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Job Satisfaction Of Teachers

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    Job Satisfaction Of Teachers Job Satisfaction Of Teachers Document Transcript

    • JOB SATISFACTION AND COMMITMENT OF OLDER WORKERS IN SMALL BUSINESSES* by Patricia L. Smith and Frank Hoy Extensive research has examined and more older workers than large work attitudes such as job satisfaction organizations, groups comprised to a and organizational commitment and great extent of retirees, homemakers, has identified various characteristics and students(Barth, Cordes, and Haber which are related to these constructs. 1984; U. S. Small Business Adminis- For example, studies indicate older tration 1988). The Office of Advocacy of workers are more satisfied and com- the U. S. Small Business Administra- mitted to their firms than younger tion, however, predicts a decline in employees (Rhodes 1983). The majority both of these groups during the present of such studies, however, focus on decade. The lower birth rate of the mid- employees in large firms in a variety of sixties will decrease the number of work settings. Seldom have these con- younger workers in both relative and structs been addressed in a systematic absolute terms. Participation in the manner in small businesses. The rela-. work force of individuals over 55 will tionship between work attitudes and also decline as more workers choose to the ages of individuals employed by retire early. small businesses has received even less With the decline in the labor force of attention. An understanding of such these particular age groups, small relationships may be just as important businesses may find it increasingly to the small business owner as to the difficult to maintain a work force manager in larger organizations as similar to the one they have employed both seek to deal with the increasingly in the past. They will be at an economic older work force predicted by the U. S. disadvantage as they compete with Small Business Administration. their larger counterparts for the same Traditionally, small firms have em- pool of prime age(i.e.,35 to54) workers. ployed proportionately more younger They may also find it increasingly difficult to accommodate their chang- ing employee base in terms of the need •An earlier version of the paper upon whkhthisarticle for training, flexibility, and increased w bwwd was presented at the meeting uf the Soathrm productivity. As a consequence, it is Manai^nient Association. NowmberH-K). tiWO. OrlanA), Florida. This study was funded by a urant from theSodety incumbent upon the small bosiness of Haman Resource ManaRement Foondatton. owner to identify characteristics of l)r. &Jiith i« araislant imrfMMir of buiam»Mi and employees who will i^ more satisfi^ economics. Berry CoUene. Rome. Geonria. l>r. Hoy isdeanof theColtetteof Busineits AdministrM- and more committed to their firms. At tion at the Univomtjf uf Texas at Kl i'aso. tO6 J<Kirruri
    • present, there is little research to assist faction is more than just the sum of small business owners in these en- individual work facets and that fre- deavors. quently some important variables are This study attempts to remedy this omitted from the measurement of job omission. It examines the relationship satisfaction. For example, employee of work attitudes and characteristics of satisfaction in a small firm, where employees of various age groups to owners typically have close working identify those individuals who are relationships with their employees, inclined to make long-term commit- may be influenced by the employees' ments to their companies. assessment of top management. BACKGROUND Studies indicate both satisfaction Both job satisfaction and organi- and commitment may be moderated by zational commitment have long been situational and demographic character- recognized as antecedents of employee istics of employees. Exogenous factors tenure. Job satisfaction has been de- such as organizational size (Harari, fined by Locke (1969, 1300) as a Crawford, and Rhode 1983; Hodson quot; pleasurable or positive emotional state 1984), geographical location (Stepina resulting from the appraisal of one's 1985), or type of industry (Brush, Mock, job or job experiences.quot; Organizational and Pooyan 1987) are said to influence commitment is viewed as an attitude work attitudes. Research findings also involving employee loyalty to the suggest satisfaction and commitment organization, with those individuals have a strong, positive relationship who are committed being willing to with position level (Kerber and Camp- contribute something of themselves to bell 1987; Stepina 1985) and tenure(Lee their organizations (Angle and Perry and Wilbur 1985) and a negative re- 1981; Cook, Hepworth, Wall, and Warr, lationship with education (Mottaz 1981; Morris and Sherman, 1981; Porter 1984), while the two constructs are and Smith, 