African Development Dialogue


Published on

African Development Dialogue, a Quaterly Magazine from the UN Millennium Campaign Africa.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

African Development Dialogue

  1. 1. AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT ENDPOVERTY Millennium Campaign Vol.1 Jan - April 2009 Mothers Should Not Die Giving Life • Global Financial Crisis • In Search of Alternatives • Migration and Development • Toolkit on Elections African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 1
  2. 2. About United Nations Millennium Campaign UNMC Africa Office based in Nairobi, Kenya, supports civil society and citizen engagement in the campaign for the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. The organisation works with various partners including civil society organisations among them faith based organisations, youth and women organisations, parliamentarians and local governments in 14 priority countries in the South, East and West Africa. It is a small team headed by a Deputy Director with a Communications Coordinator and a Policy advisor and also Advocacy / Programme, Communications and administrative and Finance Associates. UNMC’s primary partner is the Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP), which has since its inception in 2005, offered civil society organisations a platform to undertake collective and collaborative action. UNMC also works with a range of other stakeholders who may not necessarily be part of the GCAP. Increasingly, UNMC is also building strategic partnerships with private sector players including communications companies, media houses, financial and other commercial institutions. Both at the global and regional levels and also nationally we also cooperate, collaborate or coordinate our support with other development partners including All Africa Conference of Chuches (AACC), United Cities and Local Governments Association , UCLGA-Africa, Micah Challenge, OXFAM-NOVIB, Africa Office of Action Aid internatiobnal (AAI) , Pan Africa Programme of OXFAM-GB and others. The UNMC Africa Office is one of the regional hubs of the global UNMC headquartered in New York . The global Director is based in New York but is assisted by regional teams headed by Deputy Directors in other regions of the world (Africa, Asia and Europe) and Communications (New York). In Spain, Italy, Germany and Portugal UNMC has National campaign offices. All regional and National offices work closely through the Global secretariat to deliver as One campaign in support of furthering the MDGs based on the different priorities set for different regions and countries. For instance in the North, the campaign focuses on Goal 8 issues while in the South, emphasis is on accountability and delivery on goals 1-7. Both North and South collaborate and cooperate to identify strategic partnership that can strengthen the achievements of these goals in all countries. United Nations Millennium Campaign, All African Conference of Churches P.O. Box 14205-00800, Waiyaki Way Nairobi Kenya Tel: 254-20-4453440/4454025 Fax: 254-20-4443241/4453444 Email: Website:
  3. 3. Contents You and I can make it happen! Editorial Committee Editorial Advisory Committee Dr. Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem Betty Atieno Ndomo Cover Story Prof. Okello Oculi Prof. Adebayo Olukoshi 3 Mothers Should Not Die Giving Life Prof. James Kwesiga 5 Facing Disease And Death Issue Editor Thomas Deve 6 Kenya Joins The Piga Debe Campaign Editorial Assistant Mwaura Kaara News Production 7 Men Challenged To Fight Gender Inequality Sylvia Mwichuli Gender 8 Stand Up, Speak Out And Take Action Linda Odhiambo 9 Voices Against Poverty And Inequality Correspondents West Africa Features Ololade Bamidele Michael Boampong 10 Migration As A Tool For Development Oumar Sow 12 Africa’s Response To The Global Financial Crisis Southern Africa Mzati Nkolokosa 15 Africa Resists Epas Sifelani Tsiko Eastern Africa 17 In Search Of Alternatives Hamimu Masudi Ceasar Mkasa Debates And Viewpoints Antoine Niyitengeka 20 Agenda For Creating Another World Robert Mmaitsi Richard Kabazzi Reviews Diaspora 24 Fighting Disability In Kenya Nardos Hagos Tominke Olaniyan 26 Tool Kit On Elections And MDGs Bob Owuor 28 Book Reviews African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 1
  4. 4. Editorial Holding governments to account for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals W e are introducing a magazine whose broad objective and environmental sustainability — can be measured. They also will be to support citizen’s efforts towards holding their embody basic human rights — the rights of each person on the governments to account for the achievement of the planet to health, education, shelter and security. The Goals are Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Its editorial policy will ambitious but feasible and, together with the comprehensive deliberately seek to promote the vision of the United Nations United Nations development agenda, set the course for the Millennium Campaign in Africa especially on initiatives seeking world’s efforts to alleviate extreme poverty by 2015. to: There has been real progress made towards achieving some of • Consolidate efforts by anti-poverty campaigners the Goals, even in regions where the challenges are greatest. towards enhancing governance and accountability A number of recent successes across the developing world — processes at national, sub-national and global levels including improved macroeconomic indicators, expansion of for accelerating the pace of achieving MDGs AIDS treatment and increased agricultural productivity, school enrolment and access to water and sanitation — demonstrate • Reach out to the expanded constituency for the that rapid progress is possible when sound national policies MDGs within various groups including faith based are matched with increased overseas development assistance groups, youth/student groups parliamentarians, local (ODA) and technical support from the international system. The authorities, social movements and selected sections of accomplishments made testify to the unprecedented degree the private sector of commitment by developing countries and their partners to the United Nations Millennium Declaration, and the growing • Expand campaign further into socially excluded groups success in building and strengthening the global partnership for including disability organizations development. • Build and strengthen strategic partnerships with There has been real progress made towards achieving some of various groups organizations and institutions the Goals, even in regions where the challenges are greatest. A number of recent successes across the developing world — • Promote evidence based advocacy by use of government including improved macroeconomic indicators, expansion of reports, shadow reports, citizen scorecards, fact AIDS treatment and increased agricultural productivity, school sheets and other relevant tool kits developed within the enrolment and access to water and sanitation — demonstrate context of the campaign and finally mainstream gender that rapid progress is possible when sound national policies are and showcase struggles the women’s movement is matched with increased ODA and technical support from the engaged in at all levels. international system. The accomplishments made testify to the unprecedented degree of commitment by developing countries One of the main objectives of introducing the magazine is to and their partners to the United Nations Millennium Declaration, provide an accessible and effective communication channel and the growing success in building and strengthening the that provides a platform for informed and inclusive debate global partnership for development. on development issues in general and how they relate with Millennium Development Goals in particular in order to advance Poverty and inequality are growing at an alarming rate globally the cause of the poor. and many governments in Africa are claiming that they are not going to MDGs by 2015. Ironically, globalisation has thrown up The magazine is expected to provide antipoverty campaigners many opportunities for social and economic progress, but these with opportunities to influence domestic, regional and have been unevenly distributed to the extent that developing international policies through amplifying the voices of the countries are experiencing unprecedented marginalisation and underprivileged and socially excluded in addition to those of our reaping less and less from the progress humanity is experiencing partners in the campaign. in the last decade. Eradicating extreme poverty continues to be one of the main Empirical evidence available on performance indicators for challenges of our time, and is a major concern of the international MDGs shows that it is too early for governments in developing community. Ending this scourge will require the combined efforts countries to give up meeting targets as we have just gone past of all, governments, civil society organizations and the private the midpoint. The positive areas especially in education, health sector, in the context of a stronger and more effective global and maternal health for example, underlines the urgency for a partnership for development. collective need to explore alternative diverse and participatory economic systems that are adapted to local and national The MDGs set time-bound targets, by which progress in reducing realities, while also prioritizing and protecting equity, democracy income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter and and diversity, human rights, labour rights, ecology, food security exclusion — while promoting gender equality, health, education and sustainable production and consumption.
