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Hrd & organisational effectiveness Hrd & organisational effectiveness Document Transcript

  • 1 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS BY P.RAMA RAO Professor and Head (Retired) Department of Psychology University of Madras Chennai- 600005 Prof. P.Rama Rao, PhD, 48/4, Surya Apartments, Welcome Colony, Anna Nagar Western Extension, Chennai, 600101, Telephone: 9841759390, E-mail: palamandrr@yahoo.com
  • 2 Dedicated to my wife Jayalakshmi Palamanda who Has been my companion For over five decade
  • 3 Preface There is a deepening and pronounced interest in human development process. Lifespan psychologists have particularly followed the process of development tracing and elaborating several stages and have described how each stage merges with the next stage as a natural process... Each stage of development makes new demands. Successful adjustment to these demands is a healthy sign. These adjustments come naturally and people by and large experience no difficulty in the process. Flexibility and adaptability are the hall marks of normal development. This makes transition from one stage to another smooth and effective. Psychologists have long recognized individual differences and affirm uniqueness and at the same time accept common base line among individuals in behaviour. If this is the general pattern in large social settings certain narrower social settings call for special attention specific to the situation not necessarily linked to stages of human development, namely childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. Academic achievement, achievement in social life, and achievement in occupational life are examples. This book concerns itself in the development of persons in their occupational life. The term “human resource” is used in a broad sense, and sometimes in a restricted sense when it is referred to a given behaviour setting Business enterprise or any other organization uses the term human resource in a narrow sense similar to any material resource. The development of human resource makes human behaviour effective related to the behaviour setting. Therefore there seems to be a link between organization and the development of human resource. The development of
  • 4 human resource enhances the effectiveness of the organization. We are landing on a sticky situation. We are finding ways and means of enhancing the level of human resource and thereby enhance the effectiveness of the organization. The aim is that both the individual and the organization should become effective and thereby derive benefit. This would result in the economic growth of the society. I would raise the issue whether we are getting close to mechanistic view of the human element, which could be developed and used. To move away from such a possible criticism we have to consider that human resource development is for the benefit of both the employees and the organization. Accepting the fact that human resource development program is a reality I wish to make a point that such a program cannot exist in isolation or to the exclusion of the organization. The two are inseparable. The employee and the organization are willing partners in the program. The book is divided into 15 chapters. I have made each chapter short enough for readability by eschewing narrative style. If we scan the decades of second half of 19th century we notice attitudinal changes among experts. Earlier experts were of the view that financial incentives coupled with changes in work methods were all that was needed for enhancement of performance level. Then the awareness of recognition of social factors, and a host of motivational theories for enhancement of level of performance was realised Today we are seriously considering human resource development. The 15 chapters reflect this orientation. Then there is the emphasis on research and development in this all-important area. I have added a separate chapter on research needs in human resource development. I recommend the establishment of a separate R&D department in every organization on a permanent basis. This department should have efficiency experts and psychologists who continually update knowledge in this vital area.
  • 5 In Chapter XIV Exercises for illustration are included with permission from Dr. Mrs. Parvathi, Head, Department of Psychology, and University of Madras. The completion of my endeavour in writing this book leaves me in a deep debt of gratitude. My wife Jayalakshmi Palamanda rendered me enormous support. My grand daughter, Vidya Palamanda helped me by typing the manuscript neatly. She is well versed in the use of the computer. Hope this book will be useful to many beginning students in this special area and to large numbers of students pursuing higher studies and research scholars. My gratitude to all experts in the field whose contributions I have cited. Place: Chennai P.Rama Rao Date:
  • 6 CONTENTS Fore Word. Preface Chapter I Introduction Human Resource Historical perspectives Human resource as an asset An Overview Training programmes. Training needs. Chapter II the Organization –Representative Views The Classical Theory The Work Group Group Dynamics More on Creativity
  • 7 Risk-Taking Behaviour Passage of time and temporal perspectives Chapter III Personality components in Human Behaviour Job Requirements, personnel specifications. Personality Coefficient of Stability Coefficient of validity Specifications based on Judgment. Introduction to use of personality tests Test Validation The Trait Approach The Psycho Analytic Approach Social-Learning Theory of Personality Humanistic Approach to Personality
  • 8 Chapter IV Abilities as Human Resources Introduction Test Construction Basic human abilities Chapter V Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Introduction How do we Structure Attitude Change Message Job Satisfaction Behaviour Related to Job Satisfaction Measurement of Job Satisfaction Chapter VI Motivation Brief Historical Note Motivation and Specialty Areas Specific Terms and Assumptions Relation of Emotion to Motivation Success, Failure, Causal Believes and Need For Achievement Achievement Motivation
  • 9 Motivation and Environment Chapters Chapter VII Organizational Psychology: Motivation and Behaviour Cognition Conation Affection Fear of failure Fear of success Rational: Economic Man Goal – Activity Environmental Factors Theory X and Theory Y Motivation: Hygiene Theory Chapter VIII Performance Appraisal Personality Traits and Job Performance Methods of Performance Appraisal
  • 10 Chapter IX Leadership Behaviour Introduction Position The Person The Process Behaviour Dimension of Leadership Effectiveness: The Effective Leader Personality Traits Motivational Traits Leadership Effectiveness- An Assessment – Three-dimensional Model – Organization Effectiveness Chapter X Personality Introduction Personnel Selection Personnel Specification
  • 11 Chapter XI Psychology Tests and Their Use Introduction Research into intelligence Abilities Creativity The Creativity Process Chapter XII Employee Selection – Induction Introduction Psychological Tests Ethical Issues in Personnel Selection Chapter XIII Human Resource Development Introduction Motivation
  • 12 Chapter XIV Research Needs in Human Resource Development Introduction Reliability Validity Variables, Definitions Exercises Ethics and Responsibilities of Psychologists Chapter XV Synthesis and Summary APPENDICES List of References Suggested Reading
  • 13 LIST OF TABLES Cattel‟s 16 Personality Factors Abhidamma Mental Factors Herzberg‟s Two Factors Variables Leader Qualities McGregor‟s Theory X and Theory Y Giselle‟s Management Success Factors LIST OF FIGURES Management process Behavioural goal directed – five steps Moderate probability of success and high motivation strength 3 – D managerial style Types of reinforcements Endowment – environment relationship in development
  • 14 CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION Physiological discoveries provided the important breakthroughs for development of psychology. Experimental psychology can be considered as the product of union of philosophy and physiology. Physiology brought the physiological data and more importantly scientific method to psychology. Scientists from other disciplines have made important contributions to the development of psychology. The physicist Fechner who was also a medical doctor and a philosopher spent a lot of his time investigating the relationship between the objective physical world and the subjective personal world. Several others may be mentioned as significant contributors to psychology in its early formative period. In 1879 formal academic psychology came into being. Wilhelm Wundt trained in medicine, physiology, and philosophy initiated the first formal psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. Unity in psychology as a unitary science during early periods got decomposed into several distinct schools of psychology, each with stubborn and staunch leader. Francis Galton initiated mental testing and works in this area continued and expanded with the works of Binet, Spearman, and a number several scholars in this significant area. Mental testing at that time and immediately thereafter had a long list of areas such as intelligence, aptitudes, creativity, and other cognitive aspects of human behaviour. Subsequently non- cognitive areas such as personality, motivation and allied areas
  • 15 stepped in asking for psychologist‟s attention. Efforts were afoot for understanding the dynamics of all these. The list of psychological functions under measured categories is very long and diversified. Psychology developed deep roots in fundamental research and theory building endeavours. Main objective was to understand human behaviour in various behaviour settings. Convergence of objective and subjective attributes in relation to human behaviour came to be accepted as a reality. However, psychology without losing grounds in fundamental research diversified into application interests in several areas of human behaviour and behaviour settings. Professional psychologists in applied and fundamental areas of interest developed interactional relationships providing a rewarding progress in both streams. The mutuality and reciprocity are evident in the form attainments in both areas. HUMAN RESOURCES It is difficult to define "Human Resource." A resource is an asset that is available for use when needed. Material resources can be easily identified in terms of quantity and quality. Human resource is distinct from other forms of resources because it is behaviourally a variable factor. Resources like equipment or other material are behaviourally constant and could be manipulated according to the needs of the user without invoking unpredictable or invisible reactions from them. But human resource is very distinct from the material resources. It is too complex a resource to be adequately defined and manipulated at will. At best we can say that it is a set of interrelated assets, ready for use, and has a potential for training and development.
  • 16 As already mentioned human resource is a complex set of interrelated assets possessed by an individual at a given point in time. We have to identify every one of them in a closed system of assets or skills the totality of which can be brought under the rubric of human resources. Psychologists have long recognized the reality of individual differences in behaviour. And it cannot be different in the context of human resources. The fact of individual differences in skills already present and nature of reactions when subjected to training or utilization confronts us as a formidable problem. Emphasis on individual differences in every aspect of human behaviour has to be given its place. Individual oriented industrial psychology with emphasis on economic benefit of human endeavour gave the impression that a diligent management can by proper work methods and proper arrangement of work related environment could enable workers to minimize work effort and maximize work output. This did not survive long. Principles of scientific management of F.W. Taylor and time and motion studies of Gilbreth had their relevance at that point in time. But progress made in psychological research and theory enabled us to move forward. Next we moved on to human relations concept in work environment with the advent of Hawthorne studies of Elton Mayo and his collaborators. Later motivational theories came to dominate the scene. By then we had come a long way. We will revert back to these developments in later sections. A closer and a deeper look at the past events that are consigned to history will enable us to look forward to the future. A well thought out present makes past meaningful and the future purposeful. The meaning of work as a form of human activity is changing very rapidly. The work behaviour in an organizational set-up remains the most critical dimension of human behaviour. Therefore it is crucial to study “work” that takes place in organizations
  • 17 systematically based on psychological methodology. We have to have new perspectives of work and work place in the modern cyber age. Global communication today facilitated by electronic transmission which connects individuals regardless of geographical location almost instantaneously. The meaning of work as a form of human behaviour is changing yet for another reason as well. The changes in economic policies the entire world over to free market and globalise economy has its impact on human work related behaviour. The impact is not only economic aspirations but also very much the experiential aspect of work and work ambience. Therefore work needs to be conceived and defined differently than hitherto done. A new look is warranted. Work by itself has objective connotations but experiential aspect of work is subjective. Work setting refers to physical and social situations. Experiential aspect of work situation is the result of interaction between work settings and the individual. The very evolution of work from simple to complex form both in quality and quantity presents many ramifications to both work and the persons at work. Human resource development (HRD) programmes are not new really. Only that we have to reformulate the same to suit the new context of modern socio-economic ambience of the electronic age. The computer, the 20th century marvel has its impact on work with all its physical aspects and on the individual with all his subjective experiences. The interaction between the two renders HRD programmes very complex. Handled diligently HRD programmes can provide marvels for all concerned. Historical Perspective It was recognized long ago that people vary in general intelligence and special abilities. It was even suggested that attempts should be made to discover each individual‟s special
  • 18 bent in order to give him suitable training. Industrial psychology could not make a beginning until psychology could assert itself as an experimental science with a methodology of its own and attained a scientific status. This happened in the second half of 19th century. A prominent personality who could be considered as one of the first in the field is F.W.Taylor. His colleagues called him „Speedy Taylor.‟ He made attempts to get an entry of experimental psychology to problems of industry. He was not a psychologist. He carefully planned and executed a study of how to get the maximum from a worker with minimum energy input. This opened an avenue for enhancing efficiency of the worker by scientifically arranging the work and organizing its execution. He proposed three basic principles which came to be known as principles of scientific management they .are: To select the best men for the job To induct him in the most efficient methods To give incentives in the form of higher wages to the best workers The second of the three principles is a rudiment of training programme that can result in worker development. The outcome of this laborious work in testing the above three principles raised a few question. They are: What is the nature of man as an individual, and what if any, are his basic needs? What is the nature of man as a social animal, and how does he relate himself to society? What is the nature of industry, and how far does it fit in with what we know of man as a human being both socially and individually?
  • 19 Another landmark of importance is Time and Motion Studies (Gilbreth & Gilbreth, 1911). This was a significant contribution from the point of view of economy of energy input in executing a work. This was also as in the case Taylor proved to be more of work output rather than worker as a key element. This refers to job design for efficient work. Emphasis was the job. Both approaches give the impression that man is like any other machine to be manipulated for higher production. This is in spite of their apparent recognition of what was then called human nature. But any discerning critic could see the mechanistic concept of work and worker combination. Hawthorne studies heralded a very much different perspective of man and work. The 19th and early 20th century approach to men at work was essentially directed towards amount of production. The principles of management of Taylor and time and motion studies of Gilbreth do create such an impression. The second decade of 20th century saw a new realization that non-material factors operate which motivate the workers in good measure. But wage rise and other forms of material incentives were given high prominence in both Taylor‟s and Gilbreth‟s formulations. Hawthorne studies heralded a new thinking where worker gets his due place in the totality of work. Financial gains are both for the organization and the worker. In this triangle worker stands out prominently. Thus the 20th century gave birth to new thinking. Hawthorne studies, which started in 1927 under the leadership of Elton Mayo of Harward University, were a full-fledged field experimental study. There are five studies one leading to the other. They are: Experiments on illumination Relay assembly test room experiment:
  • 20 Second relay assembly test room Mica splitting test room Mass interviewing programme Bank wiring observation room Personnel counselling Blum and Naylor (1968) state that Hawthorne Studies are significant because they represent an honest effort to understand employees instead of approaching the problem from purely management point of view. The studies have brought out social aspect in work setting. Training the Worker In the past training confined to teaching the worker the mechanism of operating a machine. Industries themselves were mostly man-machine combination. In modern days training implies much more than mechanical skills related to a job. It is not shop floor worker alone subjected to training programmes but also those in higher hierarchical positions. Training for development and not merely for performing a task became the motto of organizations. Several methods were evolved making use of rapid strides made by psychologists both in fundamental research and applied research. In the present context of HRD area applied research relates men and work. The training programs are specially geared to human resource development. Human Resource as Asset As already mentioned human resource is a distinct form of resource compared to material resources. The asset character of human resource is highly complex. It involves subjective
  • 21 experiences and individual differences in skills and abilities besides, personality, temper, temperament, and many other personal qualities If we consider human resources as assets we should be able to devise methods to quantify and measure the same. However human asset value does not yield a value of standard return as material resources do. It may be possible to use the concept of performance effectiveness for those employees whose work cannot be measured directly. It is possible in such cases performance effectiveness index can be devised using psychometric methodology. Organizational performance effectiveness evaluation should be based both on productivity and various intervening variables. More will come about this later. If the importance of intervening variables is accepted then we can assume that developing human resources becomes a possibility. Qualities like leadership, motivation, communication, and problem solving skills to mention a few become part of human resource development programme. The organization‟s aim is enhancement of performance effectiveness both quantitatively and qualitatively with emphasis on personal (the job) satisfaction Expectation  Intervening variables  Performance level The intervening variables play a very important role in performance level overriding expectations made by the management. These intervening variables have two locations. They operate in the management who make expectations and also in the personnel who are to respond to these expectations. In that sense it is complex process. The expectation may have a spiralling effect. The spiralling effect may be negative or positive. Therefore it is advantageous to make an assessment of both these factors. Because enhancing positive aspects in both sources of intervening variables will definitely be rewarding.
  • 22 An Overview Work behaviours are affected both by organizational factors and worker factors. There are factors, which can enhance work ego. There are methods for enhancing work performance and at the same time generate positive experiential aspects of work on workers. All these are multidimensional issues and psychology is a dominant dimension. Sociological, anthropological, and economic dimensions have their role to play in this regard. Interest in work behaviour is not new. But a systematic appreciation, and evaluation for work effectiveness is recent. Work effectiveness should be understood both from the point of view of high-level performance and worker psychological satisfaction. Human resource development programme is to be directed toward both these aspects. This is so because development is a dynamic process and not just a matter of growth, the latter is a mechanical process. If the aim is the latter the outcome is destined to be consumed to archives as happened to principles of management of Taylor and time and motion studies of Gilbreth. Success is at best short lived. Scientific study of human behaviour in the work setting has its origin in industrial psychology. All the work of Taylor, Gilbreth, Munsterberg, McKean Cattel, and others did illuminate but the euphoria was short lived. The influence of the World War I had its impact on later development in the field. But one crucial field- experimental study of Mayo and his collaborators did pave the way for future development of industrial psychology. This work began in the mid 1920s and ended six years later due to economic depression all the world over. But fortunately by
  • 23 that time the impact of these studies showed the path for further development of study of human behaviour in work setting. The 1930s produced some significant development as a consequence of labour movement. Management-labour conflicts created a need for studying job satisfaction. A trend of utilization of services of psychologists in industries was witnessed. World War II had its share of influence on further growth of science and psychology was one of them. Psychology came to the foreground in this important area of human behaviour. Psychological tests sprang up. Training methods came to be systemized. We also saw a dominant theoretical interest in American psychology in 1940s. Social and motivational aspects in job performance came to be incorporated into leadership training as a result of Hawthorne studies. Lewin‟s action research and theory of group dynamics almost swept the floor. There occurred a growth in psychological literature in the form of books and scientific journals. The number of companies using psychological tests increased from 14% in 1939 to 75% in 1952(Barite, 1960). Thousands of special courses and services were offered on the nature and meaning of leadership. The decade between 1955 and 1965 was a period of severe test for psychology. Industrial psychology was attacked by a variety of sources. One such source was psychologists themselves. These psychologists who were not committed to management point of view in looking at organizations and their functioning expressed their opinion that psychologists were becoming technical assistants to personnel management. Yet another criticism was that the tools developed by psychologists did not meet the claim of practical usefulness.
  • 24 The thinking that job satisfaction enhances production effectiveness was also disputed and even found not fully true. The correlation could not be established. Finally it was felt that perspectives of industrial psychology were not adequate. The need for incorporating changes in organizations was mainly fitting men to jobs. This was not practicable because workers are governed by social, sociological, social psychological and anthropological factors. These are to be reckoned with and incorporated into psychological perspectives. Study of human behaviour itself is inter - disciplinary and in the context work setting it cannot be different. The focus in this book is human resource development. This can be realized only when we understand human behaviour in organizations. This later mentioned goes by the name Organizational effectiveness (OE). Therefore we can say human resource development in an organization is by the organization for the organization through its employees. Basic Issues in Training Within a certain limited constraints imposed by heredity, by and large behaviour is acquired or learned. Individuals, when they join an organization as employees, bring with them their own repertoire of behaviours including physical skills, temper, temperament, character, interests attitudes, habits, idiosyncrasies, and a variety other behaviour dispositions. Now that they have joined an organization as employees they will have to acquire some knowledge and additional skills to fit into the needs of the job that they have to perform. This acquisition of new learning happens in two ways. They are day-to-day work experience and advantages of systematic training.
  • 25 Day-to-day work experience is a non-stop continuous process. This is one of the most effective ways of developing expertise in some jobs. But many jobs require systematic and well-planned training programmes for mastery in addition to day-to-day work experience. Systematic training programmes provide for expertise and has a definite advantage over the day-today work experience based learning. The latter has some inherent weaknesses. This is because it is time consuming and may not afford the best foolproof opportunity. The jobs themselves may be poorly planned. Therefore, emphasis is on a systematic training program not as a replacement of day- today- work experience, but as a strong supplement and a complement. The content of the training programme depends upon the need and purpose. However we may broadly state them as: The development of actual job knowledge and skills The transmission of information or orientation training The modification of attitudes or attitude changes towards work or the job on hand and work environment – both physical and social in terms of sensitivity and psychosocial skills are the need. The training programme irrespective of its purposes should establish on sound principles and practices conducive to learning process. These principles, which are basically psychological, should take into account sociological and cultural anthropological background of not only the individuals under a training program, but it should also take into account the geographical location of the organization. Training is a process; it is an activity of the organization, which puts its employees on high level of skills and performance effectiveness. Therefore any management, which
  • 26 carries out a training program, expects behaviour change related to job in question. These change if any can only be inferred by noting the difference between before exposure to training and after. The success of training depends upon training plan and execution, motivation and abilities of the trainees The Training Program Employee induction: It is typically an orientation program. The entrant learns about the organization and people in it. On-the-job training: This is used in helping the on the job employee to learn the job organized in a systematic manner or on a catch-catch- can basis. . Off- the job training: this covers a wide range of training activities, namely, vestibule training for specific jobs, and supervisory and management training, Out–side training: Training arranged with outside experts from universities, and other professional organizations have to arrange. Training Needs Prior to starting a training program a given organization should identify its training needs. The organization is committing its resources in terms of time and money. This requires a proper direction. Any organization expects change in their employees as a result of exposure to training program. The training program should support the organizational goals. These goals briefly stated are: greater efficiency in work, reduction of operational costs, improved quality in goods and services, and effective and affable interpersonal relations within the
  • 27 organization. Modification of employee behaviour through training program should be beneficial to the employees and the organization. This should also make it possible for better performance of those who are deficient in their work. In the totality of the training program the all-important aspect of personal development of the employees should have a recognizable priority. This besides all other benefits so far presented gives the organization an imperceptible but an important advantage of being noticed by all others outside it. Personnel development training program will be useful to workers and to the organization both in short term and long term goals. In the fast changing socio-economic scenario a demand for extending such a program is visible. The extending of training programs to less efficient workers serves its own purpose serving both the organization and the employees do not face a lay-off situation.
