History Of Atomic Structure

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  • 1. Bellwork 10/12/06
    • How long have people been interested in understanding matter and its structure?
        • Thousands of years
        • Hundreds of years
        • A few years
        • Never
  • 2. History of Atomic Structure
  • 3. Ancient Philosophy
    • Who: Aristotle, Democritus
    • When: More than 2000 years ago
    • Where: Greece
    • What: Aristotle believed in 4 elements: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water. Democritus believed that matter was made of small particles he named “atoms”.
    • Why: Aristotle and Democritus used observation and inferrence to explain the existence of everything.
  • 4. Aristotle Democritus
  • 5. Alchemists
    • Who: European Scientists
    • When: 800 – 900 years ago
    • Where: Europe
    • What: Their work developed into what is now modern chemistry.
    • Why: Trying to change ordinary materials into gold.
  • 6. Alchemic Symbols
  • 7. Particle Theory
    • Who: John Dalton
    • When: 1808
    • Where: England
    • What: Described atoms as tiny particles that could not be divided. Thought each element was made of its own kind of atom.
    • Why: Building on the ideas of Democritus in ancient Greece.
  • 8. John Dalton
  • 9. Discovery of Electrons
    • Who: J. J. Thompson
    • When: 1897
    • Where: England
    • What: Thompson discovered that electrons were smaller particles of an atom and were negatively charged.
    • Why: Thompson knew atoms were neutrally charged, but couldn’t find the positive particle.
  • 10. J. J. Thompson
  • 11. Atomic Structure I
    • Who: Ernest Rutherford
    • When: 1911
    • Where: England
    • What: Conducted an experiment to isolate the positive particles in an atom. Decided that the atoms were mostly empty space, but had a dense central core.
    • Why: He knew that atoms had positive and negative particles, but could not decide how they were arranged.
  • 12. Ernest Rutherford
  • 13. Atomic Structure II
    • Who: Niels Bohr
    • When: 1913
    • Where: England
    • What: Proposed that electrons traveled in fixed paths around the nucleus. Scientists still use the Bohr model to show the number of electrons in each orbit around the nucleus.
    • Why: Bohr was trying to show why the negative electrons were not sucked into the nucleus of the atom.
  • 14. Niels Bohr
  • 15. Electron Cloud Model
    • Electrons travel around the nucleus in random orbits.
    • Scientists cannot predict where they will be at any given moment.
    • Electrons travel so fast, they appear to form a “cloud” around the nucleus.
  • 16. Electron Cloud Model
  • 17. Atomic Structure Timeline
    • Requirements:
    • Must include a title.
    • Must include a spot for each of the 7 items.
    • Must include at least the Who , When , and What .
    • Must have a picture (color is preferred) for each item.
    • Options:
    • Comic book format
    • Standard timeline