FA L L 2 0 0 7 V O L . 4 9 N O. 1
Julie Dexter Berg, John M. Matthews
and Constance M. O’Hare
Measuring Brand Health
to Improve Top-Line
Please note that gray areas reflect artwork that has been
intentionally removed. The substantive content of the ar-
ticle appears as originally published. REPRINT NUMBER 49113
Measuring Brand Health to
Improve Top-Line Growth
E xecutives like to talk about strong brands as platforms for sustained
growth. In the management literature, the link between brand equity and
shareholder value is well accepted. So, why is the responsibility for brand-
building not more actively managed in the executive suite?
In our work across sectors, we see companies often failing to “walk the
talk” — unable to grasp the link between brand health and revenue commit-
ment from customers. They treat brand-building superficially, believing that
what matters is making brute-force impressions through large advertising
campaigns.1 Yet brand health is based on more than image and, through a set
of key interrelated measures, can be linked to business performance.
How does the concept of brand health compare to the notion of brand
equity?2 Brand equity is linked to shareholder value.3 It is an intangible, long-
term measure of a company, which is of little use to executives making
investment trade-offs that affect top-line growth. By contrast, brand health is
linked to current and future value with consumers and differences in com-
petitive position. It is tangible and vital to managing brands and business
performance on a forward-looking basis.
To measure brand health — and, contrary to conventional wisdom, it can
be measured — is to obtain a 360-degree view of a brand in its marketplace,
a wide-angle view of consumers and competitors. What is required is isolating
underlying elements that matter, measuring them and linking them to busi-
Contrary to conventional ness performance. “Companies don’t work hard enough to understand the
dimensions, even while extolling the importance of brand,” says Charles M.
wisdom, there is a key set Lillis, a director of Washington Mutual, SUPERVALU, Williams Companies
of fundamental metrics —
Sustaining active brand management confers prime benefits for most
which can be actively companies. Our work, based on data gathered from over 7,000 consumers
about 11,000 customer-provider relationships across large sectors of the U.S.
managed — linking economy, shows a statistically significant correlation between brand health
the health of a brand to and sales. The healthiest brands have twice the amount of customers report-
ing increasing spending than the worst-performing brands.
revenue and consumer These findings, and the manageable metrics they suggest, will allow market-
ers and investors to “connect the dots” between key elements of brand health
commitment. and business performance and to reconcile previously separate notions: brand
and operations, the short term and the long term, investment and return. In
Julie Dexter Berg,
John M. Matthews Julie Dexter Berg is the founder of Brandmaking LLC, Bellevue, Washington. John M.
Matthews and Constance M. O’Hare are managing partners with Beacon Advisors LLC,
and Constance M. O’Hare Boston. Comment on this article or contact the authors through email@example.com.
FALL 2007 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 61
this article, we offer a statistically reliable set of brand-health ele- blending its creative and operational aspects requires active man-
ments for companies to measure and to use as leading indicators agement.5 (See “The Strategic Importance of Brand Health,” p. 64.)
of sales risk and potential. (See “About the Research.”) We find, however, that most companies view brands and brand
management rather narrowly and passively:
Brand Management: Where Companies Go Wrong They fixate on brand awareness. Advertising alone does not
In the course of our research, we asked consumers to name strong build a brand. On the contrary, our data show that aided aware-
brands. The list of brands most mentioned was short, reinforcing ness is only weakly correlated with brand health and customer
the point that brand-building is underdeveloped in most compa- commitment. “It’s not just about what you say, but what you do
nies. (See “What Consumers Say About Strong Brands.”) Only 15 as a company [to build a brand],” warns Len Vickers, the former
brands accounted for 50% of total mentions. Consumers set a head of corporate marketing at General Electric Co.
