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Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
Msf   Scenario Day
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Msf Scenario Day

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  • 1. DHA Africa 2009 Week 2 Practical Day Objective: Conduct through role-play a practical day for participants to experience and critically respond to some of the complex aspects of humanitarian assistance following a rapid-onset emergency. The morning will focus on: What are the most urgent needs? Who is responsible for meeting these needs? Always keeping in mind: a) Impact of refugee populations on host communities and services b) Working with local services and communities c) Gender issues, Vulnerable groups in displaced populations d) Cross cultural communication, participation, coordination, engagement with different actors e) Key dilemmas of Humanitarian action The afternoon will focus on: analyzing the morning’s experiences and findings, culminating in a response plan and discussion of key learnings in relation to issues a-e above. ACTIVITIES I. Intro: Power and vulnerability (30 mins): Power Walk Activity – (give/let people chose roles). This will help people bear in mind power differentials in decision-making throughout day II. Action: Scenario (4 hours, including lunch) – see below III. Reflection: Plenary presentations and discussion: (2 hours): Presentations: All groups display their day’s findings, analysis and plan on walls with flip-charts – groups walk around and view them (may be that INGO/UN/Gvt has a joint plan). Groups given 5-10 mins each to present their key messages and rationale behind their response. Open discussion to follow. Scenario Summary This scenario is loosely based on a combination of Rwanda-DRC and Zim-SA. It includes dangers from close proximity to the border, a divided refugee population with ethnic and religious differences, an overburdened but initially welcoming host population, and displacement spanning an urban and semi-rural setting. Access to populations is complex due to language, Caravilongo government bias towards Hondans and denial of the problem, and July 10 2009 1
  • 2. DHA Africa 2009 due to who controls the camps (Hutu-equivalent militant Hondan refugees) and the urban shelters (Host pop leaders). Issues include SGBV during border crossing and in shelters, cholera outbreak (due to contaminated lake water source near the border that Tondans use after Hondans take control of camp water supply), child separation, insecurity, overcroweded shelters, HIV, difficult access to water and later host population xenophobia. The refugees have a long history of coping strategies and community organizing (against one another) and have a good spectrum of skills. Actors include the 2 opposing refugee groups; host population/services; INGO (including health, wash, protection, shelter, livelihoods) UN (WHO, HCR, WFP, UNICEF), and national government (health, police, army, social welfare). Activities during the day include: rapid assessment, a food/water distribution over lunch, analysis and response plan, presented at plenary session along with 1 key message/thought for each of the points a-e above. The idea is to create a complex context that encourages groups to critically question their actions and face the dilemmas of HA. The aim is primarily to experience and work through these dilemmas, with a secondary aim of planning a response. Dilemmas include: • Unintentionally supporting armed militia within the camps • Being offered donations that may not be appropriate • Whether to provide for host community as well as refugees • Whether/how to partner with a potentially biased government • Whether to agree to armed escort • How to communicate across divides of language, culture and taboo to identify the most vulnerable/key issues • Employment & incentives for refugees; dis/advantages of national staff/expat employment • How to work with host services in a highly politicized context • What to say to press without jeopardizing your relationship with gvt & access to communities • Do No Harm concepts • How to protect your access to services while supporting the refugee population • How to minimise influx of refugees and instability while responding to their needs Intro for participants: • Objective (ie need to reflect while doing) • Explain Roles (role-play when dealing with all external actors) • Blindfold July 10 2009 2