  5. 5. Cover Story Mothers Should Not Die Giving Life It is not morally or politically right and it cannot be acceptable that mothers die giving life. Argues Dr. Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem* T he United Nations Millennium Campaign is launching a report this week on maternal mortality to coincide with the International Women’s Day, March 8 and we are also joining with various National partners and UN agencies and governments in various countries across Africa in a month long series of activities to draw attention to the alarming number of women who continue to die while giving birth or as a result of complications of pregnancies. Many of these deaths are preventable and their prevention is definitely less costly both in human and material terms to the families involved and the society in general. The paradox of the situation is that millions of children in Asia and Africa now have a better chance of living beyond Rallying behind Piga Debe Campaign on International Women’s Day in Liberia the age of 5 years. If more children are living, why are the mothers dying in such Niger is one of the poorest countries in sister died in a ‘private’ clinic, one of many scandalous numbers? Who is going to Africa and the most dangerous place that have mushroomed in response to the nurture and care for these children with to give birth with women facing an crisis in the public health sector. Most improved chances of living beyond 5 , astonishing 1 in 7 chance of dying. Nigeria of these “private” clinics are owned by universal access to education and more makes up 2% of the world’s population, it Doctors and other Medical staff ‘working’ opportunities beyond 2015? accounts for 10% of its maternal deaths. in the public sector. So really the only dividing line between public and private Official statistics reveal a shocking trend While statistics can educate and raise is the ‘extra’ money that those who can of mothers dying in circumstances that are awareness, they remain statistics. We afford pay in order to buy themselves preventable. Despite the fact that some do not see human beings in them. Until extra care and time of the overworked countries have invested on provision of they are humanised, we may not feel their public professionals. basic health care, in developing countries, impact directly. I have been banging on only 35% of births are attended by skilled about MMR for quite some time now. But But it is all a game of chances because health workers. it hit me directly recently. A young sister of many of these ‘private’ clinics do not have In sub-Saharan Africa, a woman has mine, Asmau (better known as TALATUA) requisite facilities and often fallback on the 1 in 16 chance of dying in pregnancy or aged 33, died two hours after delivering privatised sections of public facilities. So childbirth, compared to a 1 in 4,000 risk her second child, a boy, whom she never the closer one is to better public hospitals in a developing country. More than half held. and other medical establishments like a million women die in pregnancy and dedicated gynaecological, paediatric and childbirth every year: of these deaths, 99 Asmau was not an illiterate woman. She other specialist hospitals like Teaching % are in developing countries. Neonatal was a senior science teacher, while the hospitals, the better are one’s chances of mortality accounts for almost 40 % of husband is a college principal. Both fall buying off a slice of the public service for estimated 9.7 million children under- far beyond the so called ‘ordinary man one’s health. Consequently, regardless five deaths and for nearly 60 % of infant and woman’ as their income could ‘buy’ of your economic status, your access to (under-one) deaths. them better access to health facilities. My better public or private health facilities is African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 3
  6. 6. Cover Story by strong institutions, funding and accountability mechanisms. Special attention should be given to marginalized groups in health system strategies and all efforts should be made to guarantee meaningful participation of women and communities in the design, development, implementation and monitoring of programs and policies to combat maternal deaths. Most importantly, developing innovative strategies to rapidly increase access to skilled health workers for emergency obstetric care and comprehensive reproductive health services, including It is not God’s will that children should be brought up without mothers expansion of responsibilities (and corresponding enhanced compensation) predetermined by the location. If you are or wives and concubines, not to talk of and greatly increased numbers of nurses, closer to the big cities, your chances are ministers and other state officials instead midwives and non-physician clinicians is better. of providing for citizens who badly need one of the few ways in which governments these services. It is not about lack of can demonstrate political will aimed at In a continent where most of our resources, but lack of people-friendly reducing the alarming maternity mortality peoples still live in rural areas, it is highly public priorities. If the Minister of health rates. precarious that the health and life span of of a country goes abroad on the flimsiest mothers and other citizens are based on of health reasons and the minister of It is not morally or politically right and it such a random selection. It means that the education does not have any of his or her cannot be acceptable that mothers die majority of our peoples are condemned to children in the educational services his or giving life. In memory of my mother who inferior access to good medical facilities. her ministry is providing, why should the sacrificed everything for her ‘first child’ Even in the capital cities, your residential public trust the services? and other children; my grandmother who area and economic well being conditions nurtured and loved me unconditionally; my your access. It is not possible for majority of the great grandmother whom I was privileged citizens to privatise their way out of to know; my eight sisters who are now Our people try to cope with every calamity, public services whether in health or reduced to seven because of Asmau’s many of them avoidable, preventable and education. Therefore citizens’ pressure untimely death; and in honour of my two human-made, by insisting that “It is God’s must be placed on governments so that wonderful daughters, Aida and Ayesha will”. Since God does not protest and has public policy responds positive towards and their mum, Mounira and my numerous no instant rebuttal department, everything better provision of these services to the nieces, women cousins, sisters-in-law can be blamed on him. citizens. and all women, I have pledged myself to support the PIGA DEBE Campaign on It is not God’s will that children should Enough is enough!!! women’s rights of the United Nations be brought up without their mothers. It While citizens must stand up and speak Millennium Campaign with particular is the way in which we plan our society out to draw attention to the alarming focus on maternal health. Mothers should that leads to women being penalised for number of women who continue to die not be dying giving life. doing what is natural to womanhood. It is while giving birth, Governments in turn unacceptable that governments that can must develop national action plans for *Dr. Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem, was the Deputy find money for unjust wars, the private Director, United Nations Millennium Campaign the reduction of maternal mortality that who passed away in a tragic road accident on security of the president and his wife adopt a human rights approach supported 25th May, 2009 4 African Development Dialogue January - April 2009