high bar for brands to qualify as strong, and strength appears to Consider the grocery industry: Traditional grocers have
be based on more than company image or size. Brands are viewed among the highest awareness ratings and the lowest percentages
in multiple dimensions — encompassing a consumer’s cumula- of customers increasing spending. In the wireless and banking
tive perceptions and experiences.4 industries, consumers rank advertising last among factors most
At a minimum, strong brands are visible, but awareness does influencing their impressions of a brand. Advertising accounts
not in itself constitute strength. for less than 5% of what drives brand impressions. Consumers
Developing a powerful brand across multiple dimensions and rate product quality in wireless (for example, network cover-
About the Research
Our work is based on quantitative survey brand-health elements on current and fu- Ratings of competing brands
data collected in 2007 from consumers ture revenue commitments by customers ■ For example, “How attractive to you are
in large sectors of the U.S. economy — — providing a blueprint for companies the wireless providers in your area?”;
food and grocery, wireless services and about how and where to invest in brand- “What distinguishes your wireless pro-
banking — together accounting for building to win in a given marketplace. vider from others?”
nearly $1 trillion in annual revenue. Across all brands available in the sec- Satisfaction with providers and
Across sectors, consumers are well-pene- tors and geographic markets we studied, variance across markets
trated, competition is wide-ranging and we gathered broad and specific data ■ For example, “What factors are impor-
retail activity is substantial. (It is worth from individual consumers about who tant to your satisfaction with a wireless
noting that the stickiness of the cus- they are, what and why they buy from provider?”; “What is your overall satis-
tomer-provider relationship varies by certain brands and their future inten- faction with your provider?”
sector, based on the presence or absence tions. Examples of data collected and Likelihood to switch from or promote
of contractual arrangements.) questions asked include: a brand
The sample was drawn from major Demographics of consumer ■ For example, “How likely are you to
geographic markets nationwide repre- ■ For example, household income and recommend your provider to a friend
senting nearly a quarter of the U.S. composition, education level, ethnicity or colleague?”
population. It was collected in two Current and future spend with providers Note that we gathered these and other
waves — first in food and grocery, then ■ For example, “What is your typical data from each consumer about all of their
in banking and wireless. Both samples monthly wireless bill for voice, data, customer-provider relationships by sector;
were matched to census variables, an all other?” that is, on average, 3.6 stores’ customer-pro-
ambitious endeavor given the demo- Needs and wants from providers vider relationships in grocery, 2.1 in banking
graphic profile of online research ■ For example, “What factors are and 1.0 in wireless — yielding a data set of
panels. Combined, the total sample in- important to your selection of a over 11,000 customer-provider relation-
cludes over 7,000 consumers. The error wireless provider?” ships. Also, we designed comparable
margin on the grocery industry data is Purchase attitudes and behaviors measures across sectors where common
1.2% with 95% confidence, and it is 4.3% ■ For example, “What most influences survey measures did not apply; for example,
with 95% confidence for the banking your impressions, positive or negative, of regarding current spending we asked for:
and wireless industries. your wireless provider’s brand?”; “Do you average weekly spending across stores in
The goal of our research was to ex- feel your wireless provider cares about grocery, amount of deposits in banking and
plore and measure the impact of key what you think of its brand?” typical monthly bill amount in wireless.
62 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW FALL 2007 SLOANREVIEW.MIT.EDU
age) and the banking experience (for example, branch
What Consumers Say About Strong Brands
service) as four times more influential.
Advertising can be inadvertently brand-diluting. In many
companies, the line item of advertising includes promotion, The list of most mentioned “strong” brands is short —
which is unrelated to brand-building and can even erode consumers set a high bar for brands to qualify.
the brand. In these cases, ironically, advertising can contrib-
Most Frequently Consumer Verbatim:
ute to attracting lower-value, price-sensitive customers.