  • 3. DHA Africa 2009 • Refugee brief in silence… stop Phases (45 Activities Dilemmas Resources Alerts/actions mins each) addressed/experienced needed Phase 1 Threat & Flight: Experiential -Blindfolds, pots Gvt: Organise immigration at the border (brief – keep law & order) pans 10-10.45 Groups Identity issues (marked; re- Tondons let through – (dots needed) blindfolded and creating identity through -border setup lead to border; ritual) Hondons: Keep at the border for 15 mins after Tondons – border crossing -group IDs closes (provide brief) Border crossing (gvt to register) -Money -Card -Flip chart & pens -Refugee stuff -gvt dressing up Phase 2 CONTEXT & SETUP How to protect your access -water point Tondons: collect water, set up camp and get medical care for wounded to services while (marked by crosses). Provide brief 10.45-11.30 Refugees/host: supporting the refugee -briefs Camp NGO, UN, Gvt : gather useful resources (comms equip, books etc) and set up population operational bases setup/takeover; use of host Whether/how to partner Hondon: provide brief. 15 min later - tell refugees to collect water and take over services, Defining with a potentially biased the camp. roles, Cholera government Tondons: local Caravilongolese population in Girma is willing to open its churches, but space is limited and some Tondons may have to remain in the How to minimise influx of camp. Tondons who remained in the camp lose control of your water source NGO/UN/Gvt refugees and instability and due to the price charged by Hondons for its use, you must go to the lake while responding to their near the border to collect water. You must collect it every hour to survive. Set up base, needs Women and children traditionally collect it. Tondons in the camp start coordination, experiencing diarrhea from contaminated lake water: go to Girma health clinic (get given crosses). Tondons sheltering in the church are also experiencing July 10 2009 3
  • 4. DHA Africa 2009 roles similar symptoms, and the latrines from the clinic next door are leaking. Hondons: You hear that Tondons have caused a cholera outbreak in your camp and at the clinic, where some of your people are being treated. Go to investigate and consider action to take. Host: Give brief. Set up/prepare for scale-up of clinic, church, and community facilities. The clinic is overwhelmed with cases of SGBV, cholera, trauma wounds etc. You can no longer admit patients. You need to find extra support to deal with the numbers. The Church is overwhelmed and you must turn remaining Tondan refugees away. How do you choose who? UN: You hear about the cholera outbreak – how will you respond? How will this affect your relations with government? Phase 3 Assessment Whether to agree to armed Gvt/NGO/UN: Assess the situation (from info provided, and through field escort assessment) (whispering = translation) 11.30 – 12.45 How to work with host UN&NGO: You receive an offer of an armed escort to the border by Caravilese government troops if you would like it. What do you respond? services in a highly politicized context UN You hear that RAD received a one-off in-kind donation from US-based organisation Soul Aid. You want to find out who will be responsible for the distribution? How will it be organised? Who will it target? How to communicate across divides of language, Gov Your army offers an armed escort to NGOs/UN to acccess the border area culture and taboo to in order to explore possibility of deportations and to ensure control of agency identify the most activities in the area. vulnerable/key issues Refugees: Go to the clinic to report those suffering wounds/SGBV etc. Identify urgent issues and consider your coping/response strategies (vulnerabilities & capacities) Phase 4 Distribution; Being offered donations Food NGO You receive an offer of an in-kind donation of food, water and sanitary media attention that may not be tampons from the US-based organisation Soul Aid (enough for 4 weeks, to be 12.45-1.30 delivered today) in exchange for the opportunity for the NGO to cover the (Soul Aid requests appropriate situation for their advocacy work in the US, and potentially give you funding. Do you accept? If yes, who will be responsible for the distribution? How will you July 10 2009 4
  • 5. DHA Africa 2009 interviews) Whether to provide for Cameras, donor- organize it? Who will you target? host community as well as esque items Tondons: You hear rumours of a distribution happening at the UN offices. Go refugees to find out what is going on. Hondon: You hear rumours of a distribution happening at the UN offices. Go to Unintentionally supporting find out what is going on and whether you can get hand-outs or negotiate armed militia within the special privileges. camps Host: You hear there will be a food distribution – you know this will affect food prices in the local market. Go to the UN building to find out what is going on and whether you are included in the distribution (esp. water)? There are grumblings What to say to press within the poorer Girma population that you’ve had enough of the rubbish piling without jeopardizing your up in the streets, the depletion of your sacred trees for firewood, the increase in relationship with gvt & crime; the cholera outbreak and the ethnic