Biomass Program Overview

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  • Biomass Program Overview

    1. 1. DOE/EE/OBP Biomass Program Overview and Products R&D Western Regional Sun Grant Initiative Dr. Todd Werpy PNNL/DOE August 16, 2004
    2. 2. Mission of OBP <ul><li>“ The mission of OBP is to partner with U.S. industry to foster research and development on advanced technologies that will transform our abundant biomass resources into clean, affordable, and domestically-produced biofuels, biopower and high-value products. The result will be improved economic development, expanded energy supply options, and increased energy security” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Program Goals Develop biorefinery-related technologies to the point that they are cost and performance competitive and are used by the nation’s transportation, energy, chemical, and power industries to meet their market objectives 2005: Demonstrate an integrated process for fuels production from biomass 2007: Complete technology development necessary to enable start-up demonstration of a biorefinery producing fuels, chemicals, and power 2010: Help U.S. industry to establish the first large-scale integrated biorefinery based on agricultural residues
    4. 4. Strategy: Remove Technical Barriers Thermo-Chemical Platform Sugar Platform Biomass CO, H 2 , Bio-oils Sugar Feedstocks & Lignin Residues Advanced Biomass Process R&D Technology Validation and Systems Integration “The Integrated Biorefinery” Mixed Sugars Syngas, Pyrolysis-oils Fuels, Chemicals, Materials, Heat & Power
    5. 5. Program Strategy <ul><li>Analysis is used to identify major cost barrier areas in each element of the program </li></ul><ul><li>Research is dedicated to overcoming these barriers and reducing the cost of each process as well as the final integrated biorefinery </li></ul><ul><li>Program is driven by private public partnerships to ensure integrity of the program </li></ul><ul><li>Regular reviews are undertaken to ensure progress and fiduciary responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Program is based on both near term and long R&D objectives </li></ul>
    6. 6. Program Structure $6MM $5MM $16.9 MM $20 MM $21.7 MM Congressional Mandates - $41MM
    7. 7. Biomass Program Funding <ul><li>Three-fold increase in earmarks since 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>EWD Earmarks have grown from 18% to over 47% of the total funding </li></ul><ul><li>Real decline in the available funds used in support planned R&D </li></ul>13 18 39 30 41 81 94 74 61 80 Earmarks Total Funds for Planned R&D Legend Earmarks and Total Funding Millions of Dollars per Year
    8. 8. Building the Bio-refinery <ul><li>Maximize the value from the existing infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Bring lignocellulosics into those existing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Build stand alone lignocellulosic facilities </li></ul>
    9. 9. An Example of a Grains Bio-refinery Corn Wet Mill starch corn oil corn gluten meal corn gluten feed food & industrial starches hydrolysis glucose fuel ethanol high fructose corn syrup fermentation sorbitol • foodstuffs • pharma . polyols isosorbide hydrogenation other citric acid lysine xanthan gums itaconic acid & other fermentation products industrial oils lactic acid PLA polymers • resins & plastics applications • polyesters • surfactants • pharmaceuticals deicers solvents coatings glycerol food oils feed oils Corn Wet Mill starch corn oil corn gluten meal corn gluten feed food & industrial starches hydrolysis glucose fuel ethanol high fructose corn syrup fermentation sorbitol foodstuffs pharma . polyols isosorbide hydrogenation Other sweeteners citric acid lysine xanthan gums itaconic acid & other fermentation products industrial oils lactic acid PLA polymers resins & plastics applications polyesters surfactants pharmaceuticals deicers solvents coatings glycerol food oils feed oils Phytochemicals C-5 Products Xylitol & polyols Bio-diesel Di-acids Epoxides Diols Diacids Polymers Vinyl Monomer Other Products Of Fermentation
    10. 10. Building the Biorefinery Current Portfolio Biomass Feedstock Starch Cellulose Lignin Hemi-Cellulose Oil Industrial Starches Protein Xylose Arabinose Glucose Liquid Fuels (EtOH) Lactic Acid PLA Xylitol Arabinitol Succinic Acid Itaconic Acid PG and EG 1,3-PDO Esters Isosorbide PG and EG 3-HP (Acrylic Acid) Liquid Fuels (EtOH) Polyols Pyrolyis Oil Gasification Animal Feed
    11. 11. Current Status of Ethanol Dry Mills <ul><li>Economics can be difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current ethanol facilities are limited to only two products, ethanol and DDG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics are highly dependent of value of the co-product DDG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant energy costs are associated with the drying of DDG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets for DDG are not always favorable and will deteriorate as additional ethanol facilities come on line </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Strategies for Creating Additional Value <ul><li>Modify dry mills to include a quick steeping process that allows germ recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Add an intermediate filtration process to recovery non-starch derived sugars (hemicellulose) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new fermentations for utilization of five carbon sugars (itaconic acid, succinic acid, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new chemistry to produce value added products from hemi-cellulose (sugar alcohols, polyols) </li></ul><ul><li>Include an energy component-gasify “DDG or modified DDG” to produce fuel gas </li></ul>