  7. 7. Cover Story Facing Disease And Death How many hundreds of billions of dollars have been pumped into failing banks and investment institutions over these past few months, in order to save them from collapse? Why can’t the leaders of the world do something similar to save large portions of humanity especially women and children from starvation, disease and death? Writes Dorothy Ngoma* I am a nurse midwife and have been As we commemorate one for many years. What I think this International and what I say to you is based on my Women’s Day, under the experiences as a nurse midwife meeting theme “End violence, countless patients and families in extreme support women in distress, facing disease and death at a politics”, let us look for level that is hard to imagine for people the solutions that are living comfortable lives or those in the possible to find. We developed countries. can stop this continuing tragedy. Education, Every day in Malawi, 16 pregnant women Health, water, food and die in villages or hospital during child birth. good health nutrition as By the end of the year, 984 women/100000 well as gender balance births will have died, but not even one are crucial for achieving of them will be registered by the media economic development as a great scandal or something to be and eradicating poverty Protect and save lives especially those of girls and women corrected. What would have happened if so many mothers-to-be died in a hospital while at the same time empowering like “Mwaiwathu” or Adventist Hospital in women politically. These are basic • Access to emergency obstetric Blantyre, Malawi let alone in New York or human and women’s rights and are a must care when life London. Do the lives of these poor women for each and every woman living on this threatening complications in poor communities have less value than planet. occur. those “who have”? • Family planning services that Free primary education is beyond the will increase survival Many of you out there are the leaders reach of women in most poor countries, rate for both women and movers in this world that we all live yet absolutely vital to provide countries and children. in. People especially women from poor with qualified human resources to meet • Eradication, or at the very least communities who are the majority in the challenges of the future. If the girl containment, of developing countries need support and children and others are not educated diseases like malaria, TB, HIV hope that their lives are valuable enough then how much poverty violence and and AIDS. for us to put resources on the table to criminality will they cause as they grow save them. Many do not really believe into unhealthy, lawless, uneducated The global human resource crisis of too that a difference will be made. To them, adults? few health care workers can be solved. we just give it lip service. But you can We need predictable donor-funding for We in Africa can rise to the challenge. make a difference. WE can make a the public education system in order to: Give us the means and we can train difference, indeed we are obliged to make hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands a difference. • increase enrolment of new health care workers, to cope with I believe that the world has enough • retain girls in school the challenges facing our country Malawi resources to solve the problems it faces. • prevent early marriages and and the world as a whole. How many hundreds of billions of dollars early pregnancies have been pumped into failing banks and Achievement of universal access to health On this note let me congratulate the investment institutions over these past care remains a distant dream in most poor Malawian Head of State, Dr. Bingu wa few months, in order to save them from countries. The world needs over 4 million Mutharika for nominating Joyce Banda, collapse? Why can’t the leaders of the skilled health care workers including a female Member of Parliament to be world do something similar to save large Nurses and Midwives to protect and save his running mate during the May 2009 portions of humanity especially women lives especially those of girls and women. General Elections. Involving women in and children from starvation, disease and Shortages are a challenge not only to high decision making offices will make a death? Is this not an important cause to developing countries, but globally. We difference to society at large and women support? need to provide: and children in particular. African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 5
  8. 8. Cover Story In terms of water and sanitation, 1 billion people especially women have no access to safe drinking water whilst 2.5 billion lack access to basic sanitation services. Campaign On Maternal We must increase assistance and support to scale up implementation of water and sanitation interventions for the poorest Mortality Launched and most vulnerable groups especially women. It is essential that efforts must be made to target those who entirely lack access to such basic services. We implore government leaders to provide strong leadership while involving stakeholders and providing political momentum to successfully attain the MDGs especially those that target women by 2015. Key strategies should include: • Increasing and retaining the number of well qualified health personnel including Nurses and Midwives. • Increasing availability and Part of the crowd that thronged carnivore grounds for campaign launch supply of drugs. K • Improving health and enyan anti-poverty campaigners Concert host, Kanjii Mbugua repeatedly educational facilities. have launched the “Piga Debe for called on the Kenyan government to take • equipment and improving Women Rights Campaign” at a well urgent action by investing more resources attended concert held at the Carnivore in health facilities and training of skilled financial management and grounds in Nairobi as part of mobilization health workers, particularly mid-wives • Accountability in all government for the International women’s day. and nurses. systems so that “It is not acceptable that every minute of services within public sector “Piga Debe” in Kiswahili means “make every hour of every day, women continue are financed adequately. a big noise” and draws its inspiration to die from preventable deaths. Our from women’s voices in Africa who have governments must do something to stop As you read this article, at least three repeatedly shouted over the years that this unnecessary loss of precious lives,” women have died giving birth. One per “Enough is enough, no more deaths in mourned Mbugua. minute, every hour, day, every week and child birth”. month of the year, over 500,000 women die Kanjii Mbugua drew applauses from the every year. An additional 500,000 women The concert which was hosted by crowd when he called on governments will die by 2015 due to unsafe abortions. renowned gospel musician Kanjii Mbugua, to enhance participation of women in Can we let this continue? featured Kenya’s top female artistes Wahu, key political positions noting that the Neema and Atemi who were chosen on commitments made in relation to the Failure to act with vigorous strength and this day to showcase success in breaking gender empowerment goal are far from down male domination through their being met. conviction represents a fundamental achievements, quest for independence, social injustice and a violation of basic entrepreneurship and persistence in the “I am certain that we would have less human rights, especially those of the harsh world of the arts. violence or wars and more development poor women and children of our society. in Africa if more women were given an History will be our judge. I urge all of us The Piga Debe” concert organized by opportunity to hold powerful government to act. the United Nations Millennium Campaign positions,” he said. Africa Office, Kijiji Records and the Global *DOROTHY NGOMA is a nurse midwife Call to Action Against Poverty (Kenya), Maternal mortality continues to be one and acts as one of the Global Call to Action symbolically kicked off a month long of the unconscionable human rights against Poverty campaign ambassador. She awareness campaign seeking to draw violations of our time, more than 500,000 is based in Malawi. attention of African governments to the women still die annually in pregnancy outrageous fact that thousands of women and childbirth. The vast majority of these continue to die needlessly during child deaths are preventable. birth. 6 African Development Dialogue January - April 2009