tensions. Xenophobic tensions are access to communities rising and you hear that some people in Girma are preparing violent attacks against the refugees. You as members of that population are best-placed to deal with this. What will you do? Gvt: You hear that Refugee Assistance Dream Team has been offered in-kind donations. You wish to coordinate this intervention. Soul Aid arrives with truck – (will you organize the ‘distribution’?). Soul Aid requests an interview. Phase 5 Project Planning Employment & incentives Refugees/Host: Develop ideas for how you will deal with the key for refugees; issues/problems you are facing – both in the immediate term as well as for the 1.30-2.15 dis/advantages of national next few months (What is your role/responsibility; what do you have to staff/expat employment respond with? What additional resources would you need; how can you request them?) Do No Harm concepts NGO/Gvt/UN: Plan for the immediate (6 weeks) and for potential longer term 6 month programme Phase 6 Plenary In Training room • Unintentionally supporting armed militia within the camps • Being offered donations that may not be appropriate 2.15-4.15 Panel discussion Table • Whether to provide for host community as well as refugees with • Whether/how to partner with a potentially biased government representative • Whether to agree to armed escort from each group - • How to communicate across divides of language, culture and taboo to identify the most vulnerable/key issues July 10 2009 5
  • 6. DHA Africa 2009 chaired by Eric • Employment & incentives for refugees; dis/advantages of national staff/ expat employment • How to work with host services in a highly politicized context • What to say to press without jeopardizing your relationship with gvt & access to communities • Do No Harm concepts • How to protect your access to services while supporting the refugee population • How to minimise influx of refugees and instability while responding to their needs Gvt – Sunglasses, UN - Hats INGO - Hondon – blue paint Tondon - arm bands Host - leg bands guns (green) (green) Patrick Massimo Charlotte Becky Becky Eric Ellie Lina Rapodile Jo Erika Astrid Tonde Tragedy Mat Dierdre Eddie Papi Braam Albert Emily July 10 2009 6
  • 7. DHA Africa 2009 Narrative for Participants Background: Caravilongo, Central Africa According to the UN, in the run-up to long-awaited elections in Zengondo east of Caravilongo, widespread violence and intimidation broke out against the minority Tondan population by government-armed Hondan militia, causing Tondans to flee in large numbers into Caravilongo. The Tondan Rebel Forces, who were in exile for many years are now forcing their way back into Zengondo, and many armed Hondans are now also heading towards the border. In the space of one week, around 200,000 Zengondans, mainly of the minority Tondan ethnic origin, have crossed the Caravilongolese border and are setting just outside the town of Girma in Eastern Caravilongo, 8km from the border. People are arriving with little other than a small amount of food to last for a few weeks at most. The border crossing is extremely dangerous, as bandits take advantage of the instability to rob and rape people as they cross the porous border. The displaced people are setting up make-shift shelters with whatever they can find in a rocky area outside Grima and the site is already overcrowded. They have one water source (a bore-hole well). If this is emptied or not accessible for any reason, they must fetch water from the lake near the border, but this is dangerous because of bandits and mines – and is therefore only accessible from the south. Waste disposal services are not well established at this stage, and domestic waste is allowed to build up around the shelters. A strong social structure exists among the Tondan population as a result of years of organizing and activism against the oppression and political violence of their Hondon rulers. The refugees have come from a country which has had some level of vaccination services, but coverage would not have been universal. You have not heard about any cases of measles in this population yet. The refugees have come from an area with a higher altitude than the one in which they are now. Eastern Caravilongo is endemic for malaria. HIV and TB are highly prevalent in the refugee population. The majority of Zendongo is a far more traditional, conservative society than Caravilongo. The nearest town, Girma, is the same ethnic group as the Tonans, speaks the same language, and is fairly welcoming. However, Girma has limited resources in terms of healthcare, schools, policing, and experiences frequent water and electricity shortages. The Caravilongo national government has strong interests to ensure stability in Zengondo. The climate is warm by day, cold at night and the rainy season will start in one months’ time. The local area has few trees, which are seen as sacred for their essential role in securing the topsoil during the rainy season. The region grows some crops for eating and others for export. There is no mobile phone network nor VHF radio antenna. Organisations, government and local services have access to an unreliable fax and telephone line. General Instructions: July 10 2009 7