1970). indirectly related to gender (Andrews and Withey 1976; Weaver 1977). Satisfaction with various aspects of occupational experiences is as difficult Based on an extensive review of the to characterize as is satisfaction with literature on age, Rhodes (1983) con- other forms of everyday experiences cluded that overall job satisfaction is (Cook et al. 1981). With increased positively associated with age: older awareness of the significance of em- workers appear to evince greater satis- ployee job satisfaction, researchers faction with their employment than have designed a number of instruments younger workers. The form of relation- which attempt to measure employee ship, however, is not clear. While attitudes, values and perceptions as numerous studies suggest a linear theyrelateto occupational experiences. relationship (Lee and Wilbur 1985; Such instruments include specific in- Mottaz 1987; Weaver 1978,1980), others dividual facets such as work, pay, reported a U-shaped relationship(Herz- promotions, co-workers and supervi- bei^, Mausner, Peterson, and Capwell sion, rather than global measures of 1957; Kacmar and Ferris 1989). Kalle- employee satisfaction, so that explicit berg and Loscocco (1983) contend that areas of low job satisfaction may be satisfaction increases until age 40, identified. ihen levels off, and then increases Scaipello and Campbell (1983) con- again when employees reach their late tended, however, tiiat global job satis- 50s. 107
    • The individual facets of job satisfac- may be experienced, they may be less tion (e.g., work, pay, promotions, co- flexible and may resist retraining or workers, and supervision) have been performing a variety of functions neces- examined in numerous studies to de- sary in the small firms. termine age-related differences. Results The purpose of this article is to report strongly support a positive association findings of a study which examined between age and work itself (James work attitudes of 721 employees in 56 and Jones 1980; Muchinsky 1978) while small husinesses in a metropolitan area the results of research examining age to determine the relationships between and satisfaction with pay are mixed age and other characteristics with (Muchinsky 1978). Rhodes(198;5) found various aspects of the employees' satis- no strong support for relationships faction and commitment toward their between age and promotions, pay, co- firms. Specifically the following re- workers, or supervisors in her review of search questions were addressed: the literature. She further stated: 1. Are measures of job satisfaction, In view of the absence of age-related organizational commitment, and satis- differences in satisfaction with pay, faction with management as well as promotions, supervision,and co-workers, individual facets of job satisfaction it would seem that the increase in overall (i.e., work, pay, promotions, co-workers, job satisfaction associated with aging is and supervision) of employees in small in large part a reflection of the increase firms moderated by demographic and in satisfaction with the nature of the job. job-related characteristics(i.e., age, sex, education, tenure, management status, Rhodes (1983) reported the results of and type of industry)? 17 bivariate analyses showed older 2. Are measures of satisfaction and workers to be more committed to their commitment of older workers in small organizations than younger workers. firms greater than that of younger Five analyses were less conclusive. The workers? preponderance of the evidence from 3. Are there interactive effects of empirical studies, therefore, identifies management status and tenure on a strong relationship between age of measures of satisfaction and commit- employees and organizational com- ment of older workers in small firms? mitment. METHODOLOGY Traditionally, small businesses have employed more younger and more older Sample workers relative to their other em- Fifty-six organizations (15 construc- ployees than large companies. During tion companies, 20 manufacturing the next decade, however, the size of firms, and 21 wholesale distributors) in these groups is expected to decline. The a large metropolitan statistical area fastest growing segment of the work- were randomly selected from the Small force will be between the ages of 45 and Business Data Base (SBDB), a collec- 54, an increase of 72.2 percent and a tion of statistical information syste- gain of almost 13 million workers(U. S. matically organized hy the U. S. Small Small Business Administaration 1988). Business Administration for research Many of these workers are former on small husinesses. The influence of employees of large con>orations who size and geographical location on satis- have downsized and have chosen to faction and conunitment was partially release their more highly paid em- conteolled by using tiie segnient of the ployees. While this group of workers SBDB identiftring husinesses which Jounuri of SIMM B i » b i w i MMumwiMNrt