  • 28 CHAPTER – II THE ORGANIZATIONS- A FEW REPRESENTATIVE VIEWS Industrial organizations have a long past. Several writers have contributed to organizational theories, both classical and traditional There are differences among them, but in one sense they had a common factor that is, all of them were on a similar ground These can be stated as assumptions of human nature. They all had similar views on human nature, and the nature of work details. They had similar views on quality of work environment. They all knew that an organization operates within such a framework. Every organization strives to make itself an effective organization. The Classical Theory Etzioni (1964) made a significant contribution in the form of administrative theory with division of labour as its main thesis. The assumption is that any job can be broken down into simple components. Workers could specialize in these components and each individual worker can carry out his part of the job efficiently. This is division of labour and is supposed to enhance efficiency as the worker can specialize and master his part of the job. The worker could attain a good amount of skill in his part of the job. Therefore we can safely assume that organizational effectiveness will be high. But the authority to effect this division of labour should be the central authority following a central plan of action. Then there should be a plan to supervise each work unit, which may consist of 5-6 workers. Each such unit needs a supervisor. These are called first line supervisors each with a manageable span of control. These supervisors need to be supervised by second line supervisors each with a manageable number of supervisors. Thus a pyramid is developed with the ultimate authority at the helm of the pyramid. This
  • 29 is the pyramid of control leading to the top executive. This results in one central authority controlling the whole organization. Can this classical administrative theory make for an effective organization? It can be seen from this theory that practical problems do arise. Division of labour as envisaged in the classical administrative theory makes room for simple repetitive tasks for the workers to carry out and that too under close supervision. Max Weber developed a theory based on his view of human behaviour. Weber was a sociologist He was also of the opinion that all tasks should be broken down to smallest possible units. Division of labour should be carried and experts should be responsible for this. There should be a consistent system of abstract rules that could ensure uniformity. Accountability rests with the superior officer. Employment in the bureaucratic organization should be based on qualifications (Weber, 1947). Classical theories as brought out above can defy human logic and essentially oppose psychological aspects. Practical application of division of labour and fragmentation of tasks into mini tasks can lead to repetitive, monotonous simple tasks which do not agree with practicality. The avowed purpose of specialization of classical theory is disputable and better methods can lead to more meaningful specialization of a complex and absorbing nature. Specialization should lead to efficient economic activity. Traditional theories argue that efficiency is increased if personnel are in a strict hierarchical order. Whether this hierarchical argument satisfies the criterion of specialization as specialization cannot fit into organizational hierarchical system, as specialists are in their own place in the total organizational structure.
  • 30 The traditional organizational model leads to in-group and out-group feelings. Workers tend to identify themselves with matters relating to their own sub groups which can breed inter–sub–group tensions. Therefore we can surmise that such orientations towards parts lead to negative outcome and particularly lower creativity and heighten inter group conflict. Dependence on the superior at every step, i.e., the approval of superiors in the organization could curb motivation and creativity. Hierarchical organization has high potency for curbing creativity. Creativity, by its very definition is the development of new, socially useful ideas that are not likely to occur where approval of superiors is needed at every step the workers have to take. What then would be the liabilities of hierarchical structure of organizations? There can be a long list of negative impact on creativity. In order to make the issue clear Argyris (1964) suggested behavioural implications which may be summarized as below The traditional theory lays emphasis on rules, hierarchical authority and external control, i.e., external workers in the form of superiors. The workers will eschew risk taking and experimenting. They tend to play safe. Avoid new inputs. Avoid trusting others. Avoid owning responsibility in future and try to find scapegoats. In an ever-growing society creativity has the prime place. Traditional theory hardly encourages it. In addition it encourages passivity, dependency, and low level self- perceived competence.
  • 31 An organization is not many interrelated subsystems, but it is only a human social system. There cannot be a rigorous administrative mechanism of hierarchical order where every one has a superior and is dependent on him. . We have seen in Chapter I, Introduction, the sequence of historical events, which led us to make organization as a serious topic of study. We have also seen how a study of organization and human behaviour of work is interdisciplinary. Study of organizations is a combination of psychology, management, sociology, anthropology, mathematics and economics. An organization has the following characteristics: The pyramidal shape increases interpersonal competitiveness. The hierarchical distribution of authority encourages dependency. Any big task can be broken down to simpler components. Large sized organizations have difficulty in communications. All these as shown earlier in this chapter curb individual autonomy and create submissiveness.
  • 32
  • 33 Organizing Planning Human resource development Management Grievance setting Controlling Team building Coordinating Showing economic development Administering Relating to external environmental Figure 1: Management Process The Work Group Every worker works within the framework of an organization, but he spends some part of his working time in a work group. There are certain important characteristics in a work group that does influence the workers. Hawthorne studies amply brought this out. There are certain unique aspects, for example size of the group.
  • 34 Porter and Lawler (1965) have shown that group size tends to be negatively related to performance. But decreasing the size of a work group is not that easy. Any given work group should have enough abilities and resources demanded by the job. We have to strike at an optimum number of persons needed to accomplish a task. Increasing the number to more than the optimum leads to greater emotionality and aggression, this is so because presence of too many people in the group leads to a sense of insecurity and increases fear of negative evaluation. But then large groups have become a reality and we have to learn to live with them and make them better. We should have some mechanism to convert the negative impact of largeness of a group to positive impact. Then we are confronted with problems and variation within a group large or small. There is the homogeneity aspect of a group. In creative work heterogeneity is better than homogeneity as a group character and is more desirable. Then there is the issue of how members communicate among themselves and the different communication structures. Group communication structure has been a topic of interest for psychologists. The practical side of this interest is how it influences work performance. Communication can be centralized or decentralized. It could be open democratic style of communication or centralized one-way communication where the leader is the dominant figure. Psychologists are especially interested in the individual‟s participation in organizational social systems which we call groups. The term group has a rather specific definition in social psychology. It refers not only to a plurality of number of individuals, but specifically to a number of individuals as
  • 35 participants in organized systems. Groups have been identified in six ways (Shah, 1976). They are: In terms of perceptions – members make an impression on others. In terms of motivation (Is the group membership rewarding?), In terms of goals (Working together with a purpose), In terms of organisation (Each person has some organized role to play). In terms of independence (Each person is some what dependent on others). In terms of interaction (small group allow face to face communication). Lewin (1948) emphasizes that the essence of a group is the interdependence and all other issues are secondary to it. French (1944), states that in addition to interdependence membership in a group presupposes identification with the group. Group Cohesiveness One of the key concepts in-group dynamics is group cohesiveness. Cohesiveness refers to the forces that bind the parts together which resist disruptive forces. Festinger, Schahter, and Back (1950), Cartwright and Zander, (1960) have defined cohesiveness in terms of group members as the total field of forces acting on individual members vary from individual to individual (Festinger, 1960).
  • 36 Group Dynamics An efficiently functioning work group appears to be a simple social form to the onlookers. But this simple exterior of an efficiently functioning group is an extremely complex phenomenon. When analysed we can discern specific elements and general over all functioning of the group at work. Group dynamics is used to refer to the elements that influence the functioning of the group. Anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, and those in the field of industrial relations are all concerned with the nature of groups and group functioning process. In the recent years this has caught the attention and imagination of organizational effectiveness specialists. As recently as a few years ago there was relatively little interest in the work groups as entities to be taken note of, be it social organization or factory. Management viewed and perhaps still does so, more in terms of financial decisions, planning in production, work methods, wage payment plans and concentrated primarily on the individual than the nature of work group and social relation in the plant. But now, there is a great deal of interest in things like leader and leadership in work group, the effect of group participation in the decision making process, and the motives and attitudes of members that compose the group. Within a span of 6 – 7 decades there has been tremendous growth in the interest in problems connected work group and their importance .A useful development. The current interest now expressed in employee attitudes identifies several influences on these attitudes: They are: Size of the group Cohesiveness
  • 37 Homogeneity Flexibility Permeability, (refers to restrictions of membership in the group) Polarization, (the degree of orientation toward clear and defined goals) Stability Intimacy Autonomy Control Position in the group Potency of each member Hedonic tone, (pleasure of being a member of the group) Participation, (the amount of involvement) Interdependence is degree of dependence on the group. It will be of interest to note that when a person becomes a member of a group, his impulses, feelings, and behaviour are modified in various ways to various degrees depending on the nature of the group. In small groups a number of variables are related to work group and job satisfaction, and job involvement. They are:
  • 38 Size of the work group Homogeneity /heterogeneity of work group membership Influence, including participation in group activities Organizational climate and physical environment Employee control over the pacing of work Feedback on job performance Status of goal interdependence and the extent to which attainment of individual goals determine the cohesiveness of the group. Individuals of organizations are a major resource. Their attitudes towards various aspects of their work- life play a very important role in moulding their behaviour. Individuals in interact with their jobs, with other people, and with the organization where they work. As a major resource individuals are the most important and at the same time most complex resource for an organization. Employee attitude constitutes a major component of the human resource. Human resource factor in an organization is not confined to workers at the lower levels. Qualitative aspects of personnel at all level have to be viewed as precious resource. Creativity for example, is not the monopoly of any particular worker. For purposes of illustration we may look at the middle level management personnel. In an organization institutional leadership is a function of the manager at any level management cadre. The manager has the advantage offered by the top management. He has the opportunity for application of the art and science of managerial functions. He has the opportunity for self- expression, one of the factors primarily responsible for the
  • 39 growth and development of our dynamic economy, especially in the present context of liberalized, consumer oriented global economy. New standards of development and utilization of human resource is not too much to ask. They should be in place. The role of the professional manager with flair for innovation is the need. Human resource development program itself calls for innovation. Social scientists should address this issue in collaboration with management scientists/experts. The manager, therefore entrusted with administering the firm, its mission, its destiny, has to utilize all resources available to him, prominent of them being human resource. This is the main managerial function. Considering managers as human resource we can raise a query as to why some managers succeed remarkably while others with similar qualifications do not succeed or to put differently, are not effective. The word succeed should be interpreted as effective. This is a crucial issue that needs to be addressed. We may hazard to answer this query by taking recourse to personality and attribute this to the fact that success is not merely a matter of ability alone and that there is something more to it. These issues and many others will be examined in later sections. Some people crumble at the very thought facing difficult problems, some attend to such probable situations in a relaxed manner. . More on Creativity Interest in the concept of creativity has been there down the ages. A scientific approach to understand this all-important cognitive process is recent. There are several definitions of creativity. The sum of these points out that creativity involves developing something unique. Productive thinking was thought to be enough to explain all cognitive behaviour. But later a new thinking dawned. Thinking is of two types. One of them is convergent productive thinking; the other is divergent productive thinking. It is the latter that relates to creativity. In fact it is the same thing as creative thinking. This view received complete
  • 40 clarification with the advent of Guilford‟s Structure of Intellect Model (Guilford, 1956, 1967). Human abilities could be classified into three categories Operation, the content, and the Product Operation: This involves psychological processes such as cognition, memory, convergent thinking, divergent thinking, and evaluation. The Content: This refers to the kind of material employed, for example, figural, symbolic, and behavioural. The Product: This refers to the fundamental kinds of products that may ensue as a result of combinations of operation and content. These are classes, units, relations, systems, and information Guilford recognizes five kinds of operations, four kinds of contents, and six kinds of products. (5x4x6=120). Each of these 120 can be described in terms of operation, content, and product. This in essence is a tri-dimensional theory of intellect as Guilford conceived. All these abilities are distinctly unique abilities. The Structure of Intellect Model delineates the whole range of human abilities including creativity. We are particularly interested in the context of this book on organizational effectiveness and human resource development two modes of intellectual operations; namely, convergent thinking and divergent thinking are under consideration. Convergent thinking refers to traditional type of intelligence, whereas divergent thinking involves production of as many answers as possible as different from convergent thinking process where only one solution is possible for a problem. Divergent thinking moves into different directions, sometimes searching, sometimes seeking variety. It emphasizes several logical possibilities .In convergent thinking possibilities centre on limited logical necessity. Divergent thinking stands apart from conventional concept of intelligence. .
  • 41 Creative thinking according to Guilford bears a special character of flexibility and fluency. Creativity as an asset in terms of human resource cannot be over emphasized. Siva Prasad Reddy (1987) made a systematic study of personality and creativity correlates of job success among middle level executives in Indian industries. After informed consent these 137 subjects were administered Cattel‟s 16 Personality Factor Questioner and Creativity Test (Paramesh, 1972) an adopted version of Wallach and Kogan Tests of Creativity. Both verbal and non-verbal forms were employed. These subjects were classified into top, middle, and low-level success groups based on ratings of their superiors. The major finding on creativity was that a rather surprisingly a very small contribution of creativity to job success of these middle level managers. The 16 personality factor questionnaire and two creativity factors together accounted for 38% of the variance of managerial job success. Taken separately creativity factor, namely, ideational productivity, accounted for a mere 5% of the variance of job success of these personnel. This could be the managerial population from which the sample was drawn did not face a demand for this resource. Further studies are needed to make definitive inferences. Further we may argue that job success in the middle level management may not demand creative functions. It may also be that the middle managers chosen for the study did not have a need for creative effort. If the top management desires to have creative people in middle level management job structure has to be modified giving them more room for creative effort and choose those with proven record of being creative. Creativity is too important a human resource to be ignored.
  • 42 Risk Taking Behaviour Capacity to take calculated risk is a cultivated personality trait. The activities of any organization are dynamic because of its setting in an environment which is ever changing. As time moves on its constituent members whose aspirations, expectations and achievements take new dimensions. An organization is a system of structured interpersonal relations differentiated in terms authority, status, and role they play or expected to play. When organizations evolved through division of labor, division based on specialization of tasks that provide for identity of those who perform these tasks. Manager is supposed to be a change agent whose job is to influence the behavior of his subordinates in specified direction. The primary task of the middle managers consists of carrying out the policies of the top management and maintaining a well coordinated and efficient organization of work (Niles, 1949). Middle level management sharpens and implements the broad plan of their superiors (Piffner and Sherwood, 1960). General conception of these middle level managers is that they should minimize the losses and stay with static risk. The static risk relates only to potential losses. Top management is more often seen as dealing with dynamic risk through maximizing opportunities (Byrd, 1974). Individual differences are a fact in risk taking behaviour. Risk taking propensity is hypothesized as an important determinant in problem solving (Bruner, et al 1956). Atkinson (1959) on motivational determinants of risk taking behaviour explains that the strength of motivation to perform some act is assumed to be the multiplicative function of the strength of the motive and the expectancy (subjective probability) that the act will have as a consequence, the attainment of an incentive and the value of the incentive.
  • 43 Risk taking is necessary to realize one‟s potential. For those who are for self- realization the risk may seem small, while the fearful and faithless see these same risks chasms to be leaped. Risk taking is an important variable in functions of personnel in an organization. It can even be considered an asset to be nurtured in human resource development programs. Vijayalaksmi (1982) studied the relation between “Risk taking behaviour, Future Time Perspective, and Job Performance of Managerial Personnel.” She reported that performance and physical risk taking, and social risk taking were positively and significantly related to performance of management personnel in the age group 35- 45years. However job performance and ethical risk taking were negatively and significantly related to performance of managerial personnel in the age group 40-45 years. They were not prepared to take ethical risks. All correlations did not reach significant levels. Risk taking at low, moderate, and high levels reveals another picture. Low risk takers and high risk takers were low achievers (Vijalakshmi, 1982). Moderate risk takers are those who take calculated risk in physical, social, and monetary areas were high achievers. Ethical risk taking is not conducive to organizational health. Therefore it is eschewed. Vijayalakshmi‟s study confirms this in the sense ethical risk taking was not related to younger age groups and negatively and significantly related in older age groups. .
  • 44 Passage of Time and Temporal Perspectives in HRD To be conscious is to be aware of the three temporal categories – the past, the present, and the future. The degree of awareness of these temporal dimensions and the ability to manipulate their potential determine the capacity of the individual to plan proper temporal regulation of his activities. These are a measure of the individual‟s capacity to utilize the past experience in the present and anticipate future needs (Rama Rao, 1978). Time consciousness is a basic factor in human culture (Braudon, S.G.F., 1970). Modern civilization is a product of time consciousness. ”Time, with all its celerity, moves slowly on to him whose whole employment is to watch its flight.” (Johnson). The past and future aspects as related to the present are not equally dominant in all individuals. There are those who live predominantly in the past, and there are those who live in the present, and those who live in the future in constant hope. Bakan (1955) in a study of the effect of set and work speed on estimation of elapsed time reported a significant negative correlation between time estimation and speed of work. We may infer that when speed of work is high it result in under estimation of elapsed time. Rama Rao and Sai Prasad (1973) reported a significant negative correlation between amount of work done and estimation of elapsed time. The inference is that persons whose out put of work is high experience time as moving fast and for those who linger on in their work tend to experience as time moving slowly. They tend to overestimate elapsed time Factors like interest vs. boredom, filled vs. unfilled, repetitiveness of activity, and activity vs. passivity have their impact on experiential time. These influence subjective passage of time as slow or rapid (Loehlin, 1959).
  • 45 Rama Rao (1978) considers subjective time could be brought under the rubric of personality dynamics. This facilitates intervention in aspects mentioned by Lohlin. Man is an information processing system and time is an experiential dimension of information. It could be considered equivalent to other non- temporal aspects of information such as intensity, etc. (Michon, 1972). Time perspectives may be defined as an individual‟s cognitions concerning the content, placement, and unfolding of events in the past, present or future (Lehman, et al, 1974). Temporal perspectives develop gradually along with activities and it has proved to be one of the most seminal concepts in this relatively new area of psychological research .Time perspectives involve total personality, memory of past events, and hopes and aspirations of future success. Past, present, and future are interrelated where past is memory, future is anticipation, present as we experience is a small bit of duration between past and future (Fraise, 1963). Vijayalaksmi (1982) has highlighted temporal perspectives, an intriguing area of psychological research in the field of organizational effectiveness. We can draw on this to relate to human resource development. Our personal experience seems always located in time. Awareness and conceptions of time are products of human mind. However time itself seems to posses an existence apart from its passage, impersonal and inexorable. Time is experienced as a continuous succession of events. It is also at the same time experience as not all of it is successive to one another, because some events are experienced simultaneously. Time is not a straight line nor is it a curved line. It is a stream in which events stand in transverse as well as longitudinal directions. Temporal experience can be viewed as an emergent set of cognitive constructive systems based on personal experiences and identity, influenced by socio-cultural aspects. Time, as
  • 46 we experience is personal and social. Time is significant in our lives. We must grasp it and shape it in order to be successful in our lives. Time perspectives of an individual have different dimensions. They are his past experiences, present happenings. We live in the present, i.e., here and now situation. The present has several dimensions: The present things past The present things present The present things future (St Augustine‟s Confessions) The present is only a part of the continuum whose stretch includes past and future. Time perspective is a function of a psychological structure mediating between the here and now situation and the total probability of self-past and future (Kastenbaum, 1964). The construct of time perspective developed by Frank (1939) and Lewin (1952) is of great importance in the study of human motivation. Lewin defined time perspective as the totality of the individual‟s views of his psychological future and psychological past existing in the present. This he called contemporaneity. Western industrial societies view time as linear and see achievement as occurring in time (McClelland, 1961). Today economically developing countries following new economic policies have to view time as linear and realize that achievement is distinctly related to time experience. Idle time is a waste and time spent in meaningful activities results in achievement and time passes rapidly and seems short. Recall the study of Rama Rao & Sai Prasad (1973) where they reported that amount of work done was negatively correlated with estimation of elapsed time.