  • 8. DHA Africa 2009 • Remember to document your experiences, questions, dilemmas on flipchart • Be responsive to situation as it evolves • Reflect on what it feels like in your role • Remember to communicate! When communicating with external actors, maintain your roles; when discussing within your group, you can come out of role, but pay particular attention to your character’s needs/interests etc. Communication between groups will need to be done face-to-face or by using the phone/fax booth. • Set up base/camp • Assess the situation • Analyze the key issues (needs, capacities, risks etc) • Plan what to do • Present key issues/dilemmas faced, and response plan July 10 2009 8
  • 9. DHA Africa 2009 Tondon Refugee population - ethnic minority, Christian animists Roles: • Religious leader (with child with mental disability) • Single mother of 8 children • Primary school teacher (woman, survivor of sexual violence) • Unaccompanied boy (12) with HIV • Girl 14, heading a household of 3 children • Nurse age 58 (widowed, crippled) Context: You fled election violence perpetrated by your Hondon rivals (who are in power); there were high levels of sexual violence and child separation during border crossing and around the lake. You will not speak to Hondons - you are afraid of them and you believe they are still armed. You only speak Zendongan, not Caravilese. Resources: Strong kinship ties and community mobilization (have been developed as defense strategy against the Hondons). Population overall includes many literate/skilled people, and some of the rural families brought their goats. You have close links to the host population in Girma as they are of the same ethnic origin. You know that there are organizations in the area who drive around in big cars and that look like they have a lot of money. You are resourceful and adaptive. Risks/Vulnerabilities: About 80% of your displaced population are women and children. Sexual violence and HIV are prevalent and talking about them is taboo between the sexes. Men and women maintain clear roles in their homes and tasks – men are feeling disempowered because they are unable to fulfill their role as protector and breadwinner which is causing internal tension. If/when Hondons are around, you are at their mercy. Instructions: • Flee Zongondo, collect water, and set up camp outside Girma • Define your roles • Go to the clinic with the injured and sick. Identify urgent issues and consider your coping/response strategies • Respond to the situation as it evolves • Develop ideas for how you will deal with the key issues/problems you are facing – both in the immediate as well as for the longer term July 10 2009 9
  • 10. DHA Africa 2009 Hondon Refugee population (muslim) Roles: • Militiaman - Religious leader • Militiaman - builder • Militiaman - village chief (HIV positive) • Militiaman - merchant • Wife of militiaman (16) with 3 children • Separated boy (13 – survivor of sexual violence), looked after by his uncle (militia) • Nurse assistant & traditional healer (widowed woman, 55) • Doctor - male Context: You fled Tondan Rebel Forces who entered the country following election violence perpetrated by your ethnic group and backed by the Hondon-controlled government. Many of you are still armed, and you enjoy the support of the Caravilongo government, though less so of the Girma population, who are of Tondon roots. There have been reports of sexual violence and armed bandits at the border and around the lake and you are keen to ensure your security, and then to re-group and re-arm within the refugee camp. You have strong traditional norms. Hondons will not negotiate with Tondans – they are inferior to you. You only speak Zendongan, not Caravilese. Resources: Many of you who fled are able-bodied men (many with your weapons) with positions of power, though some have come with families. You have strong kinship ties and community mobilization (have been developed against the Tondons). You have strong links to the Caravilongo army who has secretly agreed to supply you with cash, food and arms. You know that there are organizations in the area who drive around in big cars and that look like they have a lot of money. You are resourceful and adaptive. Risks/Vulnerabilities: Many of you are injured and need urgent medical attention – you are not sure how the Girma clinic will receive you. You are a minority among the refugee population and do not have the protection of your own government in Caravilongo. Sexual violence is a taboo and unthinkable to discuss. You have a traditional, and macho culture (women are hidden away and not allowed to talk to men, must never look them in the eye, children seen and not heard, men/boys must always appear strong etc). Instructions: • Define your roles July 10 2009 10