  9. 9. News Men Challenged To Eliminate Gender Inequality Motor vehicle theft is a non bailable offence in Zambia and so should be defilement crime, Parliament should be better placed to enact a law that will deter perpetrators from committing sexual atrocities against girls.’ Writes Nelson Banda* Z ambians have been challenged to to their lives and privileges or as attack saying “defilement should be unbailable promote equality between men and on their way of life but as an incentive offence and the minimum sentence for a women by supporting the recently for working towards achieving gender defiler should be 25 years “. unveiled Yellow Ribbon campaign. equality. Despite Zambia being a Signatory to Launched by the Zambia National Women The Yellow Ribbon campaign was the SADC Declaration and African ‘s Lobby Men ‘s Network Project, the launched during the 16 Days of Activism Union Protocol and other international campaign seeks to remind all that the and will be distributed to government instruments on the protection of women country’s leadership appended its departments, ministers, members of and girls, women and girls are constantly signature to the SADC and African Union Parliament and the President and his living in fear of being violated. Girls’ rights Principles on promoting gender equality. staff. are not respected, fulfilled, protected and promoted. The campaign will be targeting men to In a related event, the Men’s Network sensitize other men and boys, through Project in Zambia has handed over a As a response to the increasing number efforts that will capture their curiosity petition to Members of Parliament asking of defilement cases, the Men’s Network toward change. The Men’s Network them to enact appropriate legalisation on Project launched the petition in July recognises the importance to mobilise a defilement as a non bailable offence. The to collect 5000 signatures to petition mass of men to begin to challenge their petition with over 5000 signatures was Government to enact legislation so that attitudes and regard women as equal handed over to members of Parliament defilement crime becomes a non bailable partners. The campaign will add value to at Parliament Building during the 16 Days offence. changing the mindset of thousands of men Campaign. that gender equality is achievable. The Men’s networked argued that motor The Yellow Ribbon Campaign will be The Men’s Network was prompted to vehicle theft is a non bailable offence the largest men’s advocacy effort petition the MPs because of the increasing in Zambia and so should be defilement of mobilizing men on equality, equal number of defilement being reported in the crime adding that ‘Parliament will be participation and denouncing men‘s Zambian media According to the Young better placed to enact a law that will deter attitudes that disadvantage women. Women Christian Association, a total of perpetrators from committing sexual Wearing a yellow ribbon will be a symbol 184 defilement cases were recorded at atrocities against girls.’ of men’s opposition to gender inequality its Drop in Centre from January to March and a personal pledge to never commit, 2008 alone and another 70 cases were The petition was placed in strategic condone or remain silent about gender recorded in Kasama town, 850 kilometres places for people to sign such the church, inequality against women and girls. It will north of the capital, Lusaka. In additional, media houses, markets, banks schools. be a symbol of saying, “men of our time the University Teaching Hospital, the Members of the Network also went out believe in gender equality.” country‘s largest hospital records an on the streets as foot soldiers to collect average of 33 cases of defilement per signatures. Car Stickers with messages The yellow ribbon will be men‘s personal month. such as Make DEFILEMENT A NON commitment towards eliminating gender BAILABLE OFFENCE were printed and inequality, challenging men to speak out The Network charged that as victims of given to Members of Parliament. Nelson against gender barriers, beliefs, language physical and sexual abuse, girls suffer Banda is a journalist, sexual reproductive and negative attitudes that society has on long term physical, emotional and mental health counsellor and Coordinator of the women. The campaign is targeted at men damage that hinder their ability to learn Zambia National Women’s Lobby Men’s but will work in partnership with women and become effective leaders in their Network Project to create a society free of inequalities. communities. The Yellow Ribbon is a symbol of *Nelson Banda is a journalist, sexual educating young men and boys about the Outspoken members of Parliament of the reproductive health counsellor and importance of observing gender equality opposition Patriotic Front, Jean Kapata and Coordinator of the Zambia National Women’s and denouncing negative attitudes Chilufya Mumbi received the petition on Lobby Men’s Network Project against women and girls. Men should behalf of other parliamentarians. The two not perceive gender equality as a threat MPs have waged a war against defilers African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 7
  10. 10. News Stand Up Speak Out and Take Action Results in education are very disappointing. The government has not met many of its commitments in relation to Only 55.7% complete primary school MDGs, CSOs in Senegal are calling for global governments to act and for example. This means that many of show political commitment in relation to eradication of poverty, writes the children do not acquire the basic knowledge needed for advancement in Oumar Sow* society. Given some of these trends, some observers argue that Senegal will not achieve the goal of reducing poverty to 50% by 2015. Reports emanating from the World Bank and UNDP noted that only 38% of the MDGs targets would be achieved. It is in this vein that anti-poverty campaigners are calling for the accelerated achievement of MDGs by mobilising citizens to stand up against injustice and calling on political leaders to act to act in order extreme poverty and inequality. After three days of mobilisation which began on October 17, no less than eleven 11 events had been organized, ranging from panels, concerts, sporting events to Leveraging on the numbers mobilized in Senegal televised debates throughout the country, in four attracting almost 230 650 people S enegal’s regional capitals, The most affected are women, children who expressed their solidarity with the Saint-Louis, Dakar, Thies and and persons with special status such as campaign. Tambacounda hosted antipoverty the disabled. activities that were organised to celebrate One of the major highlight was the the 2008 World Day against, hunger, For example, the mortality rate among involvement of women in special poverty and inequality. children under 5 years remains high and mobilisation called “POTS”. Each is located at 121 per thousand, while the participating woman carried an empty Organising around the slogan: “STAND maternal mortality rate has stagnated pot, spoons, and an empty bag of rice UP and act together against poverty and at 401 deaths per hundred thousand live symbolizing hunger and the necessity of inequality”, Senegalese campaigners births in 2005. women’s access to land. highlighted social and political demands generated by civil society organizations * Oumar Sow works for GCAP Senegal monitoring the Millennium Development Goals Arguing that the government has not met many of its commitments in relation to MDGs, CSOs in Senegal are calling for global governments to act and show political commitment in relation to eradication of poverty and the ushering in of sustainable development. Senegal has more than five million people affected by extreme hunger and poverty. The final evaluation of the PRSP 2 based on the results provided by the recent survey on poverty in Senegal (ESPS) indicates that the proportion of individuals living below the poverty line decreased slightly Leading Kenyan artists Wahu and Jah Key Marley participate in from 57.1% in 2001 to 50.6% in 2005. cleaning a children home 8 African Development Dialogue January - April 2009