    13. 13. Current Ethanol Process Corn Dry Grind Liquefaction Scarification Fermentation Primary Distillation Distillation Rectifier Molecular Sieves Centrifuge Triple Effect Evaporator DDG Dryer DDG Animal Feed Ethanol Solids 50% EtOH 95% EtOH 100% EtOH Liquids Water Recycle Solids
    14. 14. The Holistic Ethanol Facility Corn Quick Steep Scarification Filtration Fermentation Ethanol Recovery Molecular Sieves “ Fiber” Hydrolysis New DDG Animal Feed Ethanol Starch EtOH 95% EtOH 100% EtOH Germ Separation Fermentation Catalytic Conversions Gasification Fuel/Power EG, PG Glycerol, Etc Itaconic Succinic, Etc Oil
    15. 15. The New Ethanol Bio-Refinery <ul><li>Build a bio-refinery based on creating the maximum value from each component associated with the feedstock </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a fuel component, energy component, and value added products component </li></ul><ul><li>Will allow for expansion of ethanol utilization based on solid economics </li></ul><ul><li>Energy independence for the facilities could be critical to financial stability </li></ul><ul><li>Be the model to build future lignocellulosic facilities </li></ul>
    16. 16. Chemicals and Materials Analysis <ul><li>Used the current petrochemical refinery as a model </li></ul><ul><li>Surveyed over 350 chemical/material opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced initial 350 to 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced 30 to 12 based primarily on the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building block strategies </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. 5-Carbon Building Blocks C5 Itaconic acid Furfural Levulinic acid Glutamic acid Xylonic acid Xylitol/Arabitol Methyl succinate derivatives (see above), unsaturated esters Many furan derivatives  -aminolevulinate, 2-Methyl THF, 1,4-diols, esters, succinate EG, PG, glycerol, lactate, hydroxy furans, sugar acids Amino diols, glutaric acid,substituted pyrrolidones Lactones, esters
    18. 19. Itaconic Acid Itaconic acid 3-Methyl THF 2-Methyl-1,4-BDO 3- & 4-Methyl-GBL 2-Methyl-1,4-butaneiamine Itaconic diamide 3 - & 4-Methyl NMP And other pyrrolidones 3-Methylpyrrolidine Styrene-butadiene copolymers
    19. 20. Chemicals and Materials ‘Top Ten” Analysis <ul><li>Mapping the potential for chemicals and materials from platform outputs </li></ul><ul><li>ChemicalsFutureDiagram . ppt </li></ul><ul><li>Future activities will include working with industry to identify areas of needed R&D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes solicitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes core R&D activities </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Value-Added Building Blocks Derived From Sugars xylitol/arabinitol sorbitol glycerol 3-hydroxybutyrolactone levulinic acid itaconic acid glutamic acid glucaric acid aspartic acid 3 hydroxy propionic acid 2,5 furan dicarboxylic acid 1,4 succinic, fumaric and malic acids Building Blocks
    21. 22. Key Technology Hurdles for Products <ul><li>Fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved fermentation of five carbon sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More robust fermentations that withstand the impurities from pretreatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed fermentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation rates </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Key Technology Hurdles for Products <ul><li>Chemicals and Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the cost of both aerobic and anaerobic fermentations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robustness of fermentations needs to be improved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase productivity of organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New engineering solution for aerobic fermentations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 25. Key Technology Hurdles for Products <ul><li>Chemicals and Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More selective catalysts are required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueous phase catalysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catalyst robustness-improved resistance to fouling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall rates need to be improved </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 26. Key Technology Hurdles for Products <ul><li>Combined Heat and Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration is key driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does excess power get transferred to the existing grid system </li></ul></ul>
    25. 27. On the DOE Horizon <ul><li>Major solicitations in FY04 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University led solicitation for fundamental research—up to 5 million dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry led solicitation for products—up to 10 million dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major planned solicitations for FY05 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on a forest products biorefinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding level TBD </li></ul></ul>

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