  • 11. DHA Africa 2009 • Flee Zongondo, collect water, and set up camp outside Girma. Assert control of the camp outside Girma through intimidation of Tondons, taking their shelters and charging them for use of water point etc. Your wounded need urgent medical attention • Go to the clinic with the injured and sick. Identify urgent issues and consider your coping/response strategies • Respond to the situation as it evolves • Develop ideas for how you will deal with the key issues/problems you are facing – both in the immediate as well as for the longer term July 10 2009 11
  • 12. DHA Africa 2009 Host population & services (Christian, animist – linked to Tondan refugee pop) Roles • Bishop (male, controls the church) • Father of 6, market trader (male) • Teacher (female) • Nurse (male) • Policeman • Traditional birth attendant (female) Context: The inhabitants of Girma are a small population with very basic resources and an already-burdened health clinic. You are geographically far from central government in the capital, and frequently feel neglected in terms of prioritization of government funds. You are beginning to see an influx of Tondan refugees (to whom you are ethnically linked) and wish to help. Resources: You have one primary health clinic including one doctor, 2 nurses and 1 assistant (resourced with basic supplies and very low salaries by the MOH – the nearest hospital is 100km away); 2 primary and 1 secondary school, one church, a police station, excess food for export can be sold to refugees. You have one warehouse of food reserves (enough to feed the refugees for about 3 months) usually used for export that you could sell at higher prices to the refugees. You all speak Zendongan and Caravilongolese, and you have close links with the Tondon refugees who are of the same ethnic origin. You have recently seen organizations come into the area who drive around in big cars and that look like they have a lot of money Risks/Vulnerabilities: Increase in crime and violence puts your public services at risk of theft and vandalism; your services over-stretched. The presence of Hondon refugees – many of whom are armed – causes you fear. You recently threatened to go on strike due to low wages and impossible working conditions. Communicable diseases are common in your area and you have lost many in your community to preventable diseases. Instructions: • Define your roles • Prepare the clinic and local church for the influx and explore options for a scale-up of resources, meds, beds, police security presence etc. The pastor is highly respected within his congregation and holds close control of the church. • Gather to identify and analyse urgent issues and to consider your coping/response strategies (vulnerabilities & capacities) • Respond to situation as it evolves • Develop plan to respond to the issues/needs of your own people and of the refugee population July 10 2009 12
  • 13. DHA Africa 2009 Refugee Assistance Dream-team (‘RAD’ - INGO) Roles • WASH engineer (female - expat) • Programme manager (male - expat) • Nurse (male – national staff, from the capital) • Protection & livelihoods specialist (female - expat) • Shelter/site preparation specialist (male – national staff) Context: You are an independent international UK-based NGO which is new to the context and you are trying to establish yourselves in order to respond to the needs of the displaced population. Your team arrived this morning and do not speak Zendongan. You know that the government wishes to maintain the status quo of Hondan rule in Zendongo for Caravilongo’s political and economic stability, and is even rumored to have sold arms to the Hondan government and to have links with the armed Hondon militia. Resources: You have found a space to set up your operations room near the UN offices. Your headquarters gave you contacts for the MOH and several UN agencies, and you believe you will be able to access significant funding through your institutional donors (if you can show there is a need). Risks/Vulnerabilities: You are concerned for the safety of your staff, as you suspect some of the refugees to be armed and that sexual violence is prevalent; you have also heard unconfirmed reports of mines along the border and around part of the water source. You do not currently have any contacts within the host community or the refugee population. You know that if things get dangerous, the expatriates will be evacuated, and national staff will be left in charge. Instructions: • Define your roles • Set up operations room – establish relevant contacts • Assess the situation (from info provided, and through field assessment) • Analyze the findings (Vulnerability/capacity analysis of actors; Rights-Based/needs-based approach?) • Be responsive to the situation as it evolves • Plan for the next 6-weeks July 10 2009 13