  • 47 Time sense is culture specific. Mead (1968) found a significant relation between motivation and future time perspective. Meade‟s study clearly indicates that minimal future time perspective among Indians reports that this not a general trend among Indians. Meade‟s study further indicates that achievement motivation and future time perspective are correlated. But learning experiences are important in this aspect. It can therefore be conjectured that time perspectives have a lot of meaning for self-actualisation. Such persons have learned to evaluate the present more positively in relation to past and future. Vijayalakshmi (1982) considered four variables of time experience variable. They are: Factor I: Immediate Time Pressure Factor Relaxed mastery and adaptive flexibility in time vs. Harassed and lack of control in time Factor II: Long Term Personal Direction Factor Continuity and steady purpose for time vs. Discontinuity and lack direction in time Factor III: Time Utilization Factor Efficient utilisation of time VS Preoccupation and inefficient utilization of time Factor IV Personal Inconsistency Factor Inconsistency and changeability in time vs. Consistency and dependability in time The main findings are: Job performance and long term personal direction factor are positively and significantly correlated (r= .35, p<. 05) in the age group 30-34 years. Other time factors did not yield significant correlations with any age group. The 30-34 year age group managers showed a
  • 48 strong sense of continuity, direction, and purpose to individual‟s life, with of long term goals and confidence in their attainment. This study should enable HRD professionals to sit up and consider of including time experience as an item in the development-training program. I would suggest more and more research be conducted in this vital of human experience. It has the potential for ramified revelations. Further findings of Vijayalakshmi‟s work (1982) may be summarized as below: Factor I: Immediate Time Pressure Factor: Subjects in the age group 40-44 had a mean score significantly lower than 25-29, and 30- 34 year age groups. The younger age groups have shown calmness and confidence within the allotted time to finish their tasks than the subjects in the 40-44 year group.
  • 49 Factor II: Long term personal Directional Factor: Subjects in the age group 35-39 years had a longer time personal direction than those 25- 29 year age group. Similarly those in 40 - 44 year age group scored higher than those in 20-29 age groups. The 40-44 year age group scored higher than those in 30-34 years age group in this factor. The study further revealed that in 35-39 year and 40-49 year age group had continuity and steady purpose for time and has strong motivation and positive anticipation of full structured future than 25-29 and 30-34 year age groups Factor III: Time Utilization Factor The four age groups did not differ significantly in Time Utilization factor Scores have been consistently high in all the age groups. Factor IV: Personal Consistency and Dependability Factor The findings in this factor indicate that 20-24 year and 30-34 year age groups were more consistent and dependable than the age groups, namely, 35-39 and 40-49 year age groups indicating consistency with steadiness, adherence to routine and a preference for the familiar. All the four age groups have shown a personal consistency and constancy through time. Human relations professionals need to have very sound information in the area of temporal experiences. This area is also known as experiential time. There is no need to overemphasize this dimension of human behaviour and particularly in organizational effectiveness and human resource.
  • 50 It is extremely rare that human beings live exclusively in the present for any length of time. Events of the past and probable events of the future intrude into the present time and the result is an integrated action. The individual develops a sense of continuity by of such integration. Cottle (1976) defined time perspectives as temporal horizon, the time zones called past, present, and future. Working time for any individual occupies a major part of the day. We all spend larger of the part of the day in work situation than otherwise. But temporal perspectives engulfing the entire life span up to the time of counting involve certain dimensions. Prospecting future through expectation or planning and fantasizing direct pre knowledge and prediction is a part of life. Perception of duration of elapsed time (past) and anticipation of future event are very much involved in all our activities. The link between past and future through the present is done through integration of these zones. Studies related to job satisfaction and temporal perspectives are scare. The studies of Goodman (1967) and Hass (1969) are a few among them. Many more are needed. Growth in the study of organizational effectiveness is prompted by a realization that the individual possesses the capacity to change his work situation to suit his own ability and goals and in turn be flexible enough to mould himself according to the situation in which he is working. The interactional aspect of person X environment is the obvious factor for the growth of interest in organizational effectiveness. Keith Davis (1977) described organizational effectiveness “as a study concerned with understanding and describing human behaviour in a work situation. As an academic discipline it sheds light on the causes and effects on human behaviour.‟ The purpose of the study of organizational effectiveness is to understand, predict, and control the behaviour of people in organizations. Three approaches are .indicated to the study of organizational effectiveness. These are classified as:
  • 51 Systems Approach Traditional Approach Contingency approach (Scott, 1981). Systems approach emphasizes the interrelatedness of parts of an organization, part interpreted in the context of the whole. The traditional approach is based on principles that are applicable to all organizations. The contingency approach is based on diagnosis of each situation and deal with it in an appropriate manner. The field of organizational effectiveness is dynamic and constantly changing requiring continuous research to update all issues connected with organizations. Human resource development program requires constant repair to suit ever growing and changing organizations and that such changes taking place at a rapid pace owing to in good measure to swift changes in socio-economic scenario. Management is the basic resource of any organization. Even in most automated industry human factor cannot be taken for granted. The resourcefulness to manage an automated industry cannot be underestimated. It may that new resourcefulness has to be developed and stabilized as long as it works. And when new demands spring up the organizations should gear up to new demands. Managers have to be capable of meeting such demands. There are different levels of management and each level has distinct demands to meet. They too require changing their style to keep the organization in good shape and health. Rangnekar noted that this area of human behaviour is a state of confusion because of lack of empirical studies. However a few studies that are done have shown the importance of studies in this area. A few notable studies are: Singh (1967), Unni (1976) Subha (1979).
  • 52 But none of has reached the level of developing theoretical models of managerial motivation and to establish their influence on managerial behaviour. But then we have come a long way particularly in organizational effectiveness and human resource development. Another Indian study using temporal perspectives can be cited as one of the variables. Parvathi (1985) draws conclusions based on her studies that managers fall into certain specific categories. They are: Order and group achievement, Personal enhancement, Support and interaction, Security and maintenance, Dynamism and achievement orientation. This classification is based on Wofford‟s Managerial scale (1970). Further Managerial styles are briefly described here under: Order and group achievement style: This style relates to care, thoroughness, neatness, and high intentions of achieving goals with group support Personal enhancement style: This style is concerned with authority and control. They always pressurize subordinates for compliance Support and group achievement style: This style relates to care, thoroughness, neatness, and high intentions of achieving goals with group support Security and maintenance style: This style is concerned with authority and control. They always pressurize subordinates for compliance Dynamism and achievement style: The managers with concerns for dynamism and achievement are dynamic and self-assured. They have of confidence. They are action oriented.
  • 53 In her study Parvathi had 31 subjects in the 1st group, 19 subjects in 2nd group, 16 in the 3rd group, and 19 in the 4th group. These four groups evolved after sophisticated multivariate analyses from the data gathered by using Wofford Scale. These four groups were independent of each other statistically. These groups did not differ among themselves on need variables. The study did not attempt to compare the relative performance effectiveness, as it was not the part of the investigator‟s study. The four groups identified by Parvathi in the study cited above are named as here under: Group A: Personal order and group achievement Group B: Support and interaction oriented Group C: Personal enhancement, security, maintenance oriented. Group D: Personal dynamism, Personal achievement, Personal enhancement oriented. These groups did not differ among them selves on need variables. The study did not attempt the relative performance effectiveness, as it was not part of the author‟s work.
  • 54 CHAPTER – III PERSONALITY COMPONENTS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR Personnel selection is at the core of human resource development as much as it is in organizational effectiveness. This is a critical function of the management of selecting individuals for specific functions or positions. The process is matching person to jobs. Equally important function of the management is training the selected personnel for enhancing performance effectiveness, job satisfaction, and ad commitment. The persons selected may be on the one hand having previous experience or may be raw hands. Both groups should have the benefit of a well-planned training program. Personnel selection is basic to human resource development. It is the primary responsibility of the management to train and develop the resources they have acquired on a planned and scientific basis. Personnel selection stands on the philosophy that those selected have the best chance to do well and contribute to job success and organizational effectiveness. Well-directed selection is the gateway to success but that is not success itself. The selected and placed employees have to be fine tuned for their jobs and to whatever other opportunities that may arise for them. We have to consider two significant aspects of the whole procedure: they are selection and training. Training has dual purpose, namely, to fit selected person to the job and fit him to the totality of social and psychological ambience. In brief it can be said training is holistic not just fitting the man to the job. This would otherwise be a mere mechanical process.
  • 55 We may now turn our attention to the first basic issue that is training to fit the person to the job. Job Requirements Personnel Specifications There are personnel specifications that are intrinsic to the job and required for performance effectiveness. There are other specifications related to labour market that is available with suitable persons. The intrinsic requirements vary from job to job. Some jobs have well defined personnel specifications and some jobs have some degree of vagueness in this aspect. How are personnel specifications established? This is a significant question. Personnel specifications may be considered predictor variables that they are independent variables of a criterion the management has in mind. Examples of Personnel Specifications Work experience Education Training Demographic information Health information Who is the management seeking? Are they trained or experienced people or raw untrained persons? This issue is significant because a trained person gets into the job straightaway, but may be less amenable for moulding in accordance with the organizational needs. The untrained may take some time to adjust after joining the
  • 56 organization; the management may have to wait for such recruits to become performance effective. This involves initial loss. But it has the advantage of moulding them in terms of the philosophy and ideology of the organization. The individual in the organization, his behaviour is all very complexes, influenced by many forces both within the organization, the individual himself, and the society at large. There is another facet to this dimension that is group dynamics and its effect on the individual. Personality and cognitive structures of the individual have profound influence on the behaviour of the individual. These constitute a complexity of interacting factors. For the sake of convenience of exposition we take them separately though this would be unrealistic in human nature. Personality The word personality is used in different ways. The most popular of these fall under two main categories. This equates personality to social skills. An individual‟s personality is assessed by the effectiveness with which an individual elicits positive responses from a variety of persons under a variety of situations. This view encourages the most talked about “personality training.” The other use of the term personality considers the outstanding impression an individual is able to make on others. One may be an aggressive personality; the other may be submissive and so on. Thee descriptions refer to the most visible trait of a person and does not claim as a full description of a person. .In any case both these are evaluative in nature. Personality is thus considered as having social stimulus value. The way others react towards a person is indicative of his personality.
  • 57 There is also an omnibus definition for personality. This definition embraces personality by enumeration. Personality includes everything about the individual that a theorist may list out. Different theorists have lists of varying length. Some theorists speak of integrative function of personality. It is an organization, an integrated whole of several characteristics. There are theorists who speak of consistency of behaviour and others describe personality in terms of adjustment of the individual. Others describe personality in terms of uniqueness. Some others consider personality as the essence of human nature... When we consider the above views of the theorists we get the impression that personality refers to that aspect of the individual that is most representative of the individual. There could be an argument against multiplicity of theories of personality and we could raise a question whether we could have a single viewpoint that could incorporate all that is implied in each one of these theories. But it can also be argued that any theory that can well stand the test of empirical support would be good enough. But, whether such a choice is possible is the question. Synthesis of theories can at best be a dream. I would accept the multiplicity of theories of a complex attribute like personality as more desirable than a single and simple unitary theory. Irrespective of multiplicity of theories organizations are utilizing personality and interest factors of individuals as having profound influence on their job performance. It is common to describe human personality in terms of qualities or traits, like extraversion-introversion, sociability, dominance and host of others. Organizations do not seem to go by theories of personality but use a few terminologies that by their thinking are adequate for their purpose. Guion (1965) stated that the dimensions of personality and interests are vaguely defined. Although it is probable, it is not possible to declare that there actually are certain general
  • 58 syndromes that can be used to characterize the outward behaviour of persons. Herman‟s (1975) construct of 28 “temperament” factors seems to be longest as on date. A few of these are dependability, alertness, stability, gregariousness, self-confidence, etc. We may not altogether be on the wrong side if we describe that traits such as these can be measured is not a figment of imagination of the concerned test developers. Personality inventories are paper and pencil tests or questionnaires with either dichotomous or multiple choice response format. Eysecnk‟s and Cattel‟s questionnaires are very popularly used in research and in practical applications. There various other psychological tests and inventories in use. There are number standardized tests of ability tests covering areas such as intelligence, aptitude and special interests. There are tests developed and standardized in countries other than India and in the recent years tests made by Indian experts are also available. I would make bold to offer a suggestion that every organization in need of psychological tests develop their own tests by using the services of qualified psychologists. A well-developed and standardized test on rigorous psychometric methodology would be most desirable. After carefully establishing job requirements tests that are simple, which are made scientifically satisfying all psychometric criteria would answer the need. While personnel specification is being established checks must be made for reliability and validity of these specifications. Several statistical procedures have to be employed. Correlation analyses have to be made to establish stability and internal consistency. Coefficient of Stability A measuring instrument is applied to the same group of persons twice with an interval of two or three weeks between the first and second administration. The results of these two
  • 59 measures are subjected to correlation analyses (Product Moment Method). If the correlation coefficient is significant we can accept the stability of the instrument. This is one of the important criteria of reliability of the instrument. The other forms reliability is based on internal consistency concept. Split half correlation method, Chronbach‟s alpha method, and K.R.20 formula methods are generally employed. Reliability measures cannot be absolutely accurate in measurement of psychological attributes. It is sufficient if the correlation coefficient, in this context coefficient of reliability is statistically significant. Respectable reliability lends credibility and confidence in the use of these measures. Coefficient of Validity Guion (1974) refers to validity as a concern of how relevant test scores are to something else. This something else can be the criterion of the attribute or any other established as reliable and valid. Here also statistical processing is done by the use of correlation analyses. Correlation coefficient in this context is known as validity coefficient. As in the case of reliability there cannot be an absolute validity coefficient. A value that satisfies statistical significance is all that is needed for acceptability. There are three types of validity of tests. They are: Criterion related validity Construct validity and Content validity In the previous paragraph mention is made of criterion related validity without mentioning it by name.
  • 60 The construct validity is concerned with the extent to which the test measures the construct it is intended to measure. A construct may be identified by factor analyses or by conceptualisation by reviewing relevant literature on the subject. In other words it is an assessment whether a measure in question is a measure of the attribute under consideration. Content validity refers to the extent to which the measure (instrument) reasonably provides for measurement of a representative sample of the domain of the attribute under investigation. In other words the contents of the test are representative of the attribute the test is supposed to measure. In the area of personnel specifications job component validity is the major issue. This is beside the three validity procedures already mentioned. It is also known as synthetic validity. The procedure to establish synthetic validity consists the following: Quantification of the various elements with due weight age; establish or determine experimental sample of human attributes required successful performance of the job, and some method of combining the estimates of human attribute requirements for an entire job. Among all these three types of validation procedures criterion related validity, (particularly predictive validity) is most favoured. How do we establish Personnel Specifications? As we scan through application forms we should be able to separate those who are experienced and those who are inexperienced for the job for which they are applicants. Personnel specifications differ between them.
  • 61 Experienced applicants: Personnel specifications should be used on sound job analyses describing each of the job activities. Then evaluate the candidate in terms of adequacy of their experience in different job activities. The inexperienced applicants: The procedure for these candidates is a little more complex. In these cases attempt to predict suitability of the candidates is what is warranted. This has to be done by determining the basic abilities, such as aptitudes, personality, interests, and other attributes presumed to be required for learning the job in question and adopting the same. Reliability and validity stated earlier hold good here. Specifications based on Judgment Judgments of personnel specifications should be based on sound knowledge and understanding of the job activities. This method has the weakness of being subjective, and at the same time there are chances of missing a few elements or components of the job which may be crucial to the job performance. Psychologists do not generally favour this method. But in the hands of professionals who are familiar with the concerned job this method can safely and confidently used. Structured Job Analyses Method This is a more analytical method. This allows analyses of a job into units or components. The personnel requirements can be based on statistical procedures. The analyses should be the basis to constructing the total requirement by consolidating all the specifications. Introduction to the use of Personnel Tests Psychological tests can serve as an integral part of an organization‟s personnel management and human resource development. These tests should be where there are
  • 62 reasons to believe that they could deliver. . Many psychologists have argued for reliable and valid measures to be used. They should be culture-fair and not discriminative. It should be accepted that psychological tests are not infallible. Fake good is more common than fake bad. It is possible that a person who does well on a reliable and valid psychological test may not do well in actual work situation. Simulated situation cannot totally represent the real. Tests are classified into individual tests and group tests; performance tests and paper and pencil tests. The content of the psychological tests are of three types: Basic human abilities, such as mental abilities and psychomotor skills The job specific tests, such are typical skills and knowledge of the job in question. Tests that measure personality, interests, and attitudes The merits and weaknesses of psychological tests will be taken up later. Test Validation Apart from the content and construct validity, which are descriptive criterion, related validity measure is the most relevant to personnel selection. We may differentiate between concurrent and predictive types of validity and see their utility in personnel selection. Concurrent validity This type of validity of a test for particular jobs is also referred to as present-employee method of validation. It is based on the use of a sample of incumbents who at the time in question are on the job.
  • 63 Steps Select a battery of tests to be tried. Assumption is that they are considered to measure attributes judged as important for job success. This is based on job analyses Select a group of employees on a voluntary basis with an assurance that their standing on the tests will not have a bearing on their position in the organization. Administer the tests. Select appropriate criteria which in the opinion of the experts would assure good job performance Obtain criterion information of the selected sample of subjects and divide into high and low performance groups. Apply suitable statistical method to find out whether the groups differ and if so the direction of difference and its significance. If the difference is significant in favour of high performance group the natural inference will be that the measures are valid. Predictive validity Predictive validity is determined by follow-up method of test validation. The procedure is to administer the tests to the candidates at the time of recruitment. Test results are filed and not used for selection of these candidates. They are selected on the basis of other criteria generally followed. Steps
  • 64 Select a battery of tests. Administer these tests job applicants. Select an appropriate criterion for success on the job. Obtain criterion information on the new employees after they have demonstrated their abilities to do the job that is after training. Analyse the results comparing initial test scores and criterion performance data furnished by their superiors. Apply suitable statistical processes and arrive at decision regarding test validity .Predictive method is the more preferred of the two. Both the concurrent and predictive test validation has advantages and disadvantages. Employing concurrent validity has a possibility of test scores achieved can be a reflection of combination of whatever level was already there and the level achieved subsequently. This possibility is true in the case of aptitude tests. But statistical processing is sophisticated enough to separate what was already there and what is now acquired. This is done by using partial correlations and eliminates the possible error of contamination of the second testing by the potential already present at the initial resting. But this is a bit more circuitous than the predictive validation method that is more direct. Concurrent validity may involve Hawthorne effect that is the subjects develop a mental feeling of being specially chosen. This may affect the outcome of the second testing. Content Validity Content validity has many shortcomings and is controversial. We believe that it should be viewed as an attribute of the test itself. This raises questions. Item selection for the test is
  • 65 a hazardous procedure. The items may not fully represent the job requirements. Domain sampling is not an easy procedure and it is doubtful the chosen sample of the domain represents the domain.
  • 66 Construct Validity The extent to which a test represents a construct leads to several questions. Selection of a construct is another issue. To match the test contents with a construct provides for inaccuracy. Job Status Method of Test Validation This is a variation of concurrent method of validation. In the concurrent method a single job is considered and performance effectiveness in that job. But in the job status method of validation if we consider a job family instead of a single job .we will be on safer grounds. An individual may be working in different departments and is likely to have migrated into a type of work here he can do better to survive. Now the test scores of each of these of employees on each of two or several jobs are compared to ascertain whether there are significant differences in test scores among jobs performed. A multiple comparison using t tests would tell us the position. In addition we can compare the test scores with job performance in each of these of jobs that can help us in taking administrative actions such as promotions or transfers. Job Component Method There are situations where the validation procedures are not feasible. We may have to satisfy ourselves and bypass the conventional methods in ascertaining which tests to use for employee selection for a given job. Several jobs may have similar if not identical components; therefore a test could be valid for all jobs where similarities exist. This sounds hypothetical but seems feasible. The management should be able to use a generalized basis for job component validity by identifying common denominators. A test battery like GATB may answer this question.