Mentioned Strong What Strong Brands
They neglect customer satisfaction. Customers are not Brands (In Order) Mean
passive participants in the making of brands.6 In fact, across
sectors, we found customer satisfaction to be the strongest • Apple • “Taint-free reputation”
• Coca-Cola 25% of • “Instantly recognizable”
determinant of brand health. It is also the only common, mentions
statistically significant driver of current revenue and growth • Microsoft • “Cares about its reputation
prospects in the customer-provider relationship. • General
• “Products to back up
Companies with strong brands realize that brand-making Electric
is an interactive process between company and consumer. • AT&T
• “Goes beyond the product…”
These companies don’t subscribe to the traditional notion that • Sony
• “Delivers what it promises”
branding is a “creative” endeavor, while satisfaction is only a • Target
• “Innovative, creative,
function of operational efficacy. Look at Starbucks Corp. of • Verizon user-friendly, stylish”
Seattle, Washington. In his book, Pour Your Heart Into It: How • Nike 50% of • “Clear identity and focus…
Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time, Chairman • Toyota focused on doing one or
two things very well…
Howard Schultz explains: “The most powerful and enduring • Google excellent design”
brands are built from the heart … not an ad campaign. Cus- • Johnson • “Consistency…at every
tomers choose to come to us for our coffee, our people and the & Johnson interaction, either in-store,
experience in our stores. Mass advertising can help build • Starbucks online, or advertisement…”
brands, but authenticity is what makes them last.” 7 • American • “Satisfactory experience
They assume current sales are a gauge of future rela- Express reinforced by advertising”
tionship potential. We found sales to be a lagging indicator • Disney • “A unified business model
expressed through adver-
of customer commitment and an unreliable predictor of tising, product placement,
relationship potential. In the wireless industry, for instance, and product design”
a customer’s current monthly spending is statistically unre-
lated to “stickiness” or growth in the customer-provider
relationship. The same holds for banking — a customer’s current some of the larger chains. But Trader Joe’s is in the minority.
deposit level is no guarantee of a future, growing relationship. “Most companies just let their brand image evolve, instead of
A preoccupation with current sales can mask trouble with a actively managing it,” says Lillis.
brand. For instance, one traditional grocer that ranks first or
second in total sales across nine major markets nevertheless ranks The Key Elements of Brand Health
in the bottom half of competitors on brand health and percent- Brands should not and need not drift. We have identified five key
age of customers increasing spending in its stores. Similarly, in elements of brand health that form a statistically reliable core set
banking, two of three top national banks (as measured in depos- of measures. Although all five elements are recognized in the man-
its) have the lowest brand-health scores of major banks in key agement literature,8 they have not heretofore been intercorrelated,
East and West Coast markets studied and double the number of tested through empirical data and offered as a core set of brand-
customers likely to switch compared with the healthiest brand. management metrics. In our aggregate framework, they provide
They allow their brands to drift. Our data show that better common benchmarks for executives and investors looking to
brand health through active management can lead to statistically grade and guide brand performance and spur action company-
different levels of competitive advantage — including inordinate wide. (See “The Interrelated Elements of Brand Health,” p. 65.)
shares of the most valuable customers. Trader Joe’s Co., a spe- Each element offers a unique measurement perspective:
cialty grocery chain based in Monrovia, California, for example, Leadership measures the availability of a brand, its reputation
excels at satisfaction and distinctiveness — and as a result has and points of presence. It answers the question: Do consumers
more high-spend, “food-engaged” shoppers and fewer price-sen- see the brand as available to serve them now and in the future?
sitive promotion seekers relative to Wal-Mart Stores Inc. and Liabilities measure a brand’s vulnerabilities, or negative as-
SLOANREVIEW.MIT.EDU FALL 2007 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 63
sociations, and consumer reluctance. What is limiting commit- Linking Brand Health to Customer Commitment
ment to the brand and repelling consumers? We were able to isolate four revenue-related expressions of cus-
Attractiveness, by contrast, measures the extent of positive tomer commitment. Two apply to current sales — current
associations with a brand. As such, it asks: Are customers and customer spending and risk of sales loss — and two apply to fu-
prospects drawn toward the brand? ture growth — revenue momentum and likelihood of referrals.
Distinctiveness measures the perceived relevance of a brand Each adds to a view of customer-provider relationship potential.
— does it break the perception of parity in a customer’s mind? Do Current customer spending. A customer’s current amount of
consumers perceive the brand to be “set apart” from competitors? spending with or commitment to a company is affected by
Satisfaction is a measure of performance against customer breadth of product penetration and share of wallet — and a his-
expectations. It answers the question: Are customers satisfied torical reflection of customer value.
with their experience with the brand? Risk of sales loss. This risk equates to the loss of revenue to
The elements are interrelated to a greater or lesser degree sta- competing alternatives based on a customer’s likelihood to cross-
tistically, as follows: shop or switch providers.