  • 14. DHA Africa 2009 Caravilongo National Government Roles • Ministry of Health • Police • Army • Ministry of Social Welfare • Ministry of Foreign Affairs/Dpt immigration Context: There is currently relative political stability in Caravilongo, and the economiy is doing fairly well under the current government, particularly in the larger cities. Rural areas and smaller remoter towns are often neglected by your policies, as your electorate is primarily from urban areas. You are extremely concerned for the stability of Zendongo and wish to help re-establish the status-quo of Hondon rule to prevent any crisis spilling into Caravilongo, as historically, such influxes have led to xenophobic violence and political instablility in Caravilongo. Such instability would have devastating consequences politically and economically. Your economy relies on agricultural trade and international tourism, so you wish to minimize the extent of any violence or disease outbreaks in the press, and intend to assert tight control of any assessments/emergency response. You do not wish to recognize the displaced population as victims of political violence as this would damage your relationship with the Hondon government authorities, and intend to try to deal with this as a problem of economic migration by illegal immigrants. You do not intend to grant them refugee status and intend to pressure them to return to Zendongo as soon as possible. You do not speak Zendongan. [For army person only]: Your army has links to the Hondon militia whom your army has secretly agreed to supply with cash, food and arms.] Resources: You have just finished developing a national framework for emergency response, which you would like to pilot, but emergency response budget is minimal. Your MoH and police have links with the Girma local services as well as with UN agencies in Caravilongo. The army has links with armed elements within the Hondon refugee population as you have helped arm them, but you try to keep these as quiet as possible. Your policing and defense budget is fairly large, but you have less available for healthcare and education. Risks/Vulnerabilities: You fear political instability and economic decline as a result of the influx. You risk exposure in the media of your links and military support to the Hondan cause – there are already unproven rumours circulating. Instructions: July 10 2009 14
  • 15. DHA Africa 2009 • Define roles • Assert control of relief operations through establishing contact with relevant groups • Assess the situation (from info provided, and through field assessment) • Analyze the findings (Vulnerability/capacity analysis of actors; risks to Caravilongo etc) • Be responsive to the situation as it evolves • Plan for the next 6-weeks July 10 2009 15
  • 16. DHA Africa 2009 UNITED NATIONS AGENCIES Roles • WHO rep (national staff) • UNHCR rep (expatriate staff) • UNICEF rep (expatriate staff) • WFP rep (national staff) Context: You have been present in the capital of Caravilongo for 2 years, though not in this part of the country, and wish to use this emergency as an opportunity to build your presence and profile in the region. You are there to support the Caravilongolese government in alleviating the crisis. Resources: You have access to a significant amount of funding through the CERF but are wary to channel this through government, as there are rumours of fiscal mismanagement and bias in the government’s support of Hondan regime in Zendongo which could affect its dealings with the displaced population. You have contacts with the MOH, Social Welfare and foreign affairs, you have personal contacts in RAD from a previous mission, but have no links with the host/refugee populations. Risks/Vulnerabilities: You are concerned for the safety of your staff, as you suspect some of the refugees to be armed and that sexual violence is prevalent. You do not currently have any contacts within the host community or the refugee population, but have links with the MOH, Police and Ministry of Social Welfare, as well as strong personal links with the Programme Manager of RAD from previous missions. You know that if things get dangerous, the expatriates will be evacuated, and national staff will be left in charge. Instructions: • Define your roles • Set up operations • Assess the situation (from info provided, and through field assessment) • Analyze the findings (Vulnerability/capacity analysis of actors; etc) • Be responsive to the situation as it evolves • Plan for the next 6-weeks July 10 2009 16

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