  • 67 Personality and Interest Tests Among human resources ability factors appear more predominant. It is a fact of history of psychology that abilities came first under quantitative measurement and scales were developed. Starting with Binet, Spearman, Turnstone, we find a galaxy of psychologists devoting time and energy in conceptualising and developing instruments to measure the ability attributes. Ebbinghaus is pioneer in the area of memorizing and its measurement by his ingenious methods It was later in history of psychology that non-cognitive and affective areas came under quantitative research and developing measuring instruments. Personality and motivation saw a bloom and developed into a very promising area of empirical area of empirical study moving away from speculative and descriptive methods. Historically empirical and quantitative studies of non-cognitive attributes came later than ability testing. However after they got to start we noticed a rapid expansion of research in the non cognitive area. This came to be looked upon as a vital area for empirical study and application. Personality and interests give qualitative dimension to human behavior and presently personality occupies the centre stage and has very deserving position in theory and practice. It is known now that performance effectiveness is not solely determined by ability but personality makes it possible or otherwise for ability to express itself. Work efficiency is carried through the route of motivation and interest. Hence there is a strong case for strengthening and utilizing this aspect of human resource. We can expect that individuals with certain interests and personality patterns are likely to look for certain types of jobs in preference to other jobs. Their job adjustments and satisfaction could very be determined by these factors rather than by efficiency factor alone. There are
  • 68 jobs which have direct bearing on the adequacy with which people can fulfil the functions more satisfactorily. . But in spite of these the fact remains that these measures are being used but not to an appreciable extent. It cannot be questioned as to why such a meaningful factor has not been put to use in organizations either in personnel selections or human resource development program. Different experts define personality differently. Psychologists are concerned with individual differences that are the characteristics that distinguish one individual from another. Psychologists do not agree on an exact definition of personality. But for purposes of simplicity we can define personality as the characteristic pattern of behaviour and modes of thinking that determine a person‟s adjustment to the environment. There are several approaches to the understanding of personality. Most personality theories can be brought under one or the other of four classes. They are: Trait approach, Social learning, Psychoanalytic and Humanistic. These theoretical approaches differ among themselves in the basic constructs used by them and also the way they assess or measure personality. Personality cannot be studied scientifically and satisfactorily unless there are satisfactory ways of measuring personality variables. In fact the theoretical conception of personality determines the methods to measure personality. The Trait Approach C.J. Jung, one of Freud‟s earlier students, classified people into two major types, namely, Introverts and Extraverts. According to him introverts are of withdrawing type where as extraverts are outgoing type. But extreme introverts or extreme extraverts are far fewer than those occupying a midway position somewhere in the bipolar continuum of
  • 69 introversion –extraversion. These are designated ambiverts. This makes the Type Theory involve in a continuum between extremes and individuals occupying a position between two extremes, thus rendering type theory untenable because we do not find typical types among people. Instead of trying to sort out people into types it was postulated that persons could be described by their position on a number of continuous dimensions, each dimension called a trait. This approach requires postulating innumerable traits or dimensions with appropriate calibration of each dimension. These large number of traits represented by word pairs characteristic of polar opposites such as, calm-anxious, serious minded- light heartedness, etc. and ask a group of people to rate themselves on each of these bipolar adjectives or rate others in order to quantify how much of the trait on which rated is present in the concerned person or persons (self or others rated). Cattel‟s 16 PF test (1973) is a typical example of this approach both in terms theory and personality assessment. Eysenck & Eysenck (1963) described personality using only two basic dimensions, namely, introversion-extraversion dimension and stability dimension. Table 1 Cattel‟s 16 Personality Factors LOW SCORE DESCRIPTION HIGH SCORE DESCRIPTION Reserved, detached, critical, cool, Out – going, warm hearted, easy schizothymia going, participating, and
  • 70 cyclothymia. Less intelligent, concrete thinking, lower scholastic mental capacity. (Affectothymia) Affected by feelings, emotionally More intelligent, abstract thinking, less stable, easily upset, lower ego – bright, higher scholastic mental strength capacity Humble, mild, accommodating, Emotionally, stable, faces reality, conforming, submissiveness calm, mature, higher ego strength. Sober, prudent, serious, taciturn, Happy go – lucky, impulsively Desurgency lively, gay, enthusiastic, surgency. Expedient, evades rules, feels, few Conscientious, persevering, staid, obligations, weaker super – ego rule bound, stronger super – ego, strength. strength. Shy, Restrained Diffident, Timid, Venture some, socially bold, Threctia unlimited, spontaneous, premsia. Tender – minded, dependent, over – protected, sensitive, premsia. Tough minded, self – reliant, realistic, no – nonsense. Suspicious, self – opionated, hard to fool, pretension Trusting adaptable, free of jealousy, easy to get on with, Ataxia Imaginative, wrapped up in inner deficiencies, careless of practical Practical, careful, conventional, matters, bohemian Autia. regulated, by external realities,
  • 71 proper, praxemia Shrewd, calculating, worldly, Fortnight, natural, artless, penetrating, Shrewdness. sentimental artlessness Apprehensive, worrying, depressive, Placid, self – assured, confident, trouble Guilt proneness serene, untroubled adequacy, Experimenting, critical, liberal, assurance analytical, free thinking, radicalism Conservative, respecting, Self – sufficient, prefers own established ideas, tolerant, of decisions, resourceful, self – traditional difficulties, sufficiency. conservative. Controlled, socially precise, Group dependent, A “joiner” and following self – image high self – sound follower, group adherence concept control. Undisciplined self – conflict, Tense, frustrated, driven, follows own urges, careless of overwrought, high ergic tension protocol, low integration. Relaxed, tranquil, torpid, unfrustrated, low ergic tension... Note:
  • 72 TABLE 2 Abhidamma mental factors HEALTHY FACTORS UNHEALTHY FACTORS I PERCEPTUAL: COGNITVE Insight Delusion Mindfulness False view Modesty Shameless Discretion Recklessness Confidence Egoism II AFFECTIVE Composure Agitation Nonattachment Greed Non – aversion Aversion Impartiality Envy
  • 73 Buoyancy Avarice Fancy Worry Adaptability Contraction Proficiency Torpor Rectitude Perplexity Note: Source: Theories of personality, Calvin S. Hall, Gardner Lindzey, Wiley Eastern limited, 1978. This can be empirically tried to know whether these traits can discriminate between success and unsuccessful management personnel. Factor Analytical approach may be useful to regroup the traits. The usual statistical procedure was factor analyses by both authors cited above (Cattel and Eyesenk). And many others have used factor analyses in test construction. A survey of literature in the area reveals lack of agreement on the basic traits but in some instances an overlap could be found. Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) is based on an empirical construction rather than factor analyses. There is an assumption of specific personality traits. Many items related to these dimensions were given well-defined groups of individuals who were known to differ on some external criterion or form or norms. Only those questions that differentiated the groups significantly were retained to form the inventory. The final version inventory has 550 items (Hathaway and Monachesi, 1953).
  • 74 Initially, the MMPI was developed for use by clinicians in psychiatric diagnosis of abnormal personal type. Decades of work devoted to construction and refinement of tests designed to measure traits do not show a high degree of predictive power. Correlation coefficient of these tests and other measures of behaviour are not high enough such tests can at best be useful in gross screening, but cannot be counted to predict behaviour in a given individual case. Low predictive ability of these tests may be due to several reasons. Traits may not reflect fundamental attributes of a person and may be dependent on the situation... The correlation between trait and actual behaviour may be influenced by factors other than the factor in question. Variables such as sex, age, intelligence etc, may have their influence on the actual behaviour by way of either reducing or exaggerating the correlation coefficient. The Psychoanalytical Approach According to Sigmund Freud the personality is composed of three major systems: The id, the ego, and the superego. Each of these systems has its own functions and the three interact to govern behaviour. The id is the original source of personality, present in the new born; the ego and the superego develop later. The id consists of everything that is inherited including the instincts, sex, and aggression. It is closely related to biological processes and provides the energy source (LIBIDO) for the operation of all three systems. The id follows pleasure principle. The ego has its own role. This is to consider the reality aspect and follows the reality principle. Ego operates by secondary process thinking. Ego takes reality world into consideration.
  • 75 The superego is the internalised representation of values and morals of society acquired during developmental stages from infancy onwards. They seek pleasure, the ego tests the reality aspect, and the superego strives for perfection. The main functions of the superego are: Inhibit the impulses that society prohibits, Persuade the ego to substitute moralistic goals for realistic ones, to strive for perfection. This places the impulses of the id under restrictions and place on them by ego and super ego which cause anxiety and the individual strives to reduce anxiety by a trend called defence mechanisms. Psychoanalytic theory had a powerful influence and all acknowledged this. But this theory is unacceptable, because the constructions appear ambitions and even fictitious. It has been severely criticized and questioned as a scientific theory and this view on psychological development is not substantiated in scientific theory and scientific thought. Social learning theory of personality Some behaviour patterns are learned through direct experience and some by observation of actions of others and consequents thereof. Thus social learning theorists do not insist on reinforcement, but they do accept reinforcement as facilitation. Much human behaviour is learning by direct experience or by observation, i.e., vicarious learning. Reinforcement may be direct tangible rewards, like Social approval or disapproval Vicarious, i.e. Observing of some one else receiving rewards or punishment for such behaviour.
  • 76 Self-administered – a way of evaluation of one‟s own performance with self –praise or reproach. Self –administered reinforcement plays a very important role in social learning theory of personality. It is necessary therefore, to discover the conditions that facilitate regulation of be behaviour through self-reward and self-punishment. Consistency of personality is one of the assumptions of social learning theory. Situation is an important determinant of behaviour. Specific characteristics of the situation, the person‟s appraisal of the situation and the part of reinforcement for behaviour in similar situations are important determinants of behaviour. Most social behaviour is most unfortunately reinforced across different situations. Generalization takes place, when similar acting in similar situations are similarly rewarded or otherwise reinforced. But when situations vary same behaviours are differently reinforced. But we have seen that basic personality and motives, endure, although overt responses may vary. Social learning theory in contrast, assures that diverse behaviours do not necessarily reflect variations on the same underlying motive. They often are discrete responses to different social situations. Social learning theory has for its focus not on the underlying motives, but on behaviour patterns and cognitive activities in relation to the conditions, they may, maintain, or modify them. The emphasis is on not what the individuals are like but on that on what they do and the relationship to the conditions in which they do it. This does not however preclude personal characteristics altogether. Some of the person variables are: Competence: social skills, and other abilities.
  • 77 Cognitive strategies: habited ways of selectivity in attending to information and organizing it into meaningful units Outcome expecting: about consequences of different Behaviour, the meaning of certain stimuli indicating intentions motivating the behaviour of others. Subjective value of the outcome even if the individuals have similar expectations, they may still choose based on subjective value at that time. There are individual differences in self-imposed goals and rules governing behaviour, self–imposed rewards for success and self- imposed punishment for failure and ability to plan ahead that decide the behaviour. It can also be noted that we are all not passive reactors to situational conditions. We weigh and assess the situational conditions. Thus we selectively attend to what is happening. We can prevent some conditions imposing upon on us to what we should do or not do. We can also impose ourselves on the conditions thus, we notice reciprocal relations between social situation and ourselves. Social learning theory has for its main objective behaviour change. Relating the situation that prompted a behavior and all that goes with it does this. If behaviour has to change social situation must change and a measure of self –reinforcement of the individual will also be a useful data for finding possibilities for modifying behaviour. Behaviour can be observed directly in naturalistic situations. The strength of approach or avoidance behaviour can be assessed. If these are not possible self- reports can be used. Social learning theory emphasizes precision in the determination of environmental variables and its approach can be of immense use for clinical psychology and personality. Social learning theorists are criticized for over- emphasizing situational variables to the
  • 78 neglect of individual variables that account for individual differences. The latter concept is very important, as it does not portray individuals as passive reactors to environmental stimulation. But they meet this criticism saying that variables have been ignored. Behaviour of individuals has been measured across different settings and suggests differences and this is the same thing as accepting individual differences. Humanistic Approach to Personality The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes a number of theories that have common emphasis in man‟s potential for self-direction and freedom of choice. Individual subjective experiences are the real ones. This theory does not accept psychoanalytic theory and the behaviours to modes of human nature as being too rigid and mechanistic. Humanistic theories stress positive nature of man to push forwards self-actualisation. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are two of the main persons in this regard. Roger‟s theory emerged from a clinical set-up, as was Freud‟s. He developed nondirective or directive therapy that was a distinct departure from friend‟s clinical methods. He assures that each person has the motivation and ability to change. The patient‟s role in therapy is central and the therapist is only a facilitator. In fact in Freud‟s theory the reckoning was that the therapist was a dominant figure. Self-concept is central to Roger‟s theory of personality, hence came to be called self- theory of personality. Self consist of all the ideas, and values that characterize the “I”, “Me”, “Mine”, this includes all attribute of I, Me, Mine etc. It is the perceived self that gives direction to one‟s behaviour. The perceived self (self-concept) influences the person‟s perception of
  • 79 the world and his behaviour. An individual evaluates every experience of his in relation to his self-concepts. Many others constantly evaluate by parents and Child‟s behaviour, some positively, some negatively he soon learns to discriminate acting and thoughts as worthy and not worthy. The unworthy actions and thought get excluded from the self-concept. Self-actualisation is regarded as a basic force motivating the human being is a tendency towards fulfilment, towards actualisation, towards maintains and enhancement. As the individual grows he tends to fulfil his potential, within the limits of heredity. He need for self-actualisation directs the individual to seek or to avoid activities depending upon whether the experience is seen as one that will enhance the person. The need for regent directs behaviour according to whether the resulting experience will elicit favourable reactions from others, i.e. significant others. These two needs may conflict at times. Maslow Abraham Maslow is the one who focused on studying the characteristics of mature, competent, and self-fulfilled individuals. Maslow‟s need hierarchy theory of progressing from same biological needs through psychological needs culminating in self-actualisation has been the development of full individuality with all parts of personality in harmony. His approach has been on the positive side of human nature self-concept is amenable to measurement by the use of psychological inventories. Upshot A study and understanding personality in the understanding of the human behaviour has two significant directions: Understanding human behaviour for its own take
  • 80 Application of such knowledge for behaviour change for development Human resource development program has as much to do with personality, interests, attitudes and abilities much as intelligence, and aptitudes. Men may fit their jobs by virtue of their abilities, but the personality, temper, and temperament may unfit them for those jobs. Selection of employees as human resource for an organization and developing for greater effectiveness and job satisfaction places a demand for human resource development that is a holistic approach.
  • 81 CHAPTER – IV ABILITIES AS HUMAN RESOURCE There are individual differences in intelligence, knowledge, and general and specific skills. In order to know whether a person has necessary skills to do a particular job, or profit by education, or training in special skills. We need to know the individual personal status in this aspect and whether he can profit by training and or experience and whether there is need for appropriate measuring devices in this regard. In a technologically developed society or a developing society such as ours, matching of persons to tasks has very special advantages for the society and the individual. It is imperative that we do develop these persons for further perfection and performance effectiveness. Performance effectiveness has two connotations, one for the management in terms of profit and two for the individual for satisfaction of doing a job well. What a person can do now and what he can do later after experience or training or both can differ and in fact it ought. There is a distinction between capacity to learn and an accomplished skill is that capacity is the potential and accomplishment is the obvious performance level. The question now before us is whether we can predict accomplishment level prior to exposure to training of an individual. This question is argued by having recourse to the well known attribute “aptitude”. Psychologists over the years have developed aptitude tests. These tests are broadly classified as intelligence tests and special skills tests. Aptitude tests that predict performance is not yet a reality, these refer to what a person can attain given the opportunities such as experience and training.
  • 82 A particular attribute has several components. Each of these units is generated on the basis of task needs. Psychological tests designed to predict performance over a broad range or abilities are called intelligence tests. Other ability tests measure some special or specific abilities. For example mechanical aptitude tests measure eye-hand coordination, clerical aptitude tests measure efficiency in number checking, and other related functions. Aptitude is measured by a combination of tests. This is because every job function does not depend upon a unitary ability, but a number of abilities and skills. A combination of tests is called a battery of tests, these tests are administered and interpreted against what is expected and predict the future possibility of a prospective employee. In Chapter-VI, we discussed about personality factors as related to job performance. It is now the turn of abilities in relation to job performance both in terms of effectiveness and satisfaction. This chapter deals with abilities in human work. The gamut of human abilities as already noted fall into general classes: the first of these refers to the basic abilities; the second group refers to job-specific abilities, those possessed by individuals who have learned to perform particular functions. The former, the general abilities are shared by all in varying degrees. The first is the general basic ability is available for performance of many activities and the second; job specific skills can be built on the basic general abilities. We can not therefore identify which is more important than the other. The two complement and supplement each other. An assessment of many abilities has been a major occupation of psychologists. Historically assessment of abilities has preceded personality and other non-ability factors. The assessment has been possible through well-constructed and standardized psychological tests. We will have a general introduction to this aspect of test construction. Test Construction
  • 83 The first step in test construction is to identify the construct we want to measure. Then select items that relate to the construct to be measured. Develop these items and incorporate them into experimental forms. This requires professional competence. The experimental form of the test is subjected to professional review. After this review and consequent modification the experimental test is administered to a group of subjects of a population to which it is intended. In the next step we have to carry out two aspects of item analyses. Both these are directed towards selecting those items for the final form that would be most useful for our purpose. Internal consistency of the test has to be high. The indication is that every item of the final test is a measure of the final test. The other requirement is that the test as a whole shows relationship with an independent criterion that is considered to reflect the construct under measurement. The former reflects reliability the latter reflects validity. We may call them internal criterion (reliability) and external criterion (validity). When thee criteria are satisfied the test is ready for use. But continuous refinement of the test is a necessity as nothing can be taken as infallible. Issues related to reliability and validity has been discussed in a later chapter. Basic Human Abilities We have noted earlier that human beings differ among themselves to acquire skills specifically needed for different jobs; such capacity to acquire specific skills is considered as aptitudes. These aptitudes, in reality are basic abilities with marked individual differences in each such ability. Measurement of these human abilities is frequently used in predicting jobs performance and related criteria. Tests of such abilities both aptitude and intelligence tests are numerous and readers may refer to book on individual psychology for further information.
  • 84
  • 85 CHAPTER-V ATITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION Attitude is a conscious state. It represents to a certain degree of how it affects the individual. In social psychological literature attitude holds a very prominent place. Attitudes are feelings an individual has towards an object, person, place, or various social, personal, religious, political and other significant issues. They manifest themselves in the form of judgment and action towards these issues. Attitude can be defined as the affective orientation towards a particular attitude object. Attitude does not exist in a vacuum. There should be an attitude object. This object may be very specific or may be very general, for example, attitude towards a specific type of work or work in general there is an effective tone. The attitude object may be specific or general. In the example used “towards a specific type of work” is a specific, “work in general” is or a general type of work. Allport (1935) defined attitude as a “mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual‟s response to all objects and situations with which it is related.” Literature on attitudes is very vast. Attitude is a perceptual orientation and response readiness in relation to a particular object or a class of objects. Attitudes are reasonably enduring. In this they differ from expectations that are temporary skills of readiness. We find they are reasonably enduring but it does not preclude changes. Attitude formation, its resistance to alteration and change is an important area of study in social psychology. We designate this area as attitude formation and change.