    • employed fewer than 1(K) and more instrument with other measures of than 20 employees in a limited geo- organizational commitment(Cook, Hep- graphical area. At the time of the study, worth, Wall, and Warr 1981) and con- 14 of the firms had fewer than 25 sistently high internal reliability (Mow- employees, 20 had between 26 and 50 day, Steers, and Porter 1979). Internal employees and 12 had between 50 and reliability for the organizational com- 100 employees. Four of the organi- mitment scale in the present study was zations were less than 6 years old, 12 0.92. had been in existence between 6 and 10 Satisfaction with management. To years, 17 between 11 and 20 years, and incorporate a full assessment of global 23 were started more than 20 years satisfaction and to develop a valid and previously. reliable measure of this construct, the All employees in each organization present study included a measure of were asked to complete questionnaires employee satisfaction with top man- and retum them anonymously to the agement. Subject matter in several researcher in individual business-reply scales (Cook and Wall 1980; Taylor and envelopes which were provided. Em- Bowers 1972) was used to construct a ployee responses ranged from 24 to 72 five-item semantic differential scale to percent of the work force within each assess this area of interest. Internal firm. reliability for the satisfaction with Questionnaire management scale was 0.96. The questionnaire completed by responding employees was designed to ANALYSES AND RESULTS measure employee satisfaction with Of the 721 employees who returned work, pay, promotions, co-workers and questionnaires, 134 were employed by supervision; organizational commit- construction companies, 230 by manu- ment; and satisfaction with top man- facturing firms, and 357 by wholesale agement. It also gathered demographic distributors. Two hundred ninety-six data. were females and 425 were males. A Employee job satisfaction. The Job wide variety of education levels was Perception Survey (JPS) (Hatfield, reported with 79 respondents (11 per- Robinson, and Huseman 1985), a 21- cent) having less than a twelfth-grade item semantic differential instrument, education, 171 (24 percent) having was used to assess individual satisfac- completed the twelfth grade, and 471 tion withfivedimensions of jobs (work, (65 percent) having some form of higher pay, promotions, co-workers, and super- education. vision). Internal reliability coefficients The respondents were classified into in the present study for the five se- four age groups: less than 31 years of mantic differential scales of the JPS age (n = 286), between 31 and 40 (n = ranged from 0.89 to 0.99 with a Cron- 183), between 41 and 50 (n = 154) and bach alpha of 0.96 for the composite over 50 (re = 98). Two hundred (28 measure of satisfaction. percent) of the employees had been Organizational commitment. Nine with their firms for less than one year, items were selected from the scale 295 (41 percent) for one to five years, developed by Porter and Smith (1970) and 226 (31 percent) for overfiveyears. to assess commitment to the oi^aniza- Five-hundred fourteen (71 percent) were tion. Evidence indicates high conver- classified as non-management and the gent and discriminant validity of this remaining as management. 109
    • Initial analyses involved the use of examined simultaneously. Results re- multiple regression to examine the veal significant differences in satis- effects of the five employee variables faction with work (F-value = 6.45, p < and type of industry on overall job .0003), pay (F-value = 7.81, p < .0001), satisfaction, organizational commit- and promotions (F-value = 5.01, p < ment, and satisfaction with manage- .001) due to age differences of the em- ment. Results, shown in table 1, reveal ployees. Table 3 presents mean scores, that age and management status were standard deviations, and MANOVA positively and significantly related to results for each individual measure of these measures. Education was neg- job satisfaction by age category. atively related to organizational com- The results of the study demonstrate mitment and to satisfaction with man- that a linear relationship exists be- agement. Regression was also used to tween age and work satisfaction, but examine the effects of the employee there was a slight decrease in satisfac- variables on the individual facets of job tion with pay and promotions for the satisfaction. In addition to the influ- 41-50 year age group. The relationship ence of management status and age on of age and satisfaction with co-workers several of these variables, the analyses and supervision was slightly higher revealed negative relationships of ten- for the youngest group of employees, ure with pay, promotions, co-workers decreased slightly for employees in the and supervisors, and education with 31 to 40 and 