  11. 11. News Voices Against Poverty And Inequality T HE Stand Up and Take Action Against up for those who cannot Poverty concert which was held in speak for themselves. the sprawling Chitungwiza town, Let us spread awareness about 35km south of Harare, Zimbabwe’ of poverty particularly capital city was a huge success with top here in Chitungwiza local musicians driving the message home where access to basic on the need to eradicate extreme poverty health, water, food and with some lively performances. education is a problem to many.” The concert which was held to mark the World poverty Day, held every year His song ‘Zvichanaka’ on October 17, got off to a great start (things are going to be with the St Agnes Catholic Church Quoir alright) and a lively act churning out some powerful gospel tunes sent the audience wild that spoke about God’s unending love for and yearning for more. humanity –poor and rich. Jazz inspiration Victor Their enthusiasm for drumming and dance Kunonga wooed the “one of the best shows he’s ever had”, was contagious as much of the audience hearts of the mature with his fusion of and was moved to tears by Fungisayi’s got on their feet to join in one number. jazz, powerful drumming and traditional powerful gospel tunes. The little ones in the audience danced mbira rhythms. and enjoyed this concert which drew an The concert was held as part of the United enthusiastic audience of more than 5 000 “We must fight to end hunger and poverty. Nations Millennium Campaign initiative to people at Chitungwiza Town Centre. Let us join hands with others across the raise awareness on the importance of world to Stand Up and Take Action Against ending extreme poverty and reminding Top Zimbabwean gospel songbird, Poverty,” he said. world leaders to honour their pledge to Fungisayi Zvakavapano-Mashavave who Popular urban grooves group, MaFrik end poverty and suffering around the has won numerous accolades, won a tugged at the hearts of the young with world by 2015. standing ovation when she raised the their sing-along love songs spiced up with profile of poverty issues at the concert a passionate appeal to world leaders to Similar events were held worldwide with by her dance-along-tunes and vibrant adopt policies that will help the youth to calls for action against poverty and piling performance. realise their hopes and dreams. pressure on multilateral institutions and leaders in both rich and poor nations The renowned gospel singer told “Poverty is not good at all for us the to honour and exceed the Millennium thousands at the Town Centre that: “Even young generation. Lets fight it to help us Development Goals. if life is tough and the going is rough, God realise our dreams and talents,” said 2nga is with us. The God of the poor is with us. (Tunga), one of the Mafrik group member. In 2000, leaders of 189 countries signed Let’s put trust in Him to fight poverty.” the Millennium Declaration agreeing to do It was an unforgettable family concert everything in their power to end poverty. Her music was irresistible. The crowd that gave children, mothers and fathers They pledged to do this by achieving went wild when she belted her popular alike chance to mix and dance at a day the Millennium Development Goals, a songs. concert. roadmap to end extreme poverty by 2015. Another popular gospel artist, Pastor G, “This was a good show. It was inspiring Despite this, about 50 000 people still die thrilled the audience with his powerful and reminds us to think about the poor, the everyday as a result of extreme poverty. voice and energetic dances. He urged weak and sick and also the elderly. Most of people to take a firm stand in the fight us women cannot go to night gigs because “Poverty is worsening daily in Zimbabwe against poverty in Africa. we have so many responsibilities,” said and we as young people need to send a Agnes Moyo, of Chitungwiza. clear message to our leaders to remind “From the informal settlements of Kibera them about our plight,” said Nyarai in Kenya, to the informal settlements of “Day concert like this one give us an Mahachi, a high school student in Soweto in South Africa and Mbare in opportunity to see local artistes and Chitungwiza. “We are young but we can Zimbabwe, the hungry child in strife-torn also hear about issues on HIV and Aids, do it. We can spread the word and fight Darfur to Mabvuku in Zimbabwe without education, water problems and other poverty in our minds first before moving to water and Chitungwiza hit by cholera, issues affecting the town.” other issues.” let us join our hands in the fight against poverty,” he said as he took to the stage. Sam Makuwaza, a resident of Zengeza Sifelani Tsiko Southern African “We as entertainers urge you to speak in Chitungwiza described the concert as Correspondent based in Zimbabwe African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 9
  12. 12. Feature Migration as a tool for development The productivity and earnings of the migrants are potentially a significant force for poverty reduction and as such, well planned migration policy initiatives can help developing countries reach their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets, argues Michael Boampong* A ddressing international migration numbered 191 million in 2005. Of these, 115 societies throughout the world; it has also has undoubtedly become a pressing million lived in developed countries and underscored the clear linkage between issue not only for governments but 76 million in developing countries. The migration and development, as well as the also for a broad range of actors all over European Union Ghana Migration Profile opportunities for co-development.” the world. Many studies have suggested has established that in 2006, there were that whilst migration can cause brain about 189,461 Ghanaian migrants spread Remittances represent an important way drain to countries of origin for reasons across the Organization for Economic out of extreme poverty for a large number related to disparities in income levels Cooperation and Development (OECD) of people. Worldwide, flows of remittances and other economic conditions, properly countries. This represents 0.86 percent of were expected to reach $318 billion in managed migration can result in “brain Ghana’s total population of 22,113,000. 2007. Recorded remittances to developing gain” and other culminating benefits in countries are estimated to have reached the form of remittances and brain re-gain International migration has enormous $240 billion in 2007. Remittances are now upon the successful return of migrants. economic, social, and cultural close to triple the value of the Official The productivity and earnings of the implications in both origin and destination Development Assistance (ODA) provided migrants are potentially a significant countries. As noted in Kofi Annan’s report, to low-income countries and comprise the force for poverty reduction and as such, (former Secretary-General of the United second-largest source of external funding well planned migration policy initiatives Nations) on International Migration and for developing countries after Foreign can help developing countries reach Development (2006), “migration in the Direct Investment. their Millennium Development Goals context of globalization has not only (MDGs) targets. International migrants created challenges and opportunities for The estimated 3.6 million Africans in 10 African Development Dialogue January - April 2009