  • 86 Individual differences and uncharted variations in attitudes are well known. They relate to issues upon which people disagree. Attitudes are distinguished from various other concepts much as instincts, habits. Attitudes are evaluative and affective. Beliefs may be constituents of attitudes and may function in relation to attitudes. This is a very important distinguishing feature of attitudes. Attitude is recognized as a 0hypothetical variable or hypothetical construct as it can not be directly observed. Attitude can only be inferred from observable behavior such as, statement of opinion, or psychological changes and overt acts in relation to attitude objects. Questionnaire responses and self-reports are the main methods of measuring attitudes. We use scales which present directional statements of opinion to which the subject responds with some amount of response agreement or disagreement. Examples of such scales are dogmatism scale, social attitude inventory, etc. Scale items usually employed are Thurston or Guttmann scales. With the advent of the computer application factor analysis has become very common. There are multidirectional attitude scales today. There is a wide area of agreement among researchers that attitudes are multidirectional, or that no attribute is uni-component, all attributes are multi-component. Factor analysis brings out principal components of every psychological attribute and attitude is no exception to this. Attitude formation and change is a very important characteristic of attitudes. McGuire (1969) notes that in early part of 20th century attitude was central to social psychology .There upon the development and adoption of group dynamics of 1950s over shadowed this emphasis of attitude being equated with social psychology. But subsequently attitude
  • 87 concept regained its importance within social psychology with Festinger‟s (cognitive dissonance), Sheriff and others who did work in the area of group behaviour. All of which involved attitude change. This brought back the pre-eminence of the concept. Literature in this area is extensive. Attitude change is predicated on a number of factors: They are The perceived quality of the change agent Certain personality characteristics such as low self-esteem and general passivity renders the individual to high degree of persuasibility Attitudes which are close to those already held by the person are likely to be assimilated, and those which are far removed are likely to result in a reaction away from the change agent. This is contrast effect. Communications which present both sides of an argument favouring one are more effective than one the ended communication. Presentation and dismissal of an opposite argument results in greater resistance against latter communication. Establishing conditions favourable to cooperation towards common goals is an effective means of reducing inter group hostility i.e. common enemy approach. Further we may try to get hold of factors that affect change in real life attitudes. Real life situation is different from laboratory or simulated situation where attitude is simpler, but in teal life situation it is much more complex. In this context we may caution ourselves and set not so high a level of aspiration in effecting attitude change in real life situation such as business organizations or a general congregation of people. But, there is need for
  • 88 attitude change for effecting behaviour change. In business organizations this helps in increasing profit, for the good of the people as desired by social welfare organizations. The need for attitude change for social good and general good of the people is accepted. Therefore attitude formation and change is to be taken as an integral part of social process. The audience in real life situation is free to make their own decisions. They may accept change to their attitudes or they may ignore attempts at attitude change-by-change agents. The significance of the attitudes held is well appreciated as a factor that can influence attempts at attitude change. We should also recognize that significance of change to the recipient can influence the attempts to bring about a change. These factors are formidable as they are highly subjective and the change agent cannot assess the level of the significance of these factors. We have to recognize that the change agent is not the only influence on the recipient. The recipients have other significant persons related to him in different ways and to different degrees. These significant others may be parents, spouses, siblings, friends, etc. The prestige and credibility of the change agent can influence the acceptance or otherwise thus facilitating or causing hindrance to attitude change. The methodology and detailed program of attitude change have their contribution to attitude change. How to structure attitude change messages - Strategies These depend upon The quality of the audience
  • 89 The strength of prevailing attitude The message delivery style Communication structure Social and communication skills of the change agent Unfavourable attitudes about work and management can have diverse consequences. These may be Strikes and grievances Increase in sickness and absenteeism High labour turn over Increase in accident rates and Reduction in production levels Therefore the necessity to study and find out the determinants of healthy attitudes on both sides is felt. The aim is to prevent depletion of human resource in an organization and increase in job satisfaction and involvement on the part of the employees. The end product of attitude formation and change should be mutually beneficial. Gilmer (1971) reported where workers had positive attitudes had higher production rates than those who had negative attitudes towards their jobs. This was not true with all the groups. Some cases positive attitudes showed lower production rates. In some cases attitudes and production were not related. We find here a rather an inconsistent trend. Herzberg et al (1957) reported lower turnover and less absenteeism in 21 out of 24
  • 90 studies. Mohanty (1980) did not find any significant relationship between attitudes of the workers towards work, supervisor, management and production levels. Although some of the research reports present a conflicting picture the need to know the determinants of attitudes cannot be ignored. More work is needed to get a clearer picture. Study of attitudes may be made by different methods: by impression and casual observation, directive and non-directive interview, or use of questionnaires. Planning and implementation of change in the work environment and qualitative changes in work the work performance methods require attitude changes. This is enabling workers to adapt. In a dynamic society changes are the order and therefore a question arises as to how all concerned from managers to workers cope with these changes. Change in the mode of work to suit the changing environment has to be accepted as a reality and methods of coping have to be evolved. In this aspect attitude change is primary and fundamental and other aspects like such as adopting new methods of work will come by. Managers need to change their management style to plan and implement change. This requires primarily attitude change. In the process the management should observe the situation by way of empathy how an outside expert would observe the situation, and how all others in the organization are observing the changing environment. The frame of reference must be clear to the management. Efforts to bring to about bring a change to suit the changing circumstances requires clarification of what is happening now and what should in the changing circumstances.
  • 91 The discrepancy between what is happening and what should be happening can bring a tremendous conflict among individuals in the plant. If the problem resolution requires that management style should change it should be done. Changes in knowledge are easy to make but attitude change is different. Attitudes take an affective tone as well, emotionally charged and therefore not easily amenable to change. Knowledge (K) Attitude (A) and Practice (P) KAP, remains more a slogan than a program. Knowledge is easily obtained or given attitude may or may not change. Even if it does there is no guarantee that behaviour changes. These three levels related to changes can be brought about either by participative or coercive methods. The former denotes a positive approach. Participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to individuals or the group. The group discusses and develops a positive attitude and commitment in the direction of desired change. The next step is to implement this into action that is more difficult. It is therefore suggested to identify the formal and informal leaders of a group and get their behavioural support and through them obtain the desired change in all the concerned employees. The second strategy is by coercion or by directive style. This can be effective if the group members are low in ambition and even dependent. If the management is of the opinion that this is true of the group directive style may be adopted. But participative change is more enduring than the directive style of changing attitudes and behaviour. Lewin (1947) identified three-phase change process. They are Unfreezing, Changing, and Refreezing.
  • 92 Unfreezing: In this phase the management motivates and makes the individual or the group ready for change. This is a process of breaking down mores, customs and traditions of individuals to throw away the old ways of doing things so that they are ready to accept new alternatives. When the individuals are motivated to change they are ready to change. Changing: In this phase the workers acquire new methods of work behaviour in place of their earlier methods. The transition is made. Refreezing: In this phase the newly acquired attitude and behaviour get integrated into the individual‟s personality and ongoing significant emotional relationships. New behaviour patterns get internalised and become a part of the individual‟s personality. Summary The attitude of employees is an important component of human resource. It is important both for the employee and the management. Attitudes have important functions. They provide information about employee‟s reaction to other individuals, events, or objects. Attitudes guide behaviour. JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is a topical issue and is of great interest to workers, management, and psychologists. Job satisfaction is a complex problem; a subjective experience of personnel and as such a simple and a straightforward solution is impossibility. It has attitudinal response in good measure. Several motivational and attitudinal components of job satisfaction have been explored in the recent decades. The issue is of importance to management process in organizations for maintaining human resource to be at its best. A well-developed human resource can fit into the job in question with a sense of fulfilment
  • 93 and satisfaction. In this sense this concept has relevance for human resource development. Serious studies on job satisfaction are recent phenomenon. Up to the point where Elton Mayo initiated a study in the Hawthorne Electric Company managements were interested in examining and improving physical conditions and equipment design to enhance productivity of the workers. Later part of Elton Mayo‟s work revealed that factors of social nature were affecting satisfaction with the job and also productivity. Human relations came to be recognized as important in work environment. It even took the shape of a movement and a step forward. Management seeking to make it possible for the worker to be happy and satisfied made its appearance. . By the year 1969 job satisfaction studies exceeded four thousand (Locke, 1969) by now there might have been many more. In spite of such enormity of research out put the very nature of job satisfaction is not fully understood. As a subjective experience coupled with individual differences as a base and objective and social factors contributing their share job satisfaction eludes a rigorous definition. Traditionally it is thought that a total of personal and subjective factors affect job satisfaction more than sum total of job factors them. Therefore it can easily be said that job by itself either satisfy or dissatisfy but on the expectation that individuals have of what the job should provide. This is expectancy theory. This points to what the individual expects that determine job dissatisfaction. There are individual differences in this regard. . This is what makes it difficult to make any plausible explanation. However what an individual expects of his job is only a part of the story because how far his expectations are fulfilled is what matters.
  • 94 There are other theories that state what constitutes job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. . Herzberg‟s theory is a point here. This will be elaborated later. There is a view that job enrichment can contribute an important element causing job satisfaction. All these studies have shown the way forward in terms of job change, economic importance, productivity, absenteeism, and labour turn over. In fact all these have been highlighted as job satisfaction indexes. Studies grew in number and newer and newer theories of job satisfaction made their presence. Job satisfaction can be considered a specific subset of attitudes held by organization members. It can be said in simple terms that it is the attitude of the worker towards his job and various aspects of the job. This is the experiential aspect of the job or it is one‟s affective response to the job. Workers compare among themselves. Equity theory states that if the worker gets more than his due will experience less satisfaction. The evidence seems to indicate that equity norms operate and that over payment may result in inequity. But this occurs very infrequently and does not merit consideration. Vroom (1964), has extensive study of work and motivation. Herzberg‟s Two Factor Theory states that job satisfaction stems from an entirely different set of causes than dissatisfaction. He classified satisfiers as recognition, autonomy, responsibility and wok itself Dissatisfies are pay, working conditions, and behavior of superiors which are not felt when available in good measure. But lack of these or in their absence in good measure can cause dissatisfaction. This position generated considerable research during the 1960‟s, but as of now there are no supporters to this view. Both dimensions can cause satisfaction or dissatisfaction. As such this theory has no takers today.
  • 95 TABLE 3 Herzberg‟s Two Factors. DISSATISFIERS: SATISFIERS: HYGIENE FACTORS. MOTIVATIONS. Policies and administration Achievement (possibility) Supervision Recognition for accomplishment Working conditions Challenging work Interpersonal relations Increased responsibility Money Growth and development Status Security Note: individual organizations should work out empirically their own data and apply.
  • 96 Behavior Related to Job Satisfaction Porter and Steers (1973) reported a negative significant correlation between job satisfaction and labour turn over. Absenteeism also had a significant negative correlation with job satisfaction. Data do not support that job satisfaction promotes higher production. But the two may be related only under certain conditions. If the job itself is the cause for satisfaction work out put and job satisfaction show positive correlation. Measurement of Job Satisfaction Innumerable studies have been carried out in this vital area of job satisfaction in the last five or six decades. Interestingly there have been many scales developed to measure job satisfaction. These scales fall into two general categories. They are: Taylor- made scales: Devised for specific purpose or setting or a project. The standardized scales: Devised before their use and group norms established. Although theoretically standardized scales are superior as measuring instruments, tailor- made scales are more frequently used.
  • 97
  • 98 CHAPTER VI MOTIVATION It is commonly known that all creatures, animal and human are motivated in all that they do. Psychological literature abounds in introducing terms like learning, reinforcement, stimulus response that are likely to reduce the importance of motivation in behaviour. The construct motivation is however fascinating both to the layman and social scientist. Its value is upheld by systematic empirical studies for psychologists. If we operationally define motivation the layman‟s assumptions about the concept disappears. We have to have a strictly scientific definition and a scientific empirical approach to this construct. Psychologists provide the procedures and methodology for studying motivation. Motivation is a concept familiar to us from personal experience; poets, philosophers, psychiatrists, biologists and psychologists have written it about. This forms an exciting area of inquiry for many disciplines. Motivation like many other concepts in psychology is not readily delimited. Motivation is an invisible variable, it is only inferred. This inference is made by our observation of external behaviour of persons. In our endeavour to understand human behaviour, we have to take note of observed behaviour and inferred variables or events. Psychologists for many years have distinguished between observed events and inferred events. Stimulus and response events are observed events or observable events. Stimulus events are environmental inputs and response events and response events as overt behavioural outputs of the organism. In the earlier days psychologists described behaviour as S-O-R (Stimulus – Organism – Response) bonds (Woodworth &
  • 99 Schlosberg, 1954). This appears to be more appropriate, because this stimulus to response is only through the mediation within the organism i.e., the processes going on in the organism (O) which are inferred. These inferred variables are called intervening variables. These variables intervene between stimulus and response.
  • 100 TABLE 4 Variables
  • 101 Explanatory Variables Intervening Dependent Leadership Motivation Morale Production out – put Decision making: Communication, conflict Costs, Earnings Turn resolution over. Organizational Philosophy Problem solving Technology Skills of leadership Note: Explanatory = causal validity. Dependent = output variables. Intervening = mediating variables. The intervening variables are not observable but can be made observable by appropriately transforming them by measuring instruments. In the absence of instruments to measure physiological changes in the organism as measures of inferred events, we can still measure them by measuring stimulus variables and response variables and relate them in terms of intensity of each of them for example a low intensity stimulus resulting in a high intensity response leads to infer that there must be a high intensity inferred events. A Brief Historical Note Man has used many concepts to explain human behaviour as means of better understanding of himself and his fellow men. Charles Darwin influenced scientific thought and almost revolutionized all scientific thinking. His influence was felt in such a way that psychology changed its course of thinking of the nature of man and his
  • 102 behaviour. Instincts that were thought to be in the realm of animals below humans came to be accepted to explain human behaviour. McDougall described instincts as dynamos of behaviour and said that this concept is applicable to man as much as to lower forms of living beings. The root of such thinking is the 19th century biology of Charles Darwin and his famous work on biological evolution. Instinct appeared a promising concept as means of accounting for a wide variety of human and animal behaviour. But sooner the concept of instinct as applied to humans came to be abandoned. Around the same time the concept of drive replaced instinct. This concept was referred to us, a mechanical system and also as a biological system. Freud and others used drive as a biological concept rather than as a mechanical concept, even this did not find much acceptance. Psychologists insisted that humans are more than machines and lower animals. Therefore in course of time drive concept disappeared and a more generic term motivation came to be favoured. Today we use the term motivation to explain human behaviour. Change of terminology from instincts to drive and then on to motivation is not just a mechanical or a cosmetic process. There is much more to it. Terms in science reflect a consensual process than a fancy of only one. Science is essentially a public process, involving sharing of knowledge at various levels. Science represents accumulated empirical facts and shared ideas. Ideas are tested and accepted and not blindly accepted. Time and geographical limitations do not apply to scientific knowledge. The change in terminology stated above reflects a basic change in conceptualisation or the problem to which these terms are applied. Why do we use the construct motivation? What advantage do we derive from this term in scientific work? Layman uses the term motivation in a loose sense but in science the same term is used in strict scientific sense with a definite meaning. Therefore we need to define motivation or any other term drawn from common usage to scientific usage in a strict and
  • 103 restricted sense. The idea is that all scientists get the same meaning of such terms. In psychology there are many terms borrowed from common parlance and defined in strict terms for purposes of scientific rigor. Adequate scientific supports to these terms are needed and scientific work renders it. In the study of human behavior motivation psychologists seek to provide an empirically sound and precise basis for using motivational explanations. Human behaviour exhibits a high degree of both variability and stability. Then what are the attributes of variability and stability? The most obvious fact both for layman and psychologist is that behaviour varies from time to time in any given individual. This is intra subject variability i.e. within subject variability. Behaviour varies among individuals. The behaviour varies among individuals. This is called inter subject variability. The variations referred here is under the condition of no change in the stimulus variable. This means that we encounter behaviour variability even in the absence of any difference in the stimulus variable. The stimulus variable may be internal or external. The word stimulus is used broadly in modern psychology to include any specific environmental effect or any antecedent behaviour or consequence of behaviour. The stimulus can be internal or external. Psychologists seek law and effect relationships between antecedent events and consequent events (responses). Next we may look at the concept of stability of behaviour. Behaviour displays a remarkable consistency. Here there is an apparent contradiction to the concept of variability we just now discussed. Here also we notice within (intra individual) and among individuals (inter individual) similarity and stability. If all individuals show a common pattern of behaviour over a period of time we call it between subject consistencies. If a given individual displays consistency or stability of behaviour over a period of time we call it within subject stability.
  • 104 But the scientist has to handle the dilemma of variability and stability both being a reality in human behaviour. Motive Goal directed Goal Behavior Goal Activity Figure 2: behaviour – goal directedness Five Steps. Behaviour is goal directed. The terms like purpose, intension, and goals are in common usage. These terms are found in major parts of literature on motivation. When we employ the construct motivation we are automatically considering purpose, goals and intensions of behaviour. It is an accepted view in psychology that behaviour is goal directed. Goal directedness of behaviour displays energy as well. Motivation refers to both goal directedness as well as energy to reach the goal. The latter is known from the extent of effort put in by the individual.
  • 105 Motivation and Specialty Areas Motivation is a major construct in a number of specialties within psychology. We can list a few of them here. Industrial psychology makes references to such topics as morale, incentive, payment, motivation to work, etc. Psychologists in the area of consumer research consider topics like consumer satisfaction preference for certain brands among products, consumer willingness to buy at high prices, etc Psychology of advertising deals with motivation. In sociological literature topics such as attitude change, cognitive dissonance, and such others appear frequently. For clinical psychologists motivation in problems of treatment adherence is a serious issue. Wherever psychologists deal with human beings in real life situations motivation assumes major importance. Psychologists have been attempting to establish conceptual and empirical relationships between motivation and activity. It was earlier hypothesized that in concurrence with the term drive postulated is an energy source to „drive‟ an organism to activity. McDougall called instincts as the dynamos of action or activity. There must be some steering effect behind the actual activity. Many theories of motivation emphasize motivation as an energizer. The concept of energy is considered pivotal in theories of motivation. Energizing function makes motivation different from other intervening variables such as learning, expectancy, beliefs, and attitudes. Accordingly it is said by some that energizing aspect of motivation is emphasized at the expense of other variables. Motivation in this sense is viewed as a generalized state of tension that increases all responses. This means that when an individual is in a highly motivated state is more active and does things with greater force than he would otherwise do. Such a condition of generalized tension has been given different names by different theorists.
  • 106 It is this energizing process that makes for the formidable character of the concept of motivation. We can now examine empirical evidence for this for this kind of conceptualisation of motivation as an energizing process. It is commonly observed that when an organism is deprived of something or some important life sustaining substance process of motivation is raised.
  • 107 Basic terms and Assumptions Deprivation rouses motivation to fight out deprivation. Deprivation therefore can be an antecedent condition. We can now examine other antecedent conditions that motivate the organism which are produced by a variety of stimuli. In some instances these stimuli can get pooled in some way so that the total motivation of the organism is heightened. That is, a group of stimuli as sources of motivation if simultaneously present motivation is heightened. This is additive characteristic of drives, meaning that drives summate, that the energizing functions of the diverse motivating conditions raise the total effective drive state of the organism. Stimulus specificity is not critical with so many sources of motivation adding up to a non-specific pool of energy. In the same way response specificity is not directly tied to motivation. The organism makes all categories of response moves not selective ones, only. This assumption states that underlying the concept of motivation as energy or arousal is that generalized response output is heightened. Amplitude, effort, and vigour aspects of responses are raised with increased energy mobilization. The prediction is made that more responses occur but not necessarily more correct or accurate ones. Generalized drive is said to raise response strength. The concept of response strength is not new in psychology and has to find a place in motivation in the face of generalized drive condition. The terms tension and energy imply physical and biological processes, but for psychologists the energizing aspect of motivation refers primarily to a behavioural process. Doing something to the organism or stimulating the organism in some way can behaviourally induce tension, energy, and arousal. We use biologically oriented terms whether spelled out or not they are considered relatively unimportant within a behavioural
  • 108 theory. Most psychologists are concerned with prediction of behaviour, with how increased motivation will be manifested in an individual‟s behaviour. Some psychologists have attempted to make an explicit formulation concerning physiological events involved in energy utilization or energy mobilization (Duffy, 1951). Despite diversity in theorizing energizing function of motivation there are some common basic assumptions. These are: That the effect of motivation on behaviour is primarily energizing That regardless of qualitative differences various sources of mobilization add to a total increase in the energizing process that motivation increases response in a general rather than a selective way. Relation of Emotion to Motivation In the historical developmental sense of psychology emotion was clearly distinguishable from motivation (Boring, 1950). Emotion was identified in terms of feelings and sensations and in terms of verbal awareness of these. Once behaviourism developed as a major system of psychology researchers were mainly concerned with overt behaviour and not inner feelings or inner happenings. Pribram (1967) wants to retain a distinction between emotion and motivation. He says that emotion focuses on a synthesis of sensations or intake of information from the environment and thus it is passive rather than active. Motivation is active in that it involves a preparation for action. There are others who refute this contention (Flinn, 1967) and say that emotion is not passive or geared primarily to affective process, but instead lead to action. There could be diverse views. The layperson tends to distinguish between emotion and motivation and does so by tradition and in non-technical language. If psychologists distinguish between emotion and motivation they do so in terms time sequence. The initial internal response to environmental events is said to be emotion
  • 109 which is followed by motivation and to action. There is general agreement that emotion precedes motivation. It does no harm in taking them as not distinguishable at the present state of knowledge. Incentive motivation is different from deprivation motivation. Under incentive motivation the more the individual attains a satisfier or a reward the more he wants it. It is the same thing as saying incentive goads on. In contrast deprivation induced motivation involves a reduction of drive when an individual attains a satisfier or reward so that the more an individual attains a satisfier or reward the less he wants it. Reward- motivation relationship is complex. Reward value itself can be heightened by heightened drive. Secondary motivation is used to describe learned motivation in contrast to primary motivation. The former is not biologically determined. Rewards can be related to goals in a number of ways. In much of the literature dealing with animals, rewards and goals are interchangeably used. In humans the goal typically refers to an anticipated or sought- outcome rather than an actual out-come. In the case of human behavior the construct of goal implies cognitive processes that involve decision- making, choices, planning, and expectations. Measures of goals for which people strive or they wish to obtain have been developed. Level of aspiration measures what a person wishes to obtain as a positive outcome. Level of expectation measures what a person anticipates to obtain. What we would like to obtain is not always what we expect to obtain The level of aspiration and the level of expectation usually differ in that level of aspiration may be higher than level of expectation and that probability of attainment is lower for level of aspiration than level of expectation.
