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ch12

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 12 Earth’s Internal Structure, Rock Cycle, and Geologic Time
  • 2. Earth’s Internal Structure
  • 3. The Cores
    • Inner
      • Solid -> pressure > heat
    • Outer
      • Liquid -> heat > pressure
      • Creates ____magnetosphere____
    • How?
  • 4.
    • Asthenosphere
      • “without _strength_”
      • Is part of the upper mantle
      • Molten rock
    • Lithosphere
      • “_stone_”
      • Includes the upper part of the asthenosphere
      • Slides over the upper mantle
      • Location for earthquakes, volcanoes, & continental drifts occur
  • 5. The Crusts
    • Oceanic Crust
      • Mostly ___basalt___
      • Thinner and denser than continental
    • Continental Crust
      • Mostly granite
      • Thickest beneath mountain ranges
      • Thinnest in ___Rift Valley Africa____
  • 6. Rocks and Minerals of the Crust
    • Minerals
      • Naturally occurring with distinct configurations in crystalline form
    • Rocks
      • 2+ minerals bonded in solid state
      • 3 Major types
        • Igneous
        • Sedimentary
        • Metamorphic
  • 7. Igneous
    • Form from solidification of molten magma
      • Extrusive
        • Cools _____on surface________
      • Intrusive
        • Cools _____within the crust_____
  • 8. Obsidian Gabbro Basalt Granite Pumice Intrusive Pyroclastic Extrusive
  • 9. Intrusive Igneous Rock Examples Horizontal spread Vertical spread Huge; unknown depth Horizontal spread that warps rocks above it Types of _________
  • 10. Batholith
  • 11. Sill
  • 12. Dikes
  • 13. Silicate Minerals and Igneous Rocks
  • 14. Mafic Igneous Minerals
    • Mafic: “m” for magnesium, “f” for Fe (iron)
    • Silicates containing magnesium and iron
    • Mafic minerals are denser and heavier than felsic minerals
    • Color?
  • 15. Felsic Igneous Minerals
    • Felsic: “fel” for feldspar “si” for silicate
    • Feldspars
      • silicate-aluminum minerals, as well as K, Na, Ca,
    • Felsic minerals are lighter in color and less dense than mafic minerals
  • 16. Igneous Rock Felsic Mafic Granite Extrusive Intrusive Rhyolite Gabbro Basalt
  • 17. Sedimentary Rocks
    • Form from burial, compression and chemical modification
      • e.g. ________ and ___________ of materials
  • 18.  
  • 19. Classes of Sediments
    • Clastic (composed of fragments = clasts )
    • Chemically precipitated sediment
    • Organic sediment
  • 20. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
    • Consist of inorganic rock and mineral fragments
      • quartz most important component
    • “ _______” - separation of particles by size
      • determines texture of rock
    • Compaction and cementation
      • Cementation occurs when dissolved minerals recrystallize
        • _______ and __________ are common cements
    Clastic sedimentation - hyperlink
  • 21. Common Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
    • Classified by size of particles
    • Sandstone
      • fine to coarse cemented sand
    • Conglomerate –
      • sandstone with mutlisized pebbles
    • Siltstone, claystone, mudstone
      • ________ – any of the above that break easily into small flakes
      • usually __________ and ______ easily
  • 22. Sandstone Shale Conglomerate
  • 23. Chemically Precipitated Sedimentary Rocks
    • Precipitation and recrystallization
      • Carbonate rocks:
        • limestone : calcium carbonate (calcite)
        • dolomite : calcium-magnesium carbonate
      • Chert : silica in hard noncystalline form
    • Evaporites: _________________________
    • - halite - rock salt
  • 24. Dolomite Halite Limestone
  • 25. Organic Sediments
    • Large accumulations of plant remains
    • Hydrocarbon deposits (“fossil fuels”):
      • solids: peat (histosols) and coal
      • liquids and gases (mineral fuels):
        • petroleum
        • natural gas
  • 26. Peat Coal
  • 27. Metamorphic Rocks
    • “to ______________”
    • Existing rock is modified
    • Form from:
      • ________ and ___________
      • Contact with invading magma – batholiths, dikes, sills
    • Mineral components are rearranged
    • Look for banding
  • 28. Slate Gneiss
  • 29. Rock Cycle
  • 30. Geologic Time
    • “deep time”
    • Def: the period of time that encompasses all of Earth history, from its formation to present
  • 31.
    • Universe: 14 BY
    • Earth: 4.6 BY
    • Large to small
      • Eons
      • Eras
      • Periods
      • Epochs
  • 32. Telling Geologic Time: Radiometric Dating
    • Measure amount of radioactive decay of rocks
    • Radioactive isotopes
      • Unstable isotopes change from one element to another
      • Radiation is emitted in the process
      • _____________ – the amt of time required for ½ of the isotopes in any sample to decay
  • 33. The Grand Canyon and Geologic Time
  • 34. The Geologic Time Scale Related to the Calendar Year Dec. 31 (0.05 seconds before midnight) 18 Your birth Dec. 31, 6 P.M. 3 my Early hominids Dec. 31, 5 A.M. 10 my Grand Canyon downcutting Dec. 18 155 my First mammals Dec. 13 220 my First reptiles Dec. 3 340 my First land plants Nov. 10 625 my First vertebrates Oct. 12 1.0 by First cell with nucleus mid-July 2.0 by Oxygen in atmosphere mid-April 3.2 by First single-celled organism Jan. 1 4.6 by Earth formed Time in Year Age Event

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