  13. 13. Feature the Diaspora are directly or indirectly human rights of irregular migrants are There are growing populations of Diaspora contributing to the achievement of the also a key issue here even when arrested communities in most developed countries Millennium Development Goals. The by the destination country. The Aeneas and it will be expedient on the part of remittances migrants send to their relatives Project, which is a project that is yet to Africa to see how its governments can or households in particular, sustain be implemented by the IOM International tap on the skills of Diaspora communities livelihoods through increased purchasing Organization for Migration with the by trying to promote their civic rights power for education, food, health, and support of the Ministry of Manpower Youth and responsibilities in their countries of other current needs of consumption; all and Employment and also the European origin. Promoting dual citizenship is very of which are key to reaching the MDGs Union (EU), is worth mentioning here. This important at this stage as it can increase through poverty reduction and the project is expected to help Ghanaians to the amount of commitment through enhancement of economic development. fill up job vacancies in Italy. donations to some critical areas of Whereas some people have migrated development by Diaspora communities. through legal forms, others have done so Governments must work to ensure that in a clandestine manner. Daily images are decent working and living conditions Since most migrants and as a matter portrayed – pictorially as well as verbally prevail in Africa so that potential of fact irregular emigrants prefer the – of the different accounts of the harsh migrants have the option to migrate or informal channel of sending remittances, realities confronting thousands of youths not to migrate. In this case the decision to there is the need for the banks in Africa of African descent staking attempts at migrate becomes a genuine choice. to design a regulatory framework that will finding the so-called greener pastures integrate the informal channels of sending in the Western countries, particularly Migration is key component of Goal eight - Global migrant remittances into the formal Europe and America. Partnership for Development. channels. Additionally, educating people on financial matters is a critical step in This begs us to ask more questions on It has also been affected by failures to the development process and is also why this situation has arisen. What are promote environmental sustainability and becoming important among remittance the driving forces and what can be done the negative consequences of climate recipients. to develop a partnership that can save the change. Distress migration is now on thousands of lives that are lost through the increase now due to environmental In conclusion, governments must design migration? degradation and catastrophic events such policies and programs that can manage as sudden loss of land caused by climate international migration and tap its During a study that was conducted extremes such as storm surges, thus positive benefits towards the accelerated recently by Young People We Care (YPWC) changing existing patterns of movement achievements of MDGs. and also a recent youth consultation on for goods and humans. It is important for Migration and Development towards both developed and developing nations to *Michael Boampong is the Director of Young the Global Forum on Migration and take steps to address the issue of climate People We Care in Ghana Development in the Philippines, there change to reduce the rate of climate were some interesting comments that change induced migration. some young people made. Young people recommended that governments should implement policies that encourage youths to stay and engage themselves in positive activities that can contribute to development of their country. National Youth Policies that entail strategies and programmes for developing the capacity of young people and also the creation of well paying jobs and good working conditions for young people are important in reducing the level of migration caused by unemployment or underemployment. Migration has grown into a global issue that requires a new set of progressive immigration policies that recognize peoples’ right to mobility. This includes streamlining and regularizing visa procedures. Governments should create Young people share their experiences during the 64th voyahe of the peace boat more legal channels for migration. The African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 11
  14. 14. Feature Africa’s Response to the Global Financial Crisis Representatives of the civil society in Africa and other stakeholders in the continent’s development met in Midrand, South Africa, from 23-24 February 2009, to critically engage on the nature and implications of the current global financial crisis on Africa as well as an all-inclusive Africa’s response. T hey observed that the current At the end of their deliberations, they put Furthermore, existing African global financial and economic forward the following recommendations: institutions should be capacitated crisis is a result of failure in the to better generate African- model of development, characterized by MACRO-ECONOMIC POLICY: owned knowledge, planning, excessive deregulation and liberalization Shared Growth & People-centred coordination and response to in all sectors of the economy. Africa development Africa’s special needs; has been nominally affected by the first generation impact of the financial crisis, 1. Realizing that the current global 4. A moratorium of African debt in part, because its financial markets are economic model and system has service payments should be insulated and not fully integrated into the not benefited the vast majority of emplaced and such funds put global financial system. Africans, particularly in the form into a facility managed by ADB of appreciable reduction in the that could address the short- However, Africa will be particularly hard level of poverty in Africa, there is term needs of highly indebted hit and is now facing an unprecedented the urgent need for a new people- African countries and to bailout crisis in the productive sectors of the centred macroeconomic policy the poor. Domestic savings economy as evidenced by pervasive framework, which puts people at from debt cancellation should reductions in growth targets, contraction the centre of economic planning, be invested in social services; of economic activities; reduction in export processes and development. However, the long-term goal of earnings and trade credits, remittances This approach, as a principle, African governments should be from the African Diaspora; divestments, should be mainstreamed into a comprehensive cancellation company closures; retrenchments and all facets of macro-economic of Africa’s debts to allow for increasing unemployment. This current policy by African Governments full economic recovery and the financial crisis has compounded the and their supporting institutions, meeting of the necessary socio- existing challenges and shocks caused with human development as end- economic needs of the African by high food and energy prices, which goal; people; have impacted on the African poor, particularly women, children and small- 2. Monetary and Fiscal Policy should 5. African countries should resist scale producers. African countries move beyond the excessive the temptation to relapse into will inevitably be unable to meet their focus on “stabilization” and heavy external debt as the risk of development goals, including the MDGs, if inflation-targeting and re-focus renewed indebtedness increases far-reaching political and socio-economic on promoting better conditions with the global economic restructuring is not undertaken, urgently. for domestic investment to downturn. They should consider create decent jobs, as well as creating sovereign funds as a They acknowledged and commended the shared growth that promotes means of addressing the liquidity Tunis Outcomes arising from the Meeting human development, stimulate crisis; of African Ministers of Finance/Economic local economic activity and Planning and Central Bank Governors, development and public spending 6. Diversification of the economic held in Tunisia on 12 November 2008, in critical social sectors; base, including promoting value through the joint initiative of the African adding industries in Africa is Union Commission, UN Economic 3. African countries must urgently needed to address the perennial Commission for Africa (UN-ECA) and create their own policy space to challenge of dependence on a African Development Bank (ADB). enable them to use appropriate few primary commodity exports fiscal and monetary policy and to meet the deficit created The group argued that the voice and views to fight recession induced by reduced export capacity/ of the African people should be heard and by the global financial and earnings in the medium to should complement the Tunis Process in economic crises. This option long term as Africa responds responding to this crisis in an all-inclusive will help counter the policy to this twin crisis of financial manner. They emphasized the need for restrictions placed on them by and economic nature. Such urgent and decisive actions by African the Bretton Woods institutions, value added production of base peoples, governments and institutions as which currently dominate and resources must be pushed well as development partners. control the global financial and enforced in addition to and economic architecture. retaining economic value of 12 African Development Dialogue January - April 2009