■ Satisfaction is centrally related to all elements and has some of Revenue momentum. This is based on the actual and antici-
the strongest correlations. Its dominant influence reflects the ris- pated increases in spending or commitment over time and on
ing importance of the customer experience on brand health. It intent to purchase additional products.
also suggests that companies need to push past image and prod- Likelihood of referrals. Referrals reflect positive promotion
uct-only thinking when it comes to brand-making. by individual consumers, increasing the likelihood of adding new
■ Attractiveness is most strongly related to satisfaction — not to customers or sales. Across sectors, referrals equate to word-of-
leadership. Thus, a customer’s experience with a brand is the mouth promotion by satisfied customers.
method by which positive associations are built. Being attractive How do the brand-health elements relate to the above four
and accruing positive associations also seems to insulate brands expressions of customer commitment?
from liabilities. Customer satisfaction has the greatest impact on both current
■ Distinctiveness is also related to satisfaction and attractiveness sales and future growth. (See “The Impact of Brand Health on
and not to leadership. This correlation pattern suggests that dis- Business Performance,” p. 66.) High satisfaction delivers virtuous
tinctiveness is more a measure of the personal relevance of a economic outcomes. In the wireless industry, for example, Verizon
brand than company-level differentiation per se. Communications Inc.’s higher satisfaction scores have yielded cus-
■ Leadership too is associated with satisfaction and attractive- tomers that are statistically more likely to subscribe to a broader
ness, confirming that brand health is not built on sheer array of revenue-generating features and applications (such as data
availability or reputation. Leadership is unrelated to distinctive- and multiple numbers), intend to stay with and follow Verizon into
ness and liabilities. Size alone does not add to perceived new product areas (such as broadband Internet) and refer Verizon
uniqueness or lack of liabilities. to others.
The Strategic Importance of Brand Health
Brand health can be linked to top-line performance overall and for each customer segment.
Brand Brand Customer Business Active Brand
Awareness Associations Satisfaction Performance Management
Necessary but • Leadership • Satisfaction • Current sales • Rationalize the
insufficient to • Liabilities with the (including risk portfolio of
build a brand experience— of sales loss) brands
• Distinctiveness across all points • Future growth • Position to win in
• Attractiveness of interaction (including a market
• Degree of likelihood of • Improve top-line
variance referrals) sales and grow
Customer Segment Selection and Attraction organically
64 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW FALL 2007 SLOANREVIEW.MIT.EDU
The Interrelated Elements of Brand Health
Five elements form a statistically reliable core set of brand-health measures — customer satisfaction.
Distinctiveness How to Interpret This Figure:
0.22 < r < 0.32
perceive the brand • The elements measure both brand
to be set apart from associations and customer satisfaction.
They are statistically related, forming a
reliable core set.
0.28 < r < 0.31
• The strongest elements are based on
0.24 < r < 0.40
0.63 < r < 0.71
Satisfaction the consumers’ direct experience with
Leadership Are customers the brand.
Attractiveness satisfied with their
Do consumers see
the brand as capable Are customers and experience with • Satisfaction reigns supreme—and is
prospects drawn the brand?
of serving them now
towards the brand?
centrally related to all elements.
and in the future?
• r is the correlation coefficient, a normal-
ized measure of the relative strength
-0.20 < r < -0.26 between two variables between 0 and 1.
-0.22 < r < -0.34
For r > .20, the probability is p > .999 that
a correlation exists.
What is limiting • Correlation ranges given are across
commitment sectors, based on N = 6496 in grocery
to the brand? and N = 518 in banking and wireless.
Across sectors, satisfaction is the only common significant (such as music and video downloads) and adjacent offers (such as
driver with an impact on sales. In banking, for instance, it is the broadband Internet access at home and cable video services). A
main driver of current sales, and the effect is 25 times greater than brand’s ability to break the perception of parity in a customer’s
the effect of the smallest but still significant effect of leadership. mind is key to growth in the customer-provider relationship.
Satisfaction also matters in mitigating the risk of sales loss. The Finally, though all brand-health elements have some signifi-
effect is stronger in some sectors than others and is based on the cant impact on referrals, satisfaction once again dominates. The
stickiness of the relationship. In the wireless industry, where sub- greatest impact is in the grocery industry, where the effect of
scribers have contracts, the impact of satisfaction on reducing risk satisfaction on referrals is 90 times that of leadership. Attractive-
is eight times that of the smallest but still significant element of ness follows satisfaction with the next largest impact but with
distinctiveness. In banking, the impact of satisfaction is even only one-tenth the effect in the wireless and grocery industries
stronger (15 times). In the grocery industry, a nonsubscription and one-quarter the effect in banking.
business, sales loss includes revenue erosion from cross-shopping.