41 to 50 year age groups, co-workers, and positive relationship and then rose for the older group. of sex and promotions. Overall job satisfaction (i.e., the sum To test the significances of the age total of thefiveindividual facets of the differences in employee satisfaction, JPS) rose slightly for the 31 to 40 year two separate multivariate analyses of age group, declined for the 41 to 50 year variance (MANOVAs) were employed group, and then rose again. Analysis using age as the categorical indepen- also revealed a linear relationship dent variable. First, recognizing the between age and organizational com- interaction of satisfaction and commit- mitment and age and satisfaction with ment and because of the highly signifi- management. cant intercorrelation of overall job Finally, because of the significance satisfaction, organizational commit- of management status on commitment ment, and satisfaction with manage- and on all but one of the satisfaction ment of thefirm(p < .0001), a MANOVA measures and of tenure on four of the was used to test the effect of age on individual facets of job satisfaction, it these three measures simultaneously. was deemed advisable to perform sub- Results indicated that age was signif- sequent analyses to determine the icantly related to total job satisfaction extent to which these variables were (f-value = 4.06,p < .01), organizational related to the four age categories. commitment (f-value = 8.11, p < .0001) Results of MANOVAs are shown in and satisfaction with management (JF- tables 4 and 5. In a separate analysis, value = 2.82, p < .05). Table 2 presents intemctions between tenure and man- means scores, standard deviations and agement status were not found to be MANOVA results for these ihree vari- significant As tables 4 and 5 show, ables by age category. there are significant relationships Next, once again using MANOVAs, between management status and each the effects of age on the five individual dependent variable, except satisfaction measures of job satisfaction were with management and satisfaction 110 of SnuM Bwinen M«ii««nent
    • Table 1 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS SHOWING EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHICS, JOB-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS, AND INDUSTRY ON MEASURES OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION AND COMMITMENT Dependent Independent Standardized Variable Variables Beta Coefficients Total Job Satisfaction Age 0.097quot; Sex 0.040 Education -0.059 Tenure -0.059 Management Status 0.169quot;quot; Type of Industry -0.037 R-Square 0.046 F-Value 5.685quot;quot; Organizational Commitment Age 0.140quot;* Sex 0.010 Education -0.078* Tenure 0.055 Management Status 0.108** Type of Industry 0.019 R-Square 0.054 F-Value 6.811**** Satisfaction with Age 0.111** Management Sex 0.013 Education -0.078* Tenure -0.CW3 Management Status 0.093** Type of Industry 0.012 R-Square 0.025 F-Value 3.043** Satisfaction with Work Age 0.122** Sex 0.040 Education -0.028 Tenure 0.023 Management Status 0.169**** Type of Industry 0.069 R-Square 0.060 F-Value 7.474-— Satisfaction with Pay Age 0.087* Sex 0.025 Education 0.061 Tenure 0.088* Management Status 0.146**** Type of Industry -^.053 R-Square 0.061 F-Value 7.646**** 111
    • Table 1 (conttnued) Dependent Independent Standardized Variable Variables Beta CoeNicients Satisfaction with Age 0.138**** Promotions Sex 0.076* Education -0.056 Tenure -0.108** Management Status 0.187**** Type of Industry -0.048 R-Square 0.067 F-Value 8.394**** Satisfaction with Age 0.010 Co-workers Sex -0.022 Education -0.141*** Tenure -0.119** Management Status 0.075* Type of Industry -0.014 R-Square 0.033 F-Value 4.035*** Satisfaction with Age 0.054 Supervisor Sex 0.017 Education -0.038 Tenure -0.122** Management Status 0.019 Type of Industry -0.050 R-Square 0.015 F-Value 1.837 ' p<.05. quot; p<.001, quot;** p<.0001. Table 2 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND MANOVA RESULTS FOR TOTAL JOB SATISFACTION, COMMITMENT, AND MANAGEMENT SATISFACTION, BY AGES OF EMPLOYEES Ages <30 31-40 >50 Variables n = 183) (n = 154) F-Value Total Job Satisfaction Mean 17.783 18.150 17.876 19.219 4.06** S.D. 3.411 3.820 3.655 3.766 Organizational Commitment Mean 32.538 34.590 35.131 37.031 8.11quot;** S.D. 8.863 8.856 7.603 7.619 Management Satisfaction 3.713 3.736 4.053 2.82* S.D. 1.121 1.109 0^956 1.046 * p<.05. ** p<.01.**** p<.0001. 112 Jmutiai