  15. 15. Feature African resources in Africa and multilateral trading system under AFRICAN INTEGRATION – promoting African SMEs; the WTO in order to strengthen Strengthening the African Union and facilitate Africa’s trade and its NEPAD Programme 7. Top priority should be given capacity, and finally increase, to agriculture for its crucial in real terms, intra-Africa trade 17. Africa must move rapidly role in food security and in and regional integration given towards putting in place a pan- providing industrial hub for the reduction in revenues from African economic governance agro-processing and agri- international trade in primary architecture that regulates all business, the strengthening commodities; financial institutions/systems, of Africa’s industrial base and capital flows and trade boosting capacity to create job SOCIAL AND HUMAN DIMENSION: relations; opportunities; Bailing out the Poor 18. As part of finding an alternative 8. Domestic resource mobilization 12. African Governments and to the present control by should become a critical arena their development partners, IFIs, Africa must strengthen of leadership and strategy for particularly G8/OECD countries, existing continental political/ Africa, in line with the AU/ should promptly and fully fulfill economic institutions as well as NEPAD priority strategies. Given their development commitments/ operationalizing and resourcing the high probability of reduced pledges for the benefit of African the financial governance aid, FDI inflows and fall-out people; structures identified in the on over-reliance on external Constitutive Act establishing sources for budget support, 13. Special targeted interventions the African Union, namely the Africa should embrace inward- should be taken to address the African Investment Bank (AIB), looking strategies, including the needs of the most vulnerable the African Monetary Fund utilization of local resources, groups through access to (AMF) and the African Central adding value to African credit, agricultural inputs, health Bank (ACB); commodities. A paradigm shift services and social protection. that will accompany this process These should be prioritized 19. African governments, with the is the resumption of domestic in the national budgets and support of African institutions, demand-led development development programs/plans to and in conjunction with strategy; reflect the new focus on people- stakeholders drawn from the centred macro-economic policy; private sector, labour, civil 9. The African State should return society, should undertake broad to its traditional development 14. Ongoing economic reforms assessment of the impact of role, with a more activist and in various African countries current economic crisis on their interventionist character, to need to be more pro-poor with national economic programs and protect the poor and vulnerable, initiatives such as public works plans, with a view to designing offer the much-needed programmes being implemented appropriate response strategies leadership, direction and to ensure greater employment to address the impact of the energy to the African people in opportunities; financial crisis; these critical times. Therefore, 15. African Governments should rebuilding the African State is urgently introduce where 20. At the regional level, each REC most fundamental, to avoid the applicable, and enforce should undertake assessment of syndrome of the failing or failed, appropriate regulations to the manifestation of the economic degraded or recovering State; protect the African citizens from crisis in the regions, especially harmful environment practices on resource mobilization, 10. African countries must as well as regulate the activities investment climate, good continuously evaluate their of multinational corporations governance, favourable trade partnership with the developed operating in Africa; regulations and diversification of and emerging development the economy and share results partners. The ‘BRIC’ countries 16. Concurrently,African there-from with all stakeholders; (Brazil, Russia, India and China) Governments and institutions do not necessarily present should eliminate waste, 21. RECs are further urged to protection from crisis, not corruption and leakages as incentivise and set up regulations withstanding the “alternative” part of the commitment to to encourage their member flavour of the relationship that enthrone better economic countries to buy from each other has been constructed; governance and management as a means of promoting intra- reflecting transparency, probity Africa trade and building the 11. Africa should vigorously pursue and accountability in public regional economy; trade-acceleration using the expenditure; African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 13
  16. 16. Feature 22. To fast-track continental the NEPAD Programme at this Role of Civil Society integration, African solidarity stage, African Governments and and collaboration is required to institutions as well as regional 30. Civil society to be one of the key confront global challenges and business groupings should players in the implementation place regional and continental provide substantial financial of these initiatives, at national, interests above individual support to AU/NEPAD-inspired regional and continental levels, needs. In this respect, ongoing special dedicated mechanisms recognizing the reality of the negotiations between Africa and facilities, including the structural constraints inherent and the European Union on IPPF, APRM, AFFM, ICF, CAADP in the regional and continental the Economic Partnership Trust Fund, African Action Plan bodies in Africa; Agreements (EPAs), should be and others. Such action by suspended forthwith, as this Africans will demonstrate their 31. Support and be actively process undermines and limits commitment to upholding the engaged in the efforts by African the African policy space; principle of an African-led and Governments to disseminate and owned development agenda; educate Africans on the impact 23. African institutions, particularly of this economic crisis, and in the AU Commission, GLOBAL FINANCIAL doing so, assist in discovering NEPAD Secretariat, African INSTITUTIONS: new ways of thinking and to Development Bank (ADB), Pro-developmentFinancial re-conceptualise the African African Export-Import Bank Architecture strategic approaches to these and their regional development issues; counterpart-institutions should 26. The Bretton Woods Institutions be strengthened, instead of and other IFIs must be 32. Africa to be proactive instead of creating new or parallel ones. restructured to make them more reacting to the global situation These institutions should be made democratic and accountable and for CSOs to set up task more democratic, responsive through increased African teams to support the leadership and accountable to Africans representation and elimination of role that the AU/NEPAD could and restructured to promote their current policy over-reach; play in confronting this crisis; intra-Africa trade and regional integration. Most importantly, the 27. Governance structures and 33. Bring Africa’s leadership together ADB should provide assistance appointment of the IMF/ to provide rescue plans to to African countries through World Bank executives should address the urgent development short to medium term measures, be premised on merit and issues associated with political as response strategy; democratic principles that reflect instability, financial/ and socio- the nature of the membership economic crisis; 24. To achieve this, regular and the present global economic assessment of African institutions reality; 34. Fashion out an active role for the should be undertaken to re- organized private sector