  • 110 Goals vary according to a person‟s performance level. In turn goals alter person‟s performance level. The standards set for us or that we set for ourselves can alter our performance significantly. When we do well we tend to raise our goals and we do not well we tend to lower our goal. Success, Failure, causal Beliefs, and Need for Achievement A motivated individual is not a passive creature to be motivationally aroused by manipulating immediate antecedents or consequences. In recent years psychological literature has contained increased emphasis on control of behaviour and thus emanated the thought that motivated organism is a passive creature. .Studies in behaviours modification has contributed to this kind of thinking. Therefore, it is pertinent to raise a question as to how passive or active individuals are. This revolves around the issue of self-determination. If we accept passivity theory we have to deny self-determination. The emphasis here is on human behaviour. Does the human being have control over his behaviour and over the consequences of his behaviour, or his behaviour in the normal course of events strictly determined by causes beyond his control? All behaviour is influenced by a number of factors and to that extent behaviour is predetermined. The major factors are: Innate characteristics Learning as a result of past experience at that point in time, and The immediate environment where behaviour occurs From these it can be surmised that taking a narrow and restricted path of thinking we may have to admit predetermination of human behaviour.
  • 111 Yet there is another aspect to be considered which can bring forth support for self- determination point of view. Individual behaviour cannot be completely predicted by knowing all the past experiences and immediate circumstances of the individual. Instead consider the individual as a creative person who constantly makes assessment and appraisals of events, appraises goals for future actions and behaves in accordance with these self-determining tendencies. The two positions are in opposition to each other. But can we bridge them and find a common ground? The best possible course is to do some logical thinking as empirical attempts are yet to come. Ultimately as of now motivation is the answer. A brief mention may be made of social learning theory (SLT). Locus of control is the central theme of this theory. A related topic as attribution theory approach to motivation has demonstrated that people in general have their beliefs about the extent to which they personally control their own actions as well as environmental events. Such a belief relates significantly to the way a person behaves in different situations. It is not empirically known whether a person‟s belief and the extent to which he can control his own actions and environmental events correlate or whether they cause his behavior to occur in certain ways. The human adult unmistakably selects some information from the environment to the exclusion of others and this elf-selection appears to have long-range effects on his behaviour. Houston and Mednick (1963) demonstrated that highly creative individuals select novel stimuli from the environment significantly more than do individuals who are not creative. A test of creativity was to differentiate creative and non-creative individuals. Self- selection of stimulus input can serve to modify the way the environment affects a person‟s behaviour. Expectancies, hypotheses about the environment, and a need for
  • 112 novelty are cognitive processes by which individuals in terms of their own bias or disposition select aspects of the environment to which they respond. In line with this argument we may consider cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957) which emphasizes the effects of beliefs on behaviour. Cognitive dissonance is about belief discrepancy as a source of motivation that dynamogenic effect playa an important role in determining behaviour. Achievement Motivation A learned disposition to achieve called achievement motive (Atkinson, 1964), provides a tendency for the individual to seek success in achievement situations. Atkinson distinguishes between motive and motivation. The personality disposition is called a motive. In the case of achievement it refers to a capacity for taking pride in accomplishment when successful performance is achieved. Taking satisfaction in accomplishments, seeking and enjoying success are basic aspects of achievement motive. This disposition becomes manifest as motivation, as an active effortful process. Motivation is an activation of a disposition in a given situation can thus be thought as an action tendency. Motivation thus affects an individual‟s preference to perform one or another act. If two alternative tendencies exist the individual selects the stronger tendency. The implication is achievement motive expresses itself. Those with high achievement motive have different expectations than those who have low achievement motive. The latter have high degree of anxiety. There is evidence to show that need for achievement (n Ach) is a fairly stable disposition which becomes evident as the child grows older.
  • 113 The high n Ach individuals do not attach importance to external rewards like money incentives, whereas low n Ach individuals work harder for higher money incentives. Relationships between motive and incentive are an important aspect in the context of discussion of relationship between deprivation and reward such as praise that can be considered as ego-enhancing. For many individuals it is valued differently from material rewards and people work hard to get both money and praise. Between the two there is another source that prompts the workers to put in the best of their efforts that is the job itself. The job is rewarding as experienced by the individual and it is a subjective experience. A clear distinction is made between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Researchers have focused their attention on how internal and external rewards are different in motivating the individual. The extrinsic rewards may diminish intrinsic motivation and the value of extrinsic motivation may diminish when it is withdrawn. Motivation is a complex construct in psychology. Understanding human behaviour cannot be complete without understanding motivation. The necessity of understanding and have a fair amount of grip over motivation is a necessity to understand human behaviour in organizations or any other behaviour settings... The aim is to understand the past behaviour and present behaviour and attempt prediction of what future behaviour would be like. This is of significance to theory building as much as it is of practical utility. Behaviour as already noted is goal directed. It means that behaviour is motivated to attain some goal. The basic unit of behaviour is an activity. The complex behaviours are a series of interrelated activities. Motives direct the individual towards some goals that are expected to satisfy these motives.
  • 114 Motives are in the individual and goals are outside. These goals are something for attainment to satisfy motives. Behaviour intensity depends on strength of the motive and attractiveness of the goal. If either of them is weak behaviour toward the goal is either weak or absent The individual has several motives. Some of them act together additively. Some compete among themselves, some in an antagonistic way to each other. This is just one aspect of complexity of the construct motivation. Motivational behaviour in addition is dependent upon the strength of the underlying motive or motives. Motive strength is not a constant or of a static character. Motive strength may vary within them... The latter refers to enhancing or diminishing character of strength of the motives based on contingencies. Satisfied motive loses some of its strength for the time. According to Maslow (1954) a satisfied need is no longer a motivator. In such a situation a competing motive gets stronger than the one satisfied. An unsatisfied motive continues to strive for satisfaction until it is impossible to obtain satisfaction. Any blocking of satisfaction of a need leads to frustration. This is an intra individual condition, a subjective condition. High strength needs show two kinds of activity. They are: Goal directed activity and goal activity. Goal directed activity is a motivated behaviour directed at reaching a goal. The individual in reaching the goal may pursue many avenues. Goal directed activity could diminish as it progresses towards satiation of the need and at this point another need pushes itself forward. All the needs make their presence periodically none of them satiated once and for all.
  • 115 The situation or the environment has a dominant role to play in motivation. Motives, goals, and activity are all interrelated. A motivating situation is one in which motives are directed towards goal attainment. The strongest motive produces behaviour that is either goal directed or goal activity. All goals are not attainable and individuals do not always reach goal activity regardless of strength of the motive. Goals may be tangible or not tangible. Atkinson (1958) has demonstrated that the degree of motivation and effort rise until the probability of success is .50 and then begins to fall even though the probability of success increases. This follows the inverted U. The low probability does not motivate and equally a very high probability of success also does not produce high activity. When probability is low there will be weak activity and when it is very high also there will be weak activity. The optimum is .50 for a strong activity. (Fig 3) Activity peaks when probability of success is in the middle range. Analogically very low anxiety leads to complacence very high anxiety debilitates. Moderate anxiety promotes well adjusted behaviour. The principle of inverted U holds well in this context also. In the same way expectancy and availability of goal affects need strength. Expectancy affects motives availability affects goal perception. Both are interrelated and are capable of affecting goal-seeking behaviour. Availability is not entirely and always an external condition. This may be a vicarious inference. It may be a perceived limitation. Availability is an environmental variable but it is the perception or interpretation of reality that affects actual behaviour. This is subjective reality.
  • 116 Figure 3: moderate probability of success and strength of motivation
  • 117 Motivation and Environmental Factors Efficiency experts at the Hawthorne Electric Company studied effects of environmental conditions to find some means of reducing existing tensions and raising production levels. The findings were inconclusive. In 1924 the company invited and enlisted the services of National Academy of Sciences. The attempt towards the goal of reducing tensions and raising production once again started from the same premises that the efficiency experts did. The scientists landed in the place where the company had landed. They then went ahead with other avenues to find solutions. The work done by F.W.Taylor and Gilbreth were at the back of this attempt of Hawthorn studies. The worker was considered an isolated machine and could be manipulated for efficiency. This definitely proved wrong. The hypotheses were that the physical environmental factors affected efficiency. The main factors influencing efficiency were thought to be: wasteful and ineffective movements in doing the job, fatigue, and defects of physical environment such as poor lighting, uncomfortable room temperature , excessive humidity and so on. Elton Mayo, professor of industrial research at the Harward Graduate School of Business undertook the responsibility for Hawthorne Studies. Just prior to Mayo‟s work at Hawthorne Electric Company he carried out an investigation into the causes of labour turn over among male spinners in a textile mill. This was in 1923. His views changed in orientation following his Hawthorne Studies the facts of labour turn over in most departments in the textile mills was 5-6percent per annum, but the turn over in spinning department it was 250 percent. These workers received a bonus each month if their production exceeded 75 percent and if it exceeded 80 percent every worker received 5% t bonus on his monthly wage. This remained in theory because production never exceeded
  • 118 70% of the quota. There were some special conditions of the job that influenced the attitude of the workers. These were: The workers had low estimate of the status of the job The job was monotonous The work was essentially solitary. In a sense Hawthorn Studies were an eye opener for him .The prevailing view earlier was mechanistic view. His early results were puzzling. His non-directive interviewing of the workers brought forth various revelations as his earlier direct interview of the workers created more problems than solved. A research report from the Survey Research Centre of the University of Michigan entitled “Productivity, Supervision, and Employee Morale” says that supervisors of high production groups were those who: Were under less supervision from their supervisors Placed less direct emphasis upon production as a goal Were more employee oriented Spent more of their time in supervision and less in straight production work Encouraged employee participation in making decisions Had a greater confidence in their supervisory roles Felt that they knew where they stood in relation to the company.
  • 119 These findings are supportive of Mayo‟s findings of social aspect in work environment and importance of the worker as a human being and not a machine. Similarly Miller and Form in their Industrial Sociology consider the main implications of Mayo‟s work to be that the problem of absenteeism, turn over, low morale, and poor efficiency reduces to the problem of how groups may be solidified and collaboration increased in large as well as small work plants. The problem as the sociologist C.H. Cooley would say is how to build primary group life. Miller and Form summarized Mayo‟s work briefly as follow: 1. Work is a group activity 2 the social world of the adult is primarily patterned about work activity 3 the need for recognition, security, and sense of belongingness is more important in determining the workers‟ morale and productivity than physical conditions under which they work. 4 a complaint is not necessarily an objective recital of facts, it is a symptom manifesting disturbance an individual‟s status position 5 the worker is a person whose attitudes and effectiveness are conditioned by social demands from both inside and out side the work plant 6 informal groups within the work plant exercise strong social controls over work habits and attitudes of individual worker 7 the change from an established to an adaptive society that is from older type of community life to the atomistic society tends to continually to disrupt the social organization of a work plant and industry generally.
  • 120 8. - group collaboration does not occur by accident. It must be planned and developed. If group collaboration is achieved the work relations within work plant may reach a cohesion which resists the disrupting effects of adaptive society. All the painstaking work of Elton Mayo is not free from criticism from different quarters. The industrialists are likely to believe that Mayo‟s conclusions are true, but irrelevant. For the social psychologists they are true, but obvious; for the sociologists they are true but do not go far enough. Of all these objections sociologist‟s criticism is more serious. They do not disagree with his findings but have criticisms to make. They are: 1 that he has investigated the factory to the almost exclusion of its social background 2 that he shows bias in favour of management 3 that, in the field of scientific methods, he ignored the importance of theory and adopts an attitude which exalts empiricism, observation, and fact finding It is difficult to disagree with the above criticisms of the sociologist. It is not only Mayo but his predecessors Taylor and Gilbreth also worked more for the management than for the workers. It is true that Mayo‟s was one step ahead of the others in the field. He brought into focus the importance of social factors. Higher production did not benefit the management alone but also the workers and the society at large. It can also be said that his work cannot generalize across factories. His work may not reflect a general trend; we may now turn our attention to work and its nature. In the modern context as it was in ancient times work is an essential part of man‟s life. It is work that links him to society, gives him a status. Ordinarily every body likes to work and work is a social activity. The morale of the worker is more a social phenomenon than
  • 121 having a direct link with work. People work for incentives, money plays a role but not as important as getting employment. Unemployment is feared because it cuts us away from society. Work by itself is an incentive. Many individuals who have plenty of money also work. If we consider unemployment and understand it we can then realize what work means to a person. Status is a form of incentive. It provides recognition, an identity. Physical environmental conditions refer to physical comfort for the individual at work. There are other factors that provide job satisfaction. An unimaginative management may take pride in providing high financial incentives and provide comfortable working conditions. But social and psychological factors are the ultimate deciders of how happy and satisfied a worker is. Quality of life is not the same as standard of life. Quality of life self-perceived efficiency and conducive social environment promotes job satisfaction. CHAPTER – VII ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY–MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR In order to understand organizational psychology we have to get to know two important aspects. They are: Human behaviour,
  • 122 Organizational settings... Human behaviour is explained in terms of three pillars of psychology- cognition affection and connation. Cognition: Cognition is a term used for every process by which a living creature obtains knowledge of some object, or becomes aware of its environment cognitive processes are perception, discovery, and recognition, imagining, judging, memorizing, leaning, thinking and communicating. Some psychologists draw a distinction between volitional and emotional process. It is also used as organizing knowledge acquired... Cognition refers to a human activity that is intellectual and communicable. All these can be summarized to the representation or grasping in conceptual terms of a concrete or abstract object by perception, imagination and conceptualisation Understanding or explanation: The understanding of an object as specifies because it fits into a system of relationships that justifies it by its very nature. In both these meanings, the cognitive action determines the object as such, and difficulties between these which is known and the person who has cognisance of it. Cognition, therefore contrasts with the pure subjectivity of the steps of consciousness, feeling and belief, because it merely aims at revealing the truth. Problem in regard to cognition concerns its origin such as reason, experience, and etc nature, such as intuitive, discursive, and such other phenomena. Cognitive theory
  • 123 This can also be called theory of knowledge. This seeks to explain the nature, mechanisms and value of cognition by studying the gained relationship between subject and object, thought and the external world historically it can be traced to the views on cognition as: Here is an object outside thought that is conceived by thought process as realism, idealism, rationalism. There is no object outside thought- phenomenally. Even when an object is present it cannot be known, i.e., scepticism. But we are concerned with the cognising and the knowing object rather than with these philosophical enquiries. The cognising and knowing subject is the individual himself. Finally the dialectical explanation developed in is not the type of elements that determines the relationship between cognition and object. On the contrary subject and object develop a unity in which elements act reciprocally. Cognitive Orientation Theory According to this theory, cognitive processes, such as recognition, combination and elaboration of meaning are necessary connections for elicitation of orienting reflexes and it‟s acquiring of conditioned reflexes and determines the course of human molar behavior. This theory suggests that cognitive process can be intervening between stimulation and behaviours. The interaction between stimulation and cognitive orientation components precedes goal directed behaviour. The cognitive orientation components can be beliefs about goals, norms, self, etc, sometimes conflicts occur in goal directed behavior if cognitive components clash among themselves. Thus we can see its importance of cognition and cognitive processes contributing to goal directed behaviour.
  • 124 Conation Conation is described as a purposive mental drive or striving towards action. This can be blind impulse or as purposeful efforts and voluntary activity. Conation is mediated between cognition and action. Affection Affection is a general term for emotion or feeling. It is a general term for tenderness of love. It is a term denoting influence or alteration of psychic state or constitution by the environment, i.e., the stage of being affected by something external. Cognition, conation, and affection can summarize the activity of the individual. It is difficult to say which precedes which. They are interactive and related. So we can say an individual‟s behaviour is governed by these three processes. We should also note that these processes are complex processes. We now come to human behaviour at work. An adult is a dynamic changing individual with different needs and demands at different periods in time; therefore he will have different experiences in different situations. Research in psychology of motivation has demonstrated that human adult life is emerging with great rapidity to suit the changes in the environment. The relevant phenomena of organizations like motivation, leadership assume great importance. This is from the management point of view. However its can only be a part of the story of management point of view. Because the organization has for its goal another significant component i.e., enhancement of human potential and satisfaction which can be attained by passive or active learning by the individual on the job and more importantly a well planned and executed employee development program which is more aptly and adequately called human resource development.
  • 125 We are interested in behaviour at work both from the point of view of efficiency and employee satisfaction. We should recognize here that the human being is a dynamic person, always aiming at growth and developments. We now examine whether behaviour or work behaviour from the management point of view the following stand out prominently in this regard: Organizational and personal factors that influence different types of work behaviour. Factors that enhance work ego. What makes work debilitating, what makes it satisfying? Techniques and methods that are available to increase work performance and how sound are they? Can we improve them? To find answers to these questions we have to have a close look of research in the behaviour sciences such as political science, anthropology, sociology in addition to studying psychological research primarily. The contribution of psychological research needs a closer and intense look, as it is more extensive. It has made a very significant contribution. However study of work behaviour remained interdisciplinary. Kurt Lewin said that there is nothing as practical as a good theory. In the study of human behavior theory has a great place. Researches in this field have evinced great interest in theoretical formulations of human behaviours. Theory can be a starting point and can also an end product and in turn be a starting point. This is a circular relationship in theory. Theoretical investigations highlight the significant factors that influence attitudes and interests of the workers, enable systematic investigation, and provide guidelines of administrative decision-making. They also contribute to growth of our conceptual understanding or work behavior and to develop more effective practice in both human resource development and management. Motivational theories and intellectual cognitive – processing abilities have come under
  • 126 human resource research which has produced newer development in organizational functioning related human resource development and its utilization by way of appropriate management. We can start with motivation and work behaviour. Most executives and business managers want to find out how they can increase work motivation to higher levels. If the methods they are using do not work they look for new methods. Very often they feel that psychology is merely theoretical statements with nothing practical to offer. In this they do not seem to know that here is nothing as practical as good theory as told by Kurt Levin. Any theory in science is based on empirical facts gathered systematically. If empiricism is the hallmark of science then scientific formulations are based on empirical data and at the same time construct and concept oriented. More on this in the Chapter XIV dealing with Research needs in Human Behaviour. By way of research we come to know what influences human behavior. How complex is behavior and how complex is the motivational influence? These are some questions scientist raises. In fact work behaviour is complex and motivational factors are complex. Systematic scientific research can answer the question. Traditional approaches to motivating work behaviour are simplistic. These are rightly or wrongly based on the management‟s assumptions namely anxiety and rational economic model of man The irrationality of these as motivators can be seen at a close look to know how these came to be useful. In the psychological laboratory, under simulated conditions the psychologists found: 1 Anxiety facilitates performance of unsuitable tasks. 2 Anxiety debilitates performance on hard tasks.