    • Table 3 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND MANOVA RESULTS FOR INDIVIDUAL FACETS OF ,IOB SATISFACTION, BY AGES OF EMPLOYEES Ages Dependent <30 31-40 41-50 >50 Variables (n = 286) (n = 183) (n=154) F-Value Work Mean 3.784 3.904 3.950 4.199 6.45*** S.D. 0.810 0.820 0.872 0.745 Pay Mean 2.944 3.229 3.071 3.529 7.81* S.D. 1.062 1.146 1.090 1.037 Promotions Mean 3.155 3.386 3.279 3.672 5.01* S.D. 1.166 1.194 1.152 1.161 Co-worker Mean 3.950 3.834 3.892 3.880 0.54 S.D. 0.920 1.042 0.986 0.995 Supervisors Mean 4.009 3.873 3.917 4.092 1.78 S.D. 0.815 0.925 0.900 0.874 ***p<.001,**** p<.0001. Table 4 RESULTS OF MANOVAS TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP OF MANAGEMENT STATUS AND TENURE WrTH MEASURES OF OVERALL SATISFACTION, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMrTMENT, AND SATISFACTION WITH MANAGEMENT, BY AGES OF EMPLOYEES^ Ages Dependent <30 31-40 41-50 >50 Variables (n = 286) (n = 183) 1(» = 154) (fl = 98) Overall Work Management Status 8.36** 1.46 6.41** 4.20* Tenure 1.93 1.30 0.79 0.56 Organizational Commitment Management ^atus 2.81 0.07 2.24 6.05** Tenure 1.47 1.43 0.01 1.46 Management Satisfaction Management Status 0.17 2.57 1.97 1.45 Tenure 0.46 0.68 1.26 1.76 *p<.05, **p<01. Entries in tatilira are f-vaiue». not means. 113
    • Table 5 RESULTS OF MANOVAS TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP OF MANAGEMENT STATUS AND TENURE WITH MEASURES OF SATISFACTION WITH INDIVIDUAL FACETS OF JOB SATISFACTION BY AGES OF EMPLOYEESquot; Ages Dependent <30 31-40 41-50 >50 Variables (n = 286) (n = 183) 1[n = 154) (n = 98) Satisfaction with Work Management Status 9.59** 0.51 8.08** 3.63* Tenure 0.20 4.29 0.13 1.93 with Pay Management Status 5.55** 3.17 3.85* 2.11 Tenure 0.15 2.36 1.16 2.96 with Promotions Management Status 9.06** 6.57** 6.40** 2.30 Tenure 1.86 0.33 0.93 0.75 with Co-workers Management Status 1.09 0.40 4.09* 1.73 Tenure 2.06 0.71 0.60 0.93 with Supervision Management Status 0.99 0.98 0.16 0.50 Tenure 4.26** 2.19 0.62 0.28 *p<,05. **p<.01. quot;Entries in tatHes are F-values,not means. with supervision, in at least one age employees (Hisrich and Brush 1987, category. Of the remaining dependent Hoy and Vaught 1980). Small firms are variables, only organizational commit- often economically constrained in their ment was not significantly related to ability to recruit employees by provid- the responses of 41 to 50 year olds. The ing more attractive salaries, compre- youngest group of respondents scored hensive benefit packages, and greater significantly on management status advancement opportunities (Brown, and overall work satisfaction and Hamilton, and Medoff 1990; Schuler satisfaction with work, pay and pro- and MacMillan 1984). In addition, motions. Only two significant relation- small business owners, just as their ships with tenure were found, with counterparts in large organizations, work for respondents between 31 and face an ever increasing challenge in 40, and with supervision for respond- selecting employees who not only will ents 30 and under. be productive but who will remain with DISCUSSION theirfirms.Unfortunately, many small A prime difficulty small business business owners have traditionally owners encounter in maintaining suc- relied upon interviews and application cessful, ongoing enterprises is in staff- blanks as their sole selection tools, ing—finding and retaining competent methods which are less valid and 114 Journal
    • reliable than the more sophisticated hold higher level positions in the organ- techniques used by larger organiza- izations' hierarchies than younger tions. Improper selection of employees workers. Results of this study suggest leads ultimately to high turnover which that management status has a signifi- can be particularly devastating for cant effect on the commitment measure small businesses. Results of this re- in the over-5() category. As mentioned search identified two employee char- earlier, there was no significant rela- acteristics—age and management sta- tionship for tenure by age. Since others tus—that were positively related to have held that managers are difficult measures of job satisfaction and organ- to retain in small organizations due to izational commitment, while tenure lack of advancement opportunities, it was positively related to satisfaction may be that the older workers in this with pay. However, the study revealed sample are having a disproportionate that the more educated employees in impact on the commitment of higher the sample were less satisfied with level employees. A third possible inter- management and their co-workers and pretation is the most obvious from the less committed to the firm. Female data gathered: older workers are more employees appear to be j ust as satisfied committed to their organizations in and committed to their firms as males. this particular sample. If replications This may be of particular interest to the of this study show this finding to be small business owner as the number of consistent, it has important implica- females in the work force increases. tions for small businesses as will be The high score of workers (over 50 discussed in the conclusions section. years old) on the organizational com- Results of this study must be viewed mitment measurement(p < .0001) could with caution for several reasons. First, be interpreted in many ways. Older analyses reported in this study are workers