across appraise their mandates, roles 28. African governments, private the continent in creating the and responsibilities in delivery sector and civil society should awareness on the magnitude and addressing the economic seek to use forthcoming forums of the crisis and its impact and crisis and Africa’s development of the G8/G20 to push the IMF/ implications at national and challenges; World Bank and other global regional levels, particularly players for a new global financial in relation to private sector 25. AU Commission and NEPAD architecture that is responsive development and public-private Secretariat to undertake, as soon to Africa’s needs, where African partnerships (PPP) ventures; as practicable, a comprehensive voice and views are taken into analysis of the direct impact of account in development policy 35. CSOs to also assist in informing the financial crisis on AU/NEPAD formulation and support by the policy making, through continued priority programmes/projects and Bretton Woods institutions; dialogue and coordination with the sectoral strategies/action public sector to provide inputs of plans, to ensure that alternative 29. G8/OECD countries should strategy and insights. and innovative methods honour their recent pledges not are sourced to support the to reduce official development continuation of these programs, assistance (ODA) as a result of in the event that partnership the global financial crisis, and support wanes. Specifically, instead increase aid to meet while encouraging a technical the international development review of the implementation of targets, including AU/NEPAD and MDGs; 14 African Development Dialogue January - April 2009
  17. 17. Feature Africa resists EPAs Agricultural sectors have been greatly weakened by hasty and excessive trade liberalization that has allowed cheap and illegally subsidized imports, often from Europe, to wipe out domestic production even in their home markets. Writes Mwaura Kaara* E vidence is mounting, right Added to the devastation of inflation is warned that accepting EU’s insistence that across the world, of the extreme the threat of looming global recession. Pacific Island (and other ACP) countries destructiveness of maintaining and The slowdown of economies is starting should remove protection of the infant upholding unbridled so-called ‘free market and spreading from the main Western industries within 20 years will remove “our economics’ as the only method and means economies. Major European economies, space to give time for our infant industries of organizing and managing economies. the most important single destination of to mature before entering what is going Governments in Africa, the Caribbean and ACP exports will slowdown. As the British to be a very competitive global trading the Pacific(ACP) who are in the middle government now openly admits, it is faced environment [and] will retard industrial of negotiating Economic Partnership with its worst economic crises in 60 years. development in our countries. Giving up Agreements (EPAs) must draw the fullest Inevitably, this downturn will also mean a this right forever will be the highest price lessons of this in any decisions they take drop in demand for ACP exports. Market we will pay and we just simply cannot to manage and address their economic failure and inflation threatens to wipe out afford that”. As there is no ‘sunset’, i.e. no relations and challenges, such as the fuel the relative growth that many ACP primary time limit, on the duration of the EPAs, the price crisis, the fallout of global financial commodity exporters have enjoyed in just word “forever” is like eternal damnation. crisis and the relentless price inflation in the last few years, while intensifying the EPAs will prevent and paralyze the basic food that have engulfed hundreds competition they face. development, industrialization and of millions of people in their countries, diversification of ACP economies forever. bringing many to the brink of renewed Already, ACP share of trade in the EU, threat of starvation and sparking turmoil their single most important market, has Aid will also dry up as the advanced and food riots across these regions. fallen relative to other competitors. As economies bail out their financial sectors a September 2008 UN report on Africa’s from the excesses of liberalization. The Trade justice activists are now arguing performance under trade liberalization EU has made it clear that there is no that one of the lessons must be the shows – Africa’s export market share has new substantive ‘aid’ to address EPA renunciation of the free trade ‘Economic dropped from 6% to 3% of world trade since implementation and adjustment costs. Partnership Agreements’ between the the 1980s, the self-same period that trade Rather they insist that ACP countries make ACP and the European Union (EU). Indeed, liberalization and structural adjustment up the cost by introducing and imposing ACP economies face unprecedented and were ruthlessly brought to power and reforms on their suffering populations extreme economic challenges in the installed as one-party dictators in the – including tax reforms that target the coming period. This is the worst time to continents economic policy regime. As informal sector and the consumption of institutionalize free trade regimes even with all dictatorships we were told: “there goods and services by working people more deeply and fundamentally than they is no alternative”. EPAs are a continuation and the poor. This must be set against have already taken root. and not an alternative to the disastrous the fact that EPA measures to eliminate trade performance of developing regions trade taxes and to further liberalize and The majority of ACP states are among due to sweeping trade liberalization. reduce taxation on ‘investors’ means that those whose productive Agricultural the tax burden for EU commodities and sectors have been greatly weakened by The disaster of such loss of market share multinational companies is eliminated or hasty and excessive trade liberalization cannot be compensated for by making reduced, while more taxation of the ACP that has allowed cheap and illegally the protection of marginal preferences poor is introduced or increased. EPA will subsidized imports, often from Europe, for ACP primary commodity exports to increase poverty and inequality within to wipe out domestic production even EU markets the heart of ACP trade and the ACP and between the ACP and other in their home markets. Because of such economic policy – as the whole world regions, especially the EU itself. liberalization, too many ACP economies knows the value of those preferences are have transitioned from relative food self- being eroded every day, because of global The regressive tax reforms are among the sufficiency to food import dependency in lowering of tariffs in the WTO and through ‘conditions’ for EU disbursement of their an extremely short time. Such economies bilateral free trade agreements. By making part of their ‘contribution’ to ‘mitigate’ the will have no protection whatsoever from a virtue of this necessity of ‘preferences’ cost of adjustment and implementation the imported inflation – through food for ACP primary products, EPAs offer no of EPAs for ACP countries. No doubt imports – that is already wrecking, and means of addressing ACP loss of market falling ACP government revenue from will continue to wreck lives in the ACP share, i.e. ACP marginalization, in world trade and customs duties will add to their regions, which are amongst the poorest trade and the world economy. dependence on aid. But this ‘aid’, as we in the world. EPAs will increase this have seen, will not be forthcoming. EPAs vulnerability. In addition, such imports Moreover, ACP marginalization is also due will increase ACP aid dependency and EUs will continue undermine what remains of to a failure to diversify ACP economies use and abuse of aid conditionality - even local production even further, over the and exports. Only this week in Brussels, as they cut aid flows. The danger of this longer term. And: EPAs will make this trade delegations from the Pacific region increase and abuse of ‘aid conditionality’ permanent. African Development Dialogue January - April 2009 15