  • 127 For any given task increasing anxiety promotes performance up to a point, and debilities when further increased. The inverted U. Too little anxiety leads to compliance and too much anxiety debilitates. The mean position of the inverted U is the best level of intensity in motivating work behaviour. But when we look at these three formulations we can easily discern what might apply to certain specific situation and cannot be generalized. This is a restrictive utility value of anxiety as a motivator, i.e. generalisability is lacking. Another restriction is that laboratory finding does not find a place in real life. We may satisfy experimental realism a well planned and executed experiment, but we cannot by satisfy the mundane realism, i.e., .of external validity of laboratory findings. The laboratory situation is very different from real life situation. Anxiety itself is of different kinds. Specific anxiety variables are fear of failure and fear of success. These two are very pertinent to work motivation. In this aspect and to this extent we may accept findings of experimental laboratories and examine how these could be translated into real life situation. Fear of failure Atkinson (1958), Atkinson and Feather (1966) identified this concept of fear of failure that describes the anxiety that is felt about the failure for the objective failure itself. There are individual differences in these aspects, in the sense some have more and others less of this kind of anxiety Atkinson proposes individual differences in combination of nature of task situation that influences achievement oriented behavior. This may be generalized as follow: Individuals who are high in fear of failure want to avoid achievement-demanding situation in general.
  • 128 If they are forced to stay in such situation by some motivational force such as the desire to go along with group interested in achievement, “fear of failure” people will work best in situations where they are very likely to fail or very likely to succeed, as opposed to situations of medium risk for success, because, if they work at very difficult task, no body will blame them for failing, and if they work at a very easy task they will not be likely to fail. There is a paradox here. Atkinson predicts that a person with fear of failure is more likely to choose a situation in which he has medium probability of success given only two choices. Atkinson assumes that it is the desire to avoid the fear of failure rather than objective failure, and the fact that person is less likely to be blamed if the task very hard rather than the task is of medium difficulty. This argument is rather circuitous. However Atkinson‟s view has high potential for research. Binny, Burdick, and Teevan (1969) summarize what a person with fear of failure is likely to avoid the situations where he will be evaluated precisely, prefer comparing himself against groups greatly deficient from himself, prefer privacy, prefer vague and imprecise means of performance, reject responsibility, blame others when he fails to meet performance standards. These and Atkinson‟s finding afford a useful ground. To accept that fear of failure is both actually and potentially a very useful way of viewing motivational process of some people. If used judiciously as a motivational process it works. In a quasi- experimental design we can measure fear of failure and correlate it with achievement motivation. The facts applicable to real life situation could come to light rather than the experimental method and try to apply the results to real life situation.
  • 129 Fear of failure can cause self defeating choices in relation to difficulty level of tasks and there by miss the opportunity to achieve success in difficult tasks which the person may be able to do. Is here a lesson for human resource development here? I think yes. Fear of success This anxiety variable also presents a paradoxical form of human behaviour. A new concept emerged to explain achievement behaviour or the lack of it when women liberation got on to its highs. McClelland‟s need for achievement and Atkinson‟s fear of failure did not make it easy to preach achievement behaviour in women. There are high achievers among women and low achievers among men, but can McClelland theory or Atkinson‟s theory account for this? Horner (1968) made it clear that intelligent in our society have been socializing along mutually contradictory dimensions. On the one land they have been tumult to value achievement, on the other they are taught to fear success because the society is non feminine. They learned success is for men; home and family are for women. This is in a nutshell socialization process that made women and men view achievement differently. Fear of success was built in to a woman‟s life. Since her formulation as stated above has been revised there are two directions in which her hypothesis has been viewed, one, these has been compatible with her hypothesis, two, fear of success is not true or all women. If men are disinterested in achievement it be should be fear of failure and not fear of success. All this will lead to a need to reduce types of anxiety in work setting, particularly those which generates negative feeling towards success. Much of the anxiety in work situation
  • 130 is in the form of overemphasis on success. People have to be moderately pushed towards success and remember the inverted U. Fear-of-failure anxiety needs to be moderated conversely and not completely denominated. Excessive push towards with achievement and fear–of–failure in high doses will be detrimental to achievement. . Managers need to take note of this. The Rational – economic man What does a worker get out of him work? Traditional view is that “the more he performs the more he gets. This is a simple statement. This would mean: A person thinks that some kind of out come is desirable. A person will get the out come by performing at a given level; and The person will be motivated to perform at a given level. The two approaches, namely, anxiety and rational – economic man model are with us for a very long time and thus provide a theoretical basis on which most organizations stand. The belief is that there are certain gratifications that are in the grasp of the management to control and thus influence performance. These are when carefully stated boil down to salary, promotion, and security and good working conditions. But then these have favourable effects in performance only when the workers think that they are linked to their performance and if they believe that many rewards are not contingent upon performance, they will not react to incentives. Lawler and Porter (1967) used the hypothesis that the amount effort a person expends in this job as judged by his superiors or peers, is related to which he perceives that he could achieve desired outcomes by engaging in such effort. They also predicted that such
  • 131 things as ability and the accuracy of role perceptions would also affect his over all performance, where as effort would not. The sample of their study was 154 managers in five organizations. Their study supported their hypotheses. In all the research work subsequent to Porter and Lawler (1968), the idea is not behaviour is a function of the value one expects to obtain from a set of behaviours but one‟s rational expectancy of being able to engage in the behaviours required to obtain them. Here value is a function of the reward to be obtained and one likes for the reward. Later researches have not found much support to these theories. These theories use the term value. This term is very complex psychologically. The economic man theory is rather a narrow view of man. The expectancy value and instrumentality theory represents money, advancement, old age benefits, security, etc. This view is a narrow view of values. People are interested in the opportunity for achievement, interest in the job, challenging or socially acceptable work. The behavioural effects of trying to achieve this value are need for achievement (n Ach) of McClelland. The older theories ignored the most significant motivational incentives rather than the one mentioned earlier, such as, money, advancement, etc. The assumption that money is a motivator cannot hold. More is better, that is it assures greater incentive is not true. Later researches like that of Deci (1972) who found that when one tries to combine traditional incentives and those considered modern, such as challenging work, in influencing work motivation the economic model of man would not predict. He found that already performing a task for one incentive seems to lessen the effect of any other incentive. Glickeman et al (1974) found that adding incentives to naval enlistment did not lead to greater likely hood of choosing the tough career.
  • 132 Perceived utility of pay incentive Barrett (1971) was found to indicate that increasing incentive by either adding to the value of one incentive or by combing different incentives do not have automatic cumulative effects on behaviour. Management cannot apply the expectancy –value approach though on the face value it is reasonable. Therefore the traditional theories lack application possibility. We can cite some more evidences in this direction. Expectancy-value theories may lose their usefulness because they are future oriented theories and people have to live in the present primarily and with future secondarily. Past is here “now” future is here “now” and this appeals philosophically. But the modern man does not have the patience to wait for long for an incentive to occur. The economic man theory has some value in predicting work behaviour, but it is not the theory and there is much that it cannot account for. The traditional theories outlined above stress extrinsic incentives... These serve a limited purpose. Most people in addition to seeing these extrinsic incentives look for satisfaction of their needs characterized by their idiosyncrasies. Some may value extrinsic incentives as more important than the intrinsic desire for achievement. How could both extrinsic and intrinsic incentives be made available are differentially valued by different individuals? We can not throw a blanket policy for all. Mc CLelland‟s achievement motivation appears to be capable of getting most people to do their best. The need for achievement (n Ach) is defined as the “desire to exceed some standard of behaviour,” originated in psychological laboratories but later expanded into the study of various types of organizational and other kinds of achievement behaviour. There is now a fair amount of grasp as to how this need arises, how individual differences in this characteristic can be measured and what such differences mean in terms of performance.
  • 133 McClelland (1961) after extensive study of need for achievement made some useful and meaningful formulations. They are: Individuals differ in the degree to which they find achievement a satisfying experience. Individuals with high n Ach tend to prefer the following situations and will work harder than individuals with low n Ach: Situations of moderate risk – feelings of achievement will be minimal in cases of little risk and achievement will probably not occur in cases of great risk. Situations where knowledge of results is provided – a person with his achievement motive will want to know whether he has achieved or not Situations where individual responsibility is provided – a person oriented towards achievement will want to make sure that he and not somebody gets the credit for it. Since these three types of situations are found to in the business entrepreneurial role, individuals with high n Ach will be attracted to the entrepreneurial role as a lifetime occupation. Successful entrepreneurial role assures economic growth. Therefore it follows that a large number of people should be attracted to the entrepreneurial function. According McClelland this level of function is for all concerned as a step in the right direction. Now it is clear that if achievement motivation is enhanced then the increase in the economic function of a society becomes a reality. We may take his formulation as a hypothesis. We may question as to how economic performance of a society is taken care of when achieving man has his own complexity of behaviour. We may ask what the components are of the attribute called achievement motive. No attribute can be a single component attribute much less need for achievement.
  • 134 Also that each person his n Ach towards his own goals and we encounter individual differences here. For example, A may direct it towards literary achievement, B towards money, C towards power and so on. McClelland has not said the final word on work performance by his achievement motivation theory. There are many unanswered questions in this regard. The question is whether there is general performance efficiency or is this specific to situations or does is it a multidimensional attribute. If these questions are answered we can hazard to develop a yardstick, for measuring need for achievement for different requirements. Needs to achieve which may not have creativity component in repetitive jobs. General administrative management success may not be released to n Ache. Parameters differ. General management situations may be a routine in such a way there is no risk-taking or having or heaving feed back and individual responsibility. All these do not mean n Ach research has not been of any use. It only means that it has specific human activities with in its audit. We may now consider a few other motivational models. Expectancy – value theory of motivation is not adequate because this reduces the complexity of the individual to a very simple explanatory principle. The human motivation is not as simple as that. It is a lightly complex and dynamic process and man is not an automaton either in the economic sense. Human experience (both objective and subjective) is highly varied and complex. This justifies our seeking psychological or any other behavioural science input into the understanding of such complex process of human motivation.
  • 135 Maslow Maslow proposed hierarchy theory of human motives. This theory is known as self- actualisation theory, humanistic psychology, or third world psychology. Its strongest support comes from those whose focus is management development and organizational development. It is their opinion that this theory is valid. Existential philosophy provides the basis. This philosophy argues that human beings are capable of a meaningful viable, potential filling existence. . But they are prevented from this path by the conditions prevailing in the environment. Behaviour in a self-actualising manner is to be supported by the environment. They have been forced by circumstances to behave in a sub optimal manner. This has to be remedied. The manager therefore should get to know the factors that prevent people from reaching self-actualisation and then change the conditions accordingly. The aim must be to facilitate self-actualisation. The major assumption of this theory is that all humans posses the potential for self actualization. Being and becoming are two facets. Becoming is the goal and humans have the potential for this. Maslow (1954) proposes that a person‟s behaviour is organized around a hierarchy of motives with the lowest being physiological needs such as hunger and thirst. Once these needs are satisfied security needs assume importance. These are followed by social, self- esteem, and self-actualisation as needs and motivators of behaviour. Higher needs become potential as the lower needs are satisfied. There were supporters of Maslow. People look for satisfying higher needs as the lower needs are satisfied or else the motivators continue at a level yet to be satisfied. The line of argument looks tenable It is then suggested that we change the work settings to allow opportunity to higher needs level needs if we want workers to be well motivated for
  • 136 productive work behaviour. Improving work environment would benefit both the employee and the organization. This does not need elaboration. Thus when we look back from the time the theory was proposed and subsequent t developments a question arises. The theory became very popular, but is it adequate to explain human behaviour in term of these needs. Are the needs strictly hierarchical as it is made out? Granting the five needs do operate do they arrange themselves in the hierarchical manner as proposed or is it dependent on the individuals? The importance of each of these needs as they relate to each other can vary from person to person, from situation to situation. We have to take note of individual differences and also situation differences in determining the relative importance by these needs. Aspirations are influenced by various factors and social factors do play a dominant role in the level of aspiration of a person. Asch (1956) and Milgram (1965) have experimentally demonstrated that individual opinions have changed by what others say, either by the majority factor, or with status factor or by both these go to show that social influence on one‟s behaviour is factor to reckon with... The Hawthorne studies have shown group influence in production level in clear terms. Such changes and adoption of new opinions occur as due to social influence cannot be debated. We go by the groups and group opinions when there is no other yardstick to measure that our opinion is true and can stick. Under group influence we shape our behavior by comparing our achievement with that of the group. We should note how pronounced the group influence is governing group dynamics operate here also to determine the social effect in achievement performance level. In the actual working we find that the traditional and modern terms are mixed up and it is contingency that seems to dictate motivational efforts.
  • 137 In the context of work motivation for effective performance we have to take note of many aspects. The concepts and factors involved here are very complex. To begin with we will examine two aspects namely, motivating and behavior, and motivating environment. Let us examine the first two, namely hierarchy of motives and behaviour. Basically behaviour is goal seeking or goal directed. . Our behaviour is generally motivated to attain some goal. The individual ordinarily knows the specific goal he is seeking to attain. But some times he may not be aware of why he did what he did. There are individual differences in ability and equally so in motivation. That which motivates A may not motivate B. There are difference in strength of different motives intra individually and inter individually. These issues complicate our understanding of human motivation in general and work motivation in particular. We said behaviour is goal seeking and naturally we should locate the goal that we are seeking. There are goals. . They are rewards or incentives. There are tangible financial rewards. But we also know that there are intangible rewards such as recognition, and achievements etc. The former are called extrinsic rewards, the letter intrinsic rewards. The strength of each of these is an individual matter. But these could be influenced by social factors. We accept that behaviour is motivated, which means behaviour is the cause to satisfy innumerable number of motives. There innumerable number of motives competes among themselves seeking gratification. Then we can reasonably ask as to which of these the individual is seeking to gratify simplest owner can be the strongest need. At any given time attainment of gratification is a different issue.
  • 138 Motive strength may vary from time to time or may cause gratification based on environmental factors at the time of seeking gratification depending on probability and possibility of gratification... According Maslow, when a need is satisfied it is no longer a motivator, and then a competing need seeks gratification. If a need seeks gratification and fails it results in frustration, and sometimes gets weakened but only when coping is attempted. Coping behaviour may be rational. The person may repeat efforts for gratification, or postpone, or try a detour or give up. Blocked motives and continually unsuccessful coping behaviour may lead to irrational coping behaviour. Festinger (1957) in his theory of cognitive dissonance has dealt with the relationships that exist between perceptions people have about themselves and their environment. When individual perceptions have nothing to do with each other, they can be irrelevant to each other. If one supports the other then there will be consonance. If one opposes the other then there is dissonance. Dissonance creates tension which is uncomfortable. This makes the individual try to reduce tension and consequent discomfort by modifying one of the incompatible factors – this is a case of changing coping behaviour, an attempt to regain condition of equilibrium or consonance. Cognitive dissonance itself can be a motivator to behaviour. The blocking of goal attainment can cause frustration. Frustration is a condition of the individual rather than outside the individual. A real barrier or an imaginary barrier can cause tension. At times blocking of goals attainment may lead to aggression and. rationalization can also be one of the out comes of blocking of goal attainment. In some cases blocking of attainment of goal may lead to strengthening coping behavior. Here the individual is attempting to be stronger than the blocking effect.
  • 139 Goal directed activity and goal activity are activities resulting from high strength needs. These concepts are important for organizations because these can have differing influences on need strength. Goal – directed activity The individual has a goal to reach. His activities are directed towards how to the reach the goal. He is ideationally or actually moving in that direction, i.e., in the direction of the goal that can satisfy his need.
  • 140 Goal – activity The individual after reaching the goal or attaining the goal involves himself in the goal itself. The goal directed activity, as the activity is initiated and person is moving on towards it, tends to strengthen the need seeking gratification. The activity tends decrease the strength of the need as this activity progresses towards gratification. Need strength is affected yet by another set of factors, namely expectancy and availability. Expectancy is the perceived probability of satisfying a need based on past experience or by observing others, i.e., experience can be either actual or vicarious. The latter comes from parents, peer group and available literature. Availability refers to the perceived limitations of the environment. It is determined by how accessible the goals that satisfy a given need are perceived by the individual. Availability is an environmental factor as perceived by the individual where expectancy is a subjective factor. Behaviour is determined by a combination of expectancy and availability. There are several needs that people have. The workers look for what the jobs can give them to gratify their needs. Several authors have produced several lists of what the workers want from their jobs. Briefly stated: Good working conditions
  • 141 Appreciation of work done Management loyalty Good pay Promotion and vertical growth Job security Interesting work This list is not exhaustive. There are many needs that workers look for. The strength of each of these in relation to other requirements varies from person to person and from level to level among personnel. Each organization should have a research and development department to aid the management to feel the pulse of the workers. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Efficiency experts like F.W. Tailor, Gilbreth, and Mayo designed their studies manipulating the environmental factors in order to enhance work efficiency. All these derived enormous interest and Mayo‟s work alone endured for long and stimulated important research projects. With the study of Mayo with Hawthorne electric company human relations movement gathered momentum. The leader of the group involved in this significant study, Elton Mayo received recognition and he was counted. . Elton Mayo and his team from Harward Business School started their work in the Hawthorne Electric Company where efficiency experts were thrown into confusion with the contradictory results they obtained in their efforts in manipulating the environmental factors for increasing efficiency of their workers. They thought it is best to leave the
  • 142 matter to social scientists. Then there came Elton Mayo and his team to try their expertise in the matter. They started their work with a group of women who assembled telephone relays and like efficiency experts; Mayo and his men uncovered astonishing results. For over a year and a half during this experiment, Mayo‟s researchers improved working conditions of these women by implementing innovations like scheduling rest pause, lunch at company cost, and shorter weeks. Then they took away all these facilities, but their output increased to a new high. The question loomed large. This question could not be answered in terms pf working conditions. Human aspects were thought of for the first time as having effect on production. Then the researchers lavished attention on the workers and these women were made to feel important as part of the company. Feelings of affection, competence and achievement were elicited by this innovation. Elton Mayo and his team, encouraged by these results extended this to 20,000 workers and interviewed them. The workers came from every department of the company. After several rounds of interview Mayo and his group found that structured interview was not really useful. Prepared questions for interview were given up and the workers were allowed to ramble around, as they wanted in the interview sessions. In the modern times we call this non-directive interview. This resulted in a wholesale change of attitude and they began to feel that the management cared for them and that they are wanted. The study further brought out a sufficient need that management should address the issue of relationships among their people. It is not just pay or working conditions, but
  • 143 interpersonal relationships within work groups that hold key. Informed groups in the organization identified with the management and productivity rose. Close supervision was detrimental to production. Workers are not machines either. Management held negative feelings towards workers and Mayo felt that this should change management‟s assumption that workers are a contemptible lot according to Mayo this is: Rabble Hypothesis”. He deplored authenticity task oriented management practices that its rabble hypothesis created. Theory X and Theory Y Mayo‟s work favouring human factor in management and his rejection of rabble hypothesis paved the way for theory X and Theory Y as expounded by McGregor (1960). Traditional organization with emphasis on centralized decision making, superior subordinate relationship, and external control of work behaviour is similar to X Theory of McGregor. This theory assumes that most people prefer to be directed, are not interested in assuming responsibility, and above all they want safety. According to this theory people are motivated by money fringe benefits and the threat of punishment. Managers, who accept theory X attempt to structure control and closely supervise the workers. These managers feel that external control is clear by appropriate for dealing with unreliable irresponsible and immature people. McGregor after describing theory X questioned whether such a view of human nature is correct and if management practices based upon it are appropriate at all. McGregor concluded if universally applied that this theory would be wrong. McGregor felt practices based on a more accurate understanding of human nature, and motivation is essential. This led him to propose the theory Y, a contrast of theory X.