Leadership helps to mitigate this risk but may prevent executives How to Practice Active Brand Management
from seeing sales erosion as a function of dissatisfaction or liabili- Monitored together, the elements of brand health and indicators
ties. Wal-Mart, for example, has a leading share position in U.S. of customer commitment reveal a company’s market position
food sales but also a high percentage of perceived liabilities. — its opportunities and vulnerabilities. Such data provide a plat-
When it comes to future growth, satisfaction and attractive- form for active brand management and companywide action to
ness are the key determinants across sectors. Leadership has the rationalize the portfolio of brands, position them to win in a
least significant impact. For example, relative to traditional gro- market, improve top-line sales and grow organically.
cers such as Wal-Mart and Whole Foods Market Inc., based in
Austin, Texas, Trader Joe’s rates lowest on leadership but highest Rationalize the Portfolio of Brands To measure brand health across
on satisfaction. Interestingly, Trader Joe’s has the largest percent- a portfolio9 of brands is to ask: “How do our brands compare?”
age of customers increasing spending over the last two years. What results is a snapshot that can be de-averaged (for example,
Brands regarded as more distinctive by customers have greater by customer segment and at different levels of brands such as
permission to cultivate demand and “stretch” into new areas. In the brand families or products) and rolled up and down across geog-
wireless industry, distinctiveness is correlated with a customer’s raphies (for example, by trade area, sales region or metropolitan
willingness to consider buying both new offers related to mobility statistical area). Such comparative intelligence can shape thinking
SLOANREVIEW.MIT.EDU FALL 2007 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 65
about brand investment trade-offs: Which brands have momen- Position to Win in a Market Measuring the impact of brand
tum? Which are withering on the vine? Which brands need health on business performance puts brand-making squarely
pruning because they have lost relevance with valuable segments? in the realm of competitive strategy. (See “The Impact of
Which brands can stretch across several segments? How is per- Brand Health on Business Performance in Wireless and Bank-
formance changing over time, or not? ing.”) In the wireless industry, Verizon is a benchmark for
For instance, comparative grocery-industry data show brand Sprint Nextel Corp. in terms of performance gaps for Sprint to
variance and inconsistency within and across individual grocers. close and aspects of Verizon’s strengths to counter as well as
One traditional grocer’s overall average customer-satisfaction vulnerabilities to exploit. In banking, the brand health of Bank
scores vary across its portfolio of banners — by 34% across geo- of America Corp. versus Commerce Bancorp Inc., a relative
graphic markets and 67% across individual customer segments. newcomer, implies a warning for highly visible, high-share
What’s more, the standard deviation of its satisfaction scores brands. Leadership does not necessarily translate to satisfac-
reflecting store-to-store variance within markets is 3% to 56%, tion, and current standing with customers does not ensure
greater than the least varied competitor in 14 markets studied. future economic commitment.
The perception of this chain as distinctive is similarly uncon- When de-averaged by customer segment, competitive brand
trolled, with a 3.5 times bottom-to-top range on percent of health comparisons can also answer customer selection and at-
customers viewing the brand as distinctive across markets. All traction questions, including: Where does my brand stand with
those variances leave the door open for focused competitors. the most valuable customers? What is the gap in my brand posi-
In the banking and wireless industries, comparative data reveal a tion between customers and prospects? Are segment-targeting
brand’s potential to extend, or not, into new areas. Moving into assumptions, embedded in our market strategy, consistent with
banking, a leading indicator of Capital One Financial Corp.’s poten- our brand health reality?
tial success is brand data comparing the health of Capital One with Across segments, brand-health data can be used to gauge the
that of its acquired brands, Hibernia and North Fork, and its com- limits of a brand. For instance, facing focused competitors such
petitors in Louisiana and New York. In the wireless industry, as Costco Wholesale Corp. of Issaquah, Washington, and Whole
brand-health data can help determine the brand advantage for a Foods Market, traditional grocery chains need to consider if and
company such as Verizon offering wireless only or wireline plus how they will satisfy unique customer segments by stretching
wireless in a given metropolitan statistical area. As it turns out, Ver- their core brand. Or should they introduce a new, potentially
izon’s brand health is higher in New York City, where both services competing brand? Geography-specific brand-health intelligence
are offered, than in San Francisco, where only wireless is offered. at the segment level is crucial for companies like The Kroger Co.,
The Impact of Brand Health on Business Performance
Better brand health results in better customer economics by impacting current and future sales.