were more likely to have been based solely on cross-sectional data with their companies for a longer which allow only the identification of period of time than younger workers. associative relationships and preclude Thus, their sense of commitment may causal interpretation. Second, age vari- be due to their tenure with their organi- ations in work satisfaction may reflect zations as much as, or more than, their numerous factors such as nonwork- age. This may be disputed, however, by related rotes which are not addressed the lack of a significant relationship in the study. For example, the value between tenure and commitment in assigned to financial rewards may be a this study. function of marital status, the number Similarly, prior research has shown of dependents, or possibly perception older workers to be less likely to have of equity. Finally, self-report data are an intention to leave an organisation subject to challenges of their veracity than younger workers. Studies have and always involve the risk of response consistently reported a negative rela- bias. tionship between age and tumover using both bivariate analyses (Arnold CONCLUSIONS and Feldman 1982, Martin and Hunt The U. S. Small Business Adminis- 19M) and multivariate analyses (Arn- tration (1988) predicted that one of the old and Feldman 1982; Mobley, Homer, t h i ^ major trends that will affect small andfloUingsworth1978). busings through the 1990s is changing An altemative explanation mi^htbe dem%taphics(the others are changing that older workers are more likely to technologies and internationalization). 115
    • A critical component of the changing owners have much to gain from re- demographics is the aging of the jwpu- search along these lines. lation in general and the labor force REFERENCES specifically. Firms will be dependent Andrews,F.M.,andS.B.Withey(1976), on this group of workers, not simply Social Indicators of Well Being in because of their increasing numbers, America: The Development and but because of the skills and experience Measurement of Perceptual Indi- they possess if higher levels of pro- cators. New York: Plenum. ductivity are to be attained. However, Angle, H. L., and J. L. Perry (1978), firms that are not growing rapidly or where technologies are not changing Organizational Commitment: Exten- significantly may find an older work sion of a Concept to Urban Mass force makes them less competitive. This Transit. Graduate School of Admin- is undoubtedly true in largefirmswhere istration and Institute of Transpor- seniority systems exist and where older tation Studies, University of Cali- workers historically resist learning fornia, Irvine. new skills. The reluctance of the pre- Arnold, H. J., and D. C. Feldman (1982), viously trained and experienced older quot;A Multivariate Analysis of the workers to learn new skills may affect Determinants of Job Turnover,quot; the smaller organization even more Journal of Applied Psychology 67, severely. 350-360. Barth, J. R., J. I. Cordes, and S. Haber If older workers have more favorable (1984), quot;Employee Characteristics attitudes toward work, the increase in and Firm Size: Are There Any Sys- the proportion of employed workers in tematic Empirical Relationships?quot; the older age ranges has positive impli- Research study proposed for U. S. cations for the small business owner. Small Business Administration, Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been recognized as Washington, D. C. central in decisions to remain with a Brush, D. H., M. K. Mock, and A. firm (Mobley 1982, Mowday, Porter, Pooyan (1987), quot;Individual Demo- and Steers 1982; Williams and Hazer graphic Differences and Job Satis- 1986) and can contribute substantially faction,quot; Journal of Occupational to organizational maintenance objec- Behavior 8 (2), 139-155. tives as represented by turnover (Mob- Campbell, D. T., and D. W. Fiske (1959), ley 1982, Angle and Perry 1981). quot;Convergent and Discriminant Vali- This study was not designed to draw dation by the Multitrait-Multimeth- conclusions regarding the motivational od Matrix,quot; Psychological Bulletin attitudes of older workers. If future 56,81-105. research supports the notion that work- Cook, J., and T. D. Wall (1980), quot;New ers over 50 are more committed to their Work Attitude Measures of Trust, small business employers, then condi- Organizational Commitment and tions underlying the commitment Personal Need Non-Fulfillment,quot; should be examined. For example, older Journal ofOccupa tional Psychology workers laay have fewer expectations 53,39-52. of taking over the business. Additional- Cook, J. D., S. J. Hepworth, T. D. Wall, ly, they may be less likely to be seeking and P. B. Warr (1981), The Experi- to gain expertise to use in opening ence of Work. London: Academic competing businesses. Small business Press. 116 Jmimal of SmaH BiwhiMS Mmag^mwit
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