  • 144 Managers who adhere to theory X are for direct control of workers. But McGregor believed that most people are mature, independent, and self-motivating. Most people have the potential to be self-motivated, mature and have responsibility. They care for recognition more than material benefits. Theory Y supports this view. But it may happen that managers who themselves having theory Y assumptions, but find it necessary to treat workers as if they had X assumptions with some people in the short run to help them grow up until they are ready to be truly Y theory people. This is an instance of discrepancy between attitude and behaviour. Management is interested in work, so are workers. Work can be as satisfying as play. Both work and play involve physical and mental efforts. The difference may be the intended goal. Motivation – Hygiene Theory As is well known needs such as esteem and self-actualisation seem to become more important, promote maturity of personality. Herzberg (1959) developed a theory of work motivation which has implications for management and its effort to utilize human resources. Theory is known as Motivation – Hygiene theory (two factor theory) Knowledge of human nature, motives, and needs be invaluable to both organizations and individuals. The main goals of industry are increased productivity, decreased absenteeism and smoother working relations. To the individual an understanding of the forces that lead to improved morale which can bring greater happiness and greater self realization (Herzberg, 1959) went on empirically collecting data on job attitudes from which assumptions about human nature could be made. The analysis of these data led him to formulate Motivation Hygiene Theory. He concludes that two different categories of
  • 145 needs exist. They are essentially independent of each other and affect behaviour in different ways. He found when people were dissatisfied with their job; they were concerned with environment in which they were working. On the other hand when people were satisfied with their jobs, they were concerned with the work itself. This he labelled Hygiene factors and Motivation factors respectively. His view was that the second named factors seemed to be effective in motivating people for better performance. Hygiene Factors Under this heading Herzberg lists the following: Company policies and administration Supervision Working conditions Interpersonal relations, Money Status, and Security These are not an intrinsic part of the job, but they are related to the conditions under which a job is performed. He relates his use of the word “hygiene” to its medical meaning (i.e., environmental conditions preventing disease) Hygiene factors do not promote growth in worker output capacity; they only prevent losses in work performance. He called item maintenance factors for the same reason.
  • 146 Motivators Satisfying factors involve feelings of achievement, professional growth, and recognition that a worker experiences are motivators. He used this because they often show improvements in work output. CHAPTER – VIII PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance evaluation is the most important simple device available to an organization for setting up of goals and obtaining its goals. Performance appraisal is defined as the process by which an organization obtains feed back about effectiveness of performance of its employees. The development of adequate methods for measuring performance effectiveness of job efficiency is one of the most difficult problems facing the management, practitioner, and organizational psychologist. The measurement of performance in organizational setting has occupied the attention of psychologists for several decades. Performance description and prediction play an
  • 147 important role of all personnel divisions. Indices of effectiveness or relative worth are necessary for administrative decision-making with respect to present employees or those currently, employed. Information on performance is necessary for feed back for employee counselling and for employee training which necessary inputs for human resource development are. The process of employee performance evaluation itself may function as a reward and be capable of inducing feelings of satisfaction in some employees (Landy, Bares, and Murphy, 1978) The most widely used means of gathering information about individual‟s performance in organizations is to obtain supervisor‟s rating of their performance. The management practices have attracted much attention as performance appraisal. In has been accepted by a variety of organizations over several decades and has become for many an integral part of their management development activities. The knowledge gained can very well serve human resource development program. The employee‟s performance is not generally one-dimensional. There are many aspects of job performance that need to be assessed. Various dimensions or aspects of job performance a manager considers depends upon the purpose of the performance review (Szilagyi Jr. and Wallace Jr. 1980) In most organizations the performance appraisal process is designed to facilitate information exchange and influence performance. In other words performance appraisal process is designed to provide the individual and the organization with data about what is going on and to be a medium though which the organization tries to influence the behavior of its employees. Many researchers in the area of performance appraisal have concluded that a model of some sort is necessary before any significant advances can be made towards understanding and developing performance measures (Zedeck, Kafry, and Jacobs, 1976)
  • 148 There are certain characteristics brought to the rating tasks that are properties of rater and the rated. The rater brings to the task contain biases that may be related to age, sex, race etc, leadership style, personal relationship with the rated besides the rater possesses certain characteristics in addition to level of performance, in the dimension under consideration it may influence the judgment (Landy and Frarr, 1980). Apart from these main effects that these respective rater and rated characteristics represent, there are the interactions of rater characteristics. The rated characteristics on performance ratings are very important in performance appraisal. Personality traits and Job performance Most research in the area of job performance has been about the effects of a variety of job related variables in employee satisfaction, work motivation, and performance. Several researchers have reported findings that indicate that individual‟s effective behavior responses to his work depend not only on the characteristics of his job, but also in certain aspects of his personality. Meyer and Walker (1961) hypothesized that high achievement motivation would be associated with positive responses to performance appraisal programs. Thirty one managers from several manufacturing units of General Electric Company and 31 specialists whose position levels in the organization was approximately same as managers were chosen as subjects. The 62 subjects were administered a projective test, Thematic Apperception Test designed to score for need for achievement and a risk preference questionnaire to measure low, intermediate, and high risk options. The use of this risk questionnaire as an index of achievement motivation was based on the theoretical model presented by Atkinson (1957). The criterion used to measure the success of the performance appraisal program was the improved performance of the subject based on his last performance discussion. Of the measured designed to assess motivation the TAT
  • 149 measure of need achievement showed only low correlation. This was not significant statistically with the criterion variable. But intermediate risk levels as an index of achievement motivation was highly correlated with the criterion. The study reveals that skill with which the superior handles the appraisal feed back discussion with his subordinates is a key factor in determining whether or not the performance appraisal program is effective in motivating behaviour changes or not. The performance appraisal program is at least effective in motivation to behaviour changes. In a study (Prein and Liske, 1962) using a sample of 96 subjects data were collected for both in incumbent self – rating and first level supervisor‟s ratings on self appraisal dimensions, namely, social skills, persuasiveness, leadership, intellectual capacity, creativeness, planning, motivation, and overall effectiveness. Factor analysis revealed has the supervisors and in incumbents agree as to the importance of the intellectual component in performance, but not with reference to the social aspects of job performance. It was reported by Kornhauser (1965) using blue collar auto- industry workers in lower skilled jobs compared to those in higher skilled jobs, more frequently reported low self esteem with anxiety, fewer friends, low level of satisfaction with life, and an absence of an active or goal directed orientation to life. Kornhauser, further views that work normally serves as stabilising, integrating, and ego satisfying influence on the pattern of one‟s life in general. A study using a sample as big as 3100 men employed in civil occupations (Kohn and Schooler, 1969, 1973) revealed that freedom from close supervision and substantive complexity of jobs are significantly and positively correlated with strong values and intellectual flexibility.
  • 150 Argyris (1973) suggested that work which presents independent behaviour presents the development and expression of adult vs. infant personality characteristics; we can infer that treating workers as autonomous adults is favourable for job satisfaction. A study on subordinate satisfaction with the organization, subordinate satisfaction with role expectations, and subordinate performance conducted by House and Kerr (1973) revealed that the subjects scoring high in the organizational independence had higher expectations for competent, employee oriented management practices, while subjects scoring low were mere content with whatever competence level or style of management practices they were subjected to. Ahmed and Kendirth (1976) showed that participation in decision making would have a more positive effect on satisfaction and effectiveness of egalitarian subordinates with strong independence need and less positive effect on satisfaction of authoritarian resource with weak independence need. METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Economic results achieved by an organization are the sum total of performance of individual managers it employs. In order to review whatever they are achieving the organizations have to evaluate performance of managerial personnel on a periodic basis. The managerial effectiveness reflects the over all effectiveness of the organization. Such an evaluation is simple, informal and easy in small organizations. In large organizations it is a complex process. Further the present day technological advancements and changes bringing about automation in many areas of work have made operations in organizations multi-product, multinational and interdisciplinary. Evaluation of managers in such a situation both on quantitative and qualitative aspects of job has acquired a new dimension and a difficult one at that.
  • 151 Over the decades now practicing managers and professional psychologists have been focusing much attention on these aspects of management practice in order to develop objective criteria for performance evaluation. Whatever be the changes that have taken place performance appraisal cannot be given a go by. It stays. It has its utility as a feedback for planning corrective and human resource development. Just as training is indispensable, performance appraisal is here to stay and serve its purpose. Workers at all levels have to be evaluated by some one at some time. Done on a regular and systematic basis performance appraisal is an absolute necessity. We may now see a few studies in this area. Guion (1965) reported “A survey of validation studies appearing in the Journal of applied psychology, and personnel psychology between 1950 and 1955 reported that 81% relied on some form of rating criterion”. Developing performance criteria is among difficult and complex problem in psychological research. The most common is rating in some form or other. One has to identify valid job criteria on which personnel are to be rated. Beuce (1977) attempted to compare three types of rating scales on attitude and motivation of 23 Head Nurses and 164 Staff Nurses... The forms of rating scales compared by Beuce were Old graphic rating scale containing arbitrary job dimensions; A new graphic rating scale, and A Behavioural-Expectation scale
  • 152 The comparison was made to detect halo errors and errors of leniency. The New Graphic Rating Scale and the Behavioural Expectation Scale showed no significant difference in terms by halo effect. The Behaviour Expectation Scale was found to result in a higher degree of leniency than the Old Graphic Rating Scale and the New Graphic Rating Scale. Bhatia, in his study (1974) in an Indian industry stressed that appraisal design is a very important element in a set of several variables that affect the social relationship and team work in an organization. He also founds evidence to indicate that appraisal design either directly or indirectly will have a major influence on ratings and thus on the management itself. Self-Ratings are generally found to be more lenient than other (superior) rating. Holzbech (1978) explored an analysis of superior, self, and peer ratings on performance and found that self-ratings had significantly higher leniency errors on performance than other rating There are biases in superior rating as a result of influence of specific job factors, biases in peer ratings and self ratings are influence by factors other than those that would be reflected in the overall effectiveness item. Supervisors are found to be more experience in performance appraisal, exhibit greater responsibility in evaluating job performance, have greater awareness and sensitivity of individual job related behaviours, both for specific individuals they are rating and for subordinates in general. Multiple criteria measures are desired, rating by superiors offer greater potential for differential ratings as every job is multidimensional. Rater training and having appropriate rating format reduce errors although we cannot say which format suits all occasions. It is suggested by me that every organization develop its own format, one for each layer of the organization and periodical using accumulated data and up date the scale. Warke and Billings (1979) examined the effects of lecture, group discussions and participation in performance scale construction on errors within experimental and
  • 153 subsequent administrative ratings. These subjects were supervisors. The results supported there are higher-level halo errors in administration ratings and also that training can significantly affect experimental but not administrative rating. In administrative rating errors do occur. Bingham (1939) has commented on the positive aspects of halo errors. In a personnel testing context, increasing the number of testing measuring the same construct generally increases reliability of that instrument likewise, if raters treat a number of rating scale dimension as “items measuring the same construct., overall performance, that is, it refers to the halo error, the reliability of their ratings is likely to be increased. There will be diminishing of the halo errors. Attempts to reduce halo effect through rater training have met with some success. Borman (1975) studied effect of training on reducing halo error in performance rating on 90 low and middle level managers in a large nation wide Insurance company. Halo error, inter rater reliability, and validity of ratings were assessed, first before training and second after training. The finding revealed that the halo error decreased significantly (P< 0.01) between before and after testing. In sum, we can say that performance appraisal in organizations has attracted the attention of psychologists for over 70 years. The most commonly used method of performance appraised is rating. Performance description and prediction plays an important role in all personnel decisions. A review of studies in this field has demonstrated that the best method of evaluation done on job performance is a rating scale. The history of systematic performance appraisal techniques dates back to merit rate systems employed of many organizations as a mean of determining wages increase for hourly paid workers. With the emergence of formal management development
  • 154 programmes in the early 1959s the emphasis changed towards performance appraisal of technical, professional, and managerial personnel. The aim of this modern approach has been to achieve the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his work performance and his work potential. Performance appraisal is a formal way of recording and documenting the job performance of individuals at all levels in the organization. There are several methods used for evaluation of job performance. These are: Casual, unsystematic, and often haphazard appraisal The traditional and highly systematic measurements of employee characteristics and employee contributions, Mutual goal for emulation through management by objectives (MBO) The casual approach method is commonly used, but studies show that choosing a formal method is very much favoured. When formal methods are chosen, most organizations use one of the many variations of traditional and systematic measurements by superior... This type is systematic in that it evaluates all performances in the same manner, utilizing the same approach, so that rating obtained for various personnel and comparable. The result of this systematic and periodic appraisal is the accurate measurement of human performance. In both traditional and management by objectives approaches, the importance lies in the attempting to evaluate what the person does rather than what he is. Thus the abilities of the person and the factors of job performance do enter into rating process. Hence the term “Performance Appraisal” is more appropriate than the earlier ones such as “mixed
  • 155 rating”, “employee rating”, and “service rating.” Appraisals of subordinates by superiors are deemed by many to be an essential part of the executive job. As already mentioned, performance appraisal is done through some form of rating. Paterson (1922) introduced graphic rating scale Smith and Kendal (1963) introduced a new method of rating scale called behavioural expectation scaling. This is also known as behaviourally anchored rating scale. Borman and Vallon (1974) were of the view that the appraisal scales in settings may be used only in the settings in which they were developed Goodale and Burke (1975), and Landy et al (1978) demonstrated that generalizing of appraisal scales beyond the setting where it was developed is not feasible. (Kavanagh 1971) argued that the empirical literature does not allow one to choose unequivocally the type and content of the rating scales. The Vijayalakshmi Scale of Personnel appraisal (1982) Vijayalakshmi (1982) constructed a performance appraisal scale under my guidance. This is presented here for purposes of illustration. Steps Adopted The appraisal format used by large industrial establishments at that time was selected. The traits generally measured or rated in these formats were collated. All these constituted a pool of items of which 24 items were extracted by factor analysis which formed the final Performance Appraisal Scale. These were further subjected to expert scrutiny and finalized. The experts were three personnel managers and two academic psychologists. The experts approved the 24 items.
  • 156 In order provide ample decision space for the rater a nine-response format was provided for each item or trait. A nine-point scale was preferred as it could reduce halo effect. The nine points start with excellent to unsatisfactory through average ratings. Performance appraisal is one of the most important devices available to any organization for setting and accomplishing organizational goals. It is a process by which an organization obtains feed back about the effectiveness of its personnel. Performance is not uni-dimensional. There are many aspects of job performance that must be assed. These aspects or dimensions vary according to the purpose of the performance review. The organization hires personnel who can be trained and influenced to perform jobs so that the organizational goals are achieved. This is because organizational goals are oriented and includes various technologies that require some form structural arrangement to improve the probability of successful and effective performance that gives the organization a character. This can be achieved by employing appropriate persons train them and periodically assess their performance. The point now here is assessment or appraisal. A person selected and placed on the job is not an empty basket. He brings with him his entire past in the nature of experiences, talents, general abilities temper, temperament, character, and to state in a single word he brings with him his personality. All these are developed at home, neighbourhood, school, formal an informal organizations with which he would have come into contact. This adds to the complexity of training program and assessment as he progresses in his job. . This necessitates the effort to integrate the individual with the organization. This process is some times dominated by the organization factors and some times by the employee factors.
  • 157 Organizations are made up of personal, social and technological components. As such they may be characterized as socio-technical systems. The effective management demands that the manager be able to systematically diagnose, predict, and control behavior of personnel and help them contribute to organizational development. The effectiveness of a manager is measured by: Economic results achieved by the people assigned to him, Developing subordinates to perform higher tasks and Promise shown in assuming responsibilities
  • 158 Performance Appraisal At this point it is well to repeat that performance appraisal or evaluation is the most important single device available to an organization for setting and realizing those goals. Performance appraisal can be defined as the process by which an organization obtains feedback about the effectiveness of its employees. It should be accepted that development of adequate methods for measuring job efficiency is formidable task by it. In order to avoid vagueness in the concept of performance we have to develop a method of quantification of this concept. The available method is to define and describe the concept and adopt an acceptable scale. In describing the concept we have identify all the components of the concept or attribute namely, performance. The next step is to follow all the psychometric steps of scale construction. A few details are given in a later chapter What do we do with Performance Appraisal Data? These data are useful in several purposes. For example the data treated as feed back can be for review sessions. Review should be conducted periodically. Review session is a dialogue between the concerned employee and reviewer. It is aimed at improving performance in any specific area of performance. The reviewer must be a trained person in psychosocial skills. Both the appraiser and the person appraised should make adequate preparations. Examples of Appraisal Scales Rating scales are the most widely used in personnel appraisal methods. Personnel are rated on a number of traits and job components. Rating is a kind of quantification of traits
  • 159 rated as applicable to the job. I present here a sample of two widely used employee appraisal formats: Example I- Graphic Rating Scale Trait: Job Knowledge Exceptionally Above Average Below Poor good average average The rater ticks one of the above while evaluating an employee regarding job knowledge. In this example we have shown a FIVE point rating scale.
  • 160 Example –II Multi- step Rating Scale EXCELLENT ABOVE AVERAGE BELOW POOR AVERAGE AVERAGE High accuracy High accuracy High accuracy Low accuracy Low dependable dependable dependable when volume of accuracy irrespective of when volume of when volume of work even when volume of work work is not high work is moderately high volume of moderately not work is low. high The rater places a (X) in the appropriate box applicable to the person rated. In this example I have marked in the box “Average” Example- III Likert Type Scale Excellent 1 2 3 4 5 Unsatisfactory The rater ticks the appropriate number as applicable to the employee. In this I have used a FIVE point scale. One can have SEVEN or NINE point scales according to the dictates of trait rated. The possible errors have been listed here under: Halo effect: Being high in one trait may include a rating as high in any other. Constant error: Reters may tend to be lenient through out the process.
  • 161 Error of central Tendency: Tendency to give “average” rating to all or most persons. Logical error: Thinking one trait is logically related to others results in similar rating for many traits. Contrast error: Rating others in the direction opposite to how the rater rates himself. Error due to propinquity: physical proximity between the rater and the person rated. Interpersonal liking: lead to error leniency. To over come the above possible errors: Rating should be based on facts – not on opinion; Interpret in terms of job demands; use supplementary information; Avoid being influenced by other; Avoid personal liking; Rate each trait independently uninfluenced by rating on other traits. Review of performance should be done periodically. Review is process which involves responsibility, skill and knowledge of the job which the employee is doing. Besides, there a few essential qualities the reviewer should posses. These qualities can be cultivated. Here is a short list of these qualities: He should be loving person He should be non-manipulative He should be open to new ideas and new relationships He should be congruent and genuine His self-esteem should be high He should be a good listener.
  • 162 He should be in touch with his feelings including negative ones The list could be longer. The reviewer and the person evaluated should function as a team. The reviewing process should enable the employee to rise above the present level to higher levels. The reviewing process should result in change in the employee in the desired direction. It should facilitate action on the part of the employee.
  • 163 SUMMARY Stage I Responding Reviewer Employee Responding to what the employee says and what he Desires to exploration about his wants to say with empathy – develop a working feelings, his efficiency or lack of relationship. it. Stage II Integrative understanding Begins to piece together all the data Attempts towards dynamic self – under – available from appraisal records, get a standing, see a need for change, learn to put broad picture, and help the employee to things together, identify his own resources, integrate the data by his own effort. try to help himself to improve where needed Stage III Facilitating Action Work together in a collaborative way, help Acting working more effectively handling the employee to act on his own new social and other dimensions of the job findings, help him to help himself effectively, avoid self defecting behaviours, explore copying
  • 164 Reviewing skills include self – acceptance and acceptance of other. In order to build and maintain interpersonal relationships the reviewer should be self – accepting and other accepting. The greater the self – acceptance greater will be other – acceptance. This implies that the reviewer of appraisal data should develop and maintain a high level of self – acceptance. Lack of self – acceptance results in cynicism self - acceptance is based on judgment about one‟s own self – worth. It is a process of conceptualization and evaluating information about oneself. If you think well of yourself you will think well of others. The reviewer derives ideas of his self – worth based on the following: Reflected Self–acceptance: On the basis of how others think of him and see him. Basic self–acceptance: A belief that he is intrinsically and unconditionally acceptance. Conditional self – acceptance: Based on how well he meets the external standards and expectations. Real–ideal comparison