RED ARMY FACTION Characterization of a  German terrorist group   active in 1970 - 1998
 
Ideology &  Term <ul><li>Red army faction (germ.: Rote Armee Fraktion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxist-Leninist in ideology ...
Historical  context
Historical  context
Historical  context
Historical  context <ul><li>Increasing dissatisfaction with German & international politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasi...
Historical  context Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Shah of Persia
Historical  context Benno Ohnesorg shot by a German police officer in 1967
Historical  context <ul><li>Increasing level of violence  after killing police shot at student (1967) </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Chronology of  RAF activities 2 April ‘68  - Baader and Ensslin placed bombs in a department store
Chronology of  RAF activities 11 April ‘68 Demo after attempted assassination of Rudi Dutschke earlier that day
Chronology of  RAF activities 22 October 1971 Hamburg police officer Norbert Schmid is shot and killed attempting to stop ...
Chronology of  RAF activities 19 May 1972, Hamburg Ulrike Meinhof leads a commando raid into the Hamburg printing offices ...
Chronology of  RAF activities 12 May 1972, Munich  A car bomb exploded in the parking lot of the Munich Criminal Investiga...
Chronology of  RAF activities 1 June 1972, Frankfurt am Main Andreas Baader, with a police bullet in his leg, is captured.
Chronology of  RAF activities Holger Meins, 1974 Dead after hunger strike in prison. “ This man blackmailed  the German go...
Chronology of  RAF activities  - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 5. September 1977 Hanns-Martin Schleyer, president of the employers’ Un...
Chronology of  RAF activities  - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 The demands: The German government should release eleven terrorists, be...
Chronology of  RAF activities  - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 The “Landshut” is hijacked. Because the German government had played fo...
Chronology of  RAF activities  - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 The German police takes over the plane in Mogadisu. After an odyssey th...
Third generation  and breakup <ul><li>1980s and 1990s were dominated by violent attacks;  there are doubts, if all of them...
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Presentation about the Red Army Faction [Modern History at The Armidale School, 2009]

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RAF

  1. 1. RED ARMY FACTION Characterization of a German terrorist group active in 1970 - 1998
  2. 3. Ideology & Term <ul><li>Red army faction (germ.: Rote Armee Fraktion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxist-Leninist in ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus to a worldwide revolution against capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well educated members, often replaced due to imprisonment or death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ hard core” consists of 20-30 members in the underground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internationally linked with Palestine revolutionists, Action Directe (France), IRA (Ireland), Red Brigade (Italy); in the third generation (1980+) supported by East Germany </li></ul>
  3. 4. Historical context
  4. 5. Historical context
  5. 6. Historical context
  6. 7. Historical context <ul><li>Increasing dissatisfaction with German & international politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing solidarity with western superpower US: Vietnam War & oppression of colonial and Third World’s movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Coalition , opposition was represented with only 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German Emergency Acts , imminent increase of governmental power (cf.: comparable emergency laws in the “Weimar republic” led to Hitler’s overtake 1933) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental repression of the Nazi crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socialistic ideology grew from students’ utopias: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ organized refusal revolution” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students were expected to fight against oppression and exploitation in place of the widely controlled international working class </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Historical context Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Shah of Persia
  8. 9. Historical context Benno Ohnesorg shot by a German police officer in 1967
  9. 10. Historical context <ul><li>Increasing level of violence after killing police shot at student (1967) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arson attacks, street battles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>killed police officers, RAF members & innocents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crumbling basis of the students movement from 1968 on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Division into different ways of behaviour, mainly: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integration and improvement of the existing political system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urban guerilla tactics and terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>terrorism as “th e answer to an oppressing, hostile environment we can not control any longer; an environment that breaks our necks.” (Horst Mahler) </li></ul><ul><li>vision of worldwide solidarity against injustice and imperialistic oppression: “ We won’t be able to preserve the world from the imperialism’s yoke without revitalizing the revolution in the western world.” </li></ul>TERRORISM as “the answer to an oppressing, hostile environment we can not control any longer; an environment that breaks our necks.”
  10. 11. Chronology of RAF activities 2 April ‘68 - Baader and Ensslin placed bombs in a department store
  11. 12. Chronology of RAF activities 11 April ‘68 Demo after attempted assassination of Rudi Dutschke earlier that day
  12. 13. Chronology of RAF activities 22 October 1971 Hamburg police officer Norbert Schmid is shot and killed attempting to stop and question Baader-Meinhof Gang members
  13. 14. Chronology of RAF activities 19 May 1972, Hamburg Ulrike Meinhof leads a commando raid into the Hamburg printing offices of the hated Springer Press. These three bombs fail to explode, but three others are successful, and 17 people are injured.
  14. 15. Chronology of RAF activities 12 May 1972, Munich A car bomb exploded in the parking lot of the Munich Criminal Investigation Office, destroying 60 cars.
  15. 16. Chronology of RAF activities 1 June 1972, Frankfurt am Main Andreas Baader, with a police bullet in his leg, is captured.
  16. 17. Chronology of RAF activities Holger Meins, 1974 Dead after hunger strike in prison. “ This man blackmailed the German government.”
  17. 18. Chronology of RAF activities - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 5. September 1977 Hanns-Martin Schleyer, president of the employers’ Union, is kidnapped
  18. 19. Chronology of RAF activities - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 The demands: The German government should release eleven terrorists, between others Andreas Baader and Gudrun Ensslin.
  19. 20. Chronology of RAF activities - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 The “Landshut” is hijacked. Because the German government had played for time, Palestine terrorists hijack a plane on 13 October 1977 - to support the RAF and to demonstrate Palestine’s political situation The demand now: 11 terrorists should be released to save 91 hostages.
  20. 21. Chronology of RAF activities - GERMAN AUTUMN ‘77 The German police takes over the plane in Mogadisu. After an odyssey through Arab, the “Landshut” is freed by a German special force. All terrorists are killed - within 7 minutes. The liberation of the “Landshut” had a second effect: Hanns-Martin Schleyer is executed.
  21. 22. Third generation and breakup <ul><li>1980s and 1990s were dominated by violent attacks; there are doubts, if all of them were really driven by RAF members </li></ul><ul><li>In April of 1998, the few authentic remaining RAF members issued a communiqué officially disbanding the RAF: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Almost 28 years ago, on 14 May 1970, the RAF arose in a campaign of liberation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today we end this project. The urban guerrilla in the shape of the RAF is now history. ” </li></ul></ul>Thanks for your attention!

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