items taken from Lawler and Hall 3 (1970), Mowday et al. (1979), and Buchanan .61** .58** (1974). This scale produced three sub-scales Public sector N = 476 2 each comprising four items: organizational identification (e.g. ‘I am proud to say who it .68** 1 is I work for’), job involvement (e.g. ‘As soon as the job is finished I leave work’, reversed) .88 .64 .56 .64 .83 α and loyalty (e.g. ‘Even if there are financial difficulties in the organization, I would be 1.08 1.14 1.06 1.25 1.00 reluctant to leave’). All items were scored on SD a 7-point scale (endpoints 1 = complete dis- Mean agreement and 7 = complete agreement). 4.64 4.62 4.76 4.18 4.45 Negatively worded statements were reverse coded for the purposes of analysis. One .65** .57** 4 item from the job involvement scale was sub- sequently deleted to improve the reliability .30** of the overall scale. Karassavidou and 3 Markovits (1994) report on previous use and .67** .18** .51** Private sector N = 1119 testing of these scales in Greece. 2 For the public sector sample, Meyer et al.’s (1993) organizational commitment scale .77** .62** .19** .52** was also included in the measurement instru- 1 ment. This scale comprises 18 items, six for each of the three commitment components .83 .89 .61 .55 .54 α (affective, normative and continuance com- mitment). Items again were scored on a 0.98 1.10 1.11 1.06 1.16 SD 7-point scale (endpoints 1 = complete dis- agreement and 7 = complete agreement). Mean 4.60 4.59 4.29 3.90 3.92 Results Note: ** p < .01 (two-tailed). 1. Extrinsic satisfaction Table 2 provides descriptive statistics, Cron- 2. Intrinsic satisfaction bach’s alpha coefficients and inter-correla- variables by sector 4. Job involvement 3. Organizational tions for the job satisfaction and BOCS scales identification across the two samples. All commitment 5. Loyalty measures were significantly higher in the Variables public than the private sector (p < .01 in all cases), and levels of identification were higher Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  12. 12. Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 87 Table 3 Distribution of commitment profiles (Cook and Wall, 1980) Organizational identification Low High Job involvement Low High Low High Low P1 P2 P5 P6 N (pri) = 276 N (pri) = 154 N (pri) = 115 N (pri) = 67 N (pub) = 141 N (pub) = 35 N (pub) = 33 N (pub) = 23 “Totally Uncommitted” Loyalty High P3 P4 P7 P8 N (pri) = 67 N (pri) = 89 N (pri) = 113 N (pri) = 237 N (pub) = 36 N (pub) = 31 N (pub) = 75 N (pub) = 102 “Totally Organizationally Committed” than those of job involvement and loyalty. Two three-way analyses of variance were Loyalty was more prevalent in the public performed on each data set, with extrinsic sector sample than involvement, whereas in and intrinsic satisfaction as the dependent the private sector sample both were equally variables, and level of each commitment depressed. Levels of extrinsic satisfaction did component (high or low) as the three inde- not vary significantly between the public pendent variables. These produced the and private sectors, whereas public sector results shown in Tables 4a and 4b. Figures 1a respondents were significantly more intrinsi- and 1b illustrate the group means. cally satisfied with their jobs. While main effects for identification and Taking the BOCS data, eight theoretic- loyalty and a few two-way interactions were ally meaningful profiles were generated using evident, these effects were qualified by the median splits on each of the three commit- predicted significant three-way interaction. ment components (see Table 3). This proce- Looking first at the private sector profiles, the dure was carried out independently for the significance of both three-way interaction public and private sector samples and sepa- terms indicates that variation in both extrin- rate analyses are reported. sic and intrinsic satisfaction can be inter- Profile P8 represents what is identified in preted on the basis of the commitment Hypothesis 1a as ‘total organizational com- profiles. The organizational commitment mitment’. Respondents with this profile are profile with the highest levels of both extrin- expected to demonstrate the highest levels of sic and intrinsic satisfaction was the totally satisfaction. All profiles to the right of the organizationally committed profile (P8), sup- table (P5–P8) include high organizational porting Hypothesis 1a. The next highest identification. According to Hypothesis 1b, profiles were those incorporating high orga- these profiles should produce higher levels of nizational identification and one or other satisfaction than cells P1–P4 where organiza- component (P5–P7), supporting Hypothesis tional identification is low. 1b. Employees with the non-committed Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  13. 