How to Interpret This Figure:
• Brand associations and customer satisfaction
elements are statistically related to business
• Share of wallet/deposits • Satisfaction has the strongest relationships to sales
• Number of revenue-generating features/products and growth, followed by attractiveness.
• Lower sales loss (likelihood to switch)
• Satisfaction has the largest impact on business
Future Growth performance across sectors:
• Increasing spending/deposits • In wireless, on the “Likelihood to switch”—
• Purchase intent of additional/new
15X the impact of the element with the least
• Likelihood to refer
• In banking, on the “Share of customer depos-
High r > 0.36 its”—25X the impact of the element with the
Medium 0.18 > r > 0.36, significant at p > 0.9999
• In grocery, on the “Likelihood to refer”—
Low 0.10 > r > 0.18, significant at p > 0.95
90X the impact of the element with the least
None Not correlated, no effect impact.
66 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW FALL 2007 SLOANREVIEW.MIT.EDU
The Impact of Brand Health on Business Performance in Wireless and Banking
Monitored together, brand health and business performance reveal a company’s market position — providing a platform for market
strategy and companywide action.
the market, WIRELESS BANKING
which does not
necessarily Bank of
result in high Brand Health Verizon Sprint Commerce America
Leadership 75% * 41% * 68% 66%
consumers who Liabilities 6% * 14% * 5% * 11% *
say the brand
is set apart from Attractiveness 7.58 * 6.38 * 7.67 * 6.82 *
Distinctiveness 46% * 36% * 77% * 30% *
on 10-point Satisfaction 7.35 * 6.77 * 8.14 * 6.80 *
scale of overall
10 is extremely Business Performance Without brand
satisfied. health, current
Current Sales position with
does not imply
Percent of Adds to bill 1.93 * 1.77 * NA NA future economic
consumers with (such as data, multiline, etc.) commitment.
or greater of Share of deposits NA NA 61% 64%
Share of bank product portfolio NA NA 55% 56%
to stretch into Likelihood to switch 16% * 34% * 14% * 28% *
for example, Future Growth
(banking) or Consider buying new offers 2.90 * 2.09 * 2.38 * 2.04 *
Consumer response Likelihood to refer 7.24 * 6.03 * 8.14 * 6.50 *
on a 5-point scale,
where 5 is “would Likelihood to refer brand to a friend
consider strongly.” or colleague, on a 10-point scale.
NOTE: * Denotes statistical significance between provider scores at 95% confidence or better.
a grocery chain based in Cincinnati, Ohio, that need to place and For a market strategist, active brand management provides the
position multiple brands in different areas. platform for increasing consumer acceptance of new products and
brand extensions. Healthy brands can stretch further and into large
Improve Top-Line Sales and Grow Organically Active brand manage- adjacent markets: from banking to financial services, from wireless
ment, based on measuring brand health, can allow companies to voice to mobile voice, from information to entertainment. Our
better control sales10 and growth. Customers do spend and in- data show customers are more likely to consider their bank or
tend to spend more with brands they see as healthier. Grocery wireless provider for extended products and services based on
customers spend a greater percentage of their weekly budget with positive brand associations and satisfying experiences.
a healthy brand, and they are more likely to shop in high-spend
categories such as meat and produce. Bank customers have more Getting It Right at Your Company
relative deposits and products such as loans, investments and To diagnose your company’s capacity for active brand manage-
small business accounts with healthy brands. Wireless customers ment with brand-health measurement at the core, consider the
boost their monthly bills with more revenue-producing addi- following seven questions:
tions, such as data and family plans, and new applications like Is your brand fulfilling the addressable market? Companies
games and music with healthy brands. Customers of healthy mistakenly define markets too narrowly, missing brand opportu-
brands are less likely to switch or shop alternatives. nities. Instead, start with your consumers — what are their
SLOANREVIEW.MIT.EDU FALL 2007 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 67
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