13. 88 International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1) Table 4a Analysis of variance for private sector (BOCS) Variables df F p Variables df F p Extrinsic Intrinsic satisfaction 1 27689.04 .00 satisfaction 1 24047.06 .00 OI 1 206.76 .00 OI 1 298.59 .00 JI 1 .07 .80 JI 1 .23 .63 LO 1 43.85 .00 LO 1 35.94 .00 OI × JI 1 .00 1.00 OI × JI 1 2.70 .10 OI × LO 1 4.79 .03 OI × LO 1 .00 .99 JI × LO 1 .50 .48 JI × LOC 1 .00 .96 OI × JI × LO 7, 1118 9.30 .00 OI × JI × LO 7, 1119 20.78 .00 Note: OI = Organizational identification, JI = Job involvement, LO = Loyalty. Table 4b Analysis of variance for public sector (BOCS) Variables df F p Variables df F p Extrinsic Intrinsic satisfaction 1 9862.32 .00 satisfaction 1 8713.85 .00 OI 1 68.55 .00 OI 1 77.19 .00 JI 1 2.89 .09 JI 1 2.75 .10 LO 1 28.08 .00 LO 1 11.59 .00 OI × JI 1 1.12 .29 OI × JI 1 .25 .62 OI × LO 1 .10 .92 OI × LO 1 .17 .68 JI × LO 1 2.98 .09 JI × LOC 1 1.08 .30 OI × JI × LO 7, 476 4.92 .03 OI × JI × LO 7, 476 .48 .49 Note: OI = Organizational identification, JI = Job involvement, LO = Loyalty. profile (P1) were the least satisfied. In other intrinsic satisfaction, compared with those words, a commitment profile containing job profiles that included the element of identifi- involvement related to low satisfaction levels, cation. These low satisfaction profiles tended whereas a profile also containing organiza- to be relatively higher on extrinsic satisfac- tional identification related to high satisfac- tion than intrinsic satisfaction. tion levels. Furthermore, high extrinsic In the public sector sample, only the satisfaction levels were exhibited with the three-way interaction term for extrinsic commitment profile P7, incorporating high satisfaction achieved significance. Again, the levels of both identification and loyalty, but organizational commitment profile repre- in contrast high intrinsic satisfaction levels senting total organizational commitment (P8) were found in the commitment profile P5 was associated with the highest levels of both with high levels only of identification. Finally, extrinsic and intrinsic satisfaction. As with the all profiles that did not contain organiza- private sector sample, organizational identifi- tional identification – that is, P1 to P4 – had cation makes the largest difference to the lower mean values for both extrinsic and commitment profiles. Its existence in P7 and Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  14. 14. Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 89 6 5.5 Extrinsic satisfaction 5 Intrinsic satisfaction 4.5 4 3.5 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 Commitment profile Figure 1a Mean satisfaction values for commitment profiles in the private sector (Cook and Wall, 1980) 6 5.5 Extrinsic satisfaction 5 Intrinsic satisfaction 4.5 4 3.5 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 Commitment profile Figure 1b Mean satisfaction values for commitment profiles in the public sector (Cook and Wall, 1980) Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  15. 15. 90 International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7(1) P5 created very high levels of extrinsic satis- tional commitment, thus replicating Gellatly faction. However, in this sample, profile P3, et al.’s (2004) study. The same measures of representing only high levels of loyalty, was job satisfaction were used. The descriptive also associated with high levels of satisfaction, statistics, reliability coefficients and inter- particularly extrinsic satisfaction. Finally, the correlations are shown in Table 5. non-committed profile (P1), as well as profiles The same procedure was used to test containing job involvement but not organiza- these hypotheses as described above. The dif- tional identification (P2 and P4), showed low ference here is that the eight theoretically levels of extrinsic satisfaction. These results meaningful profiles were derived from the only partially support the hypotheses since Allen and Meyer (1990) model (see Table 6). the relationships were only valid for extrinsic The results of the three-way analyses of satisfaction. It appears however that, in con- variance are shown in Table 7, with Figure 2 trast to the private sector results, loyalty is illustrating the mean values for extrinsic much more important in determining satis- satisfaction and intrinsic satisfaction by com- faction than organizational identification, so mitment profile. broadly supporting Hypothesis 1c. This may Using this formulation of organizational be associated with the higher levels of loyalty commitment, both three-way interactions associated with public sector employment as were statistically significant. As in the previ- compared with the private sector in Greece. ous analyses, totally organizationally com- The requirement to swear an oath to the mitted employees (C8) were both the most employer, coupled with the extensive benefits extrinsically and intrinsically satisfied, sup- and job and career security offered by the porting Hypothesis 2a. Those profiles con- public sector may enhance the role of loyalty taining high affective commitment (C5–C7) for this group. Finally, job involvement had a had high mean satisfaction values, support- rather negative effect on satisfaction; profiles ing Hypothesis 2b. Finally, all commitment containing this variable tended to produce profiles containing normative commitment lower levels of satisfaction. exhibited higher mean values for both facets Overall, these findings support the useful- of job satisfaction than the profiles containing ness of the ‘profiles’ approach to interpreting continuance commitment, providing support organizational commitment. Eight viable for Hypothesis 2c. profiles were identified within the sample. The totally organizationally committed pro- Discussion file (P8) was associated with the highest levels of satisfaction, while profiles containing orga- In the present article, we examined the rela- nizational identification all generated higher tionships between organizational commit- levels of satisfaction than those without iden- ment and job satisfaction in Greece, using tification. The existence of job involvement an approach based on exploring profiles of within a commitment profile does not appear commitment as suggested by Meyer and to make people satisfied with their jobs. Herscovitch (2001). We first identified pat- Profiles without identification tended to be terns of organizational commitment and job higher on extrinsic satisfaction than intrinsic satisfaction in the Greek private and public satisfaction in the private sector, but higher sectors, and went on to explore the relation- on intrinsic than extrinsic satisfaction in the ships between commitment profiles and job public sector. satisfaction, using two different approaches The final set of analyses presented here to the measurement of organizational com- relate to Hypotheses 2a to 2c, using the mitment. Meyer et al. (1993) measures of organiza- Greece is an under-researched cultural Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.
  16. 16. Markovits et al.: Organizational Commitment Profiles and Job Satisfaction 91 Table 5 Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients) and correlations among the Meyer et al. (1993) commitment variables (public sector) Variables Mean St.dev. a 1 2 3 4 1. Extrinsic satisfaction 4.62 1.00 .83 2. Intrinsic satisfaction 4.76 1.08 .88 .68** 3. Affective commitment 4.76 1.19 .82 .42** .53** 4. Continuance commitment 4.82 1.03 .66 .04 .01 .05 5. Normative commitment 4.27 1.18 .75 .36** .34** .66** .23** Note: ** p < .01(two-tailed). Table 6 Distribution of commitment profiles (Meyer et al., 1993) Affective commitment Low High Continuance commitment Low High Low High Low C1 C2 C5 C6 (N = 96) (N = 77) (N = 42) (N = 26) “Totally Uncommitted” Normative commitment High C3 C4 C7 C8 (N = 19) (N = 39) (N = 81) (N = 96) “Totally Organizationally Committed” Table 7 Analysis of variance for public sector (Meyer et al., 1993) Variables df F p Variables df F p Extrinsic Intrinsic satisfaction 1 8396.30 .00 satisfaction 1 8726.23 .00 AC 1 28.96 .00 AC 1 55.79 .00 CC 1 .06 .80 CC 1 4.82 .03 NC 1 5.84 .02 NC 1 12.56 .00 AC × CC 1 .01 .91 AC × CC 1 .50 .48 AC × NC 1 .00 .99 AC × NC 1 .77 .38 CC × NC 1 .53 .47 CC × NC 1 .00 .97 AC × CC × NC 7, 476 5.19 .02 AC × CC × NC 7, 476 13.10 .00 Note: AC = Affective commitment, CC = Continuance commitment, NC = Normative commitment. Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at Middlesex University on February 22, 2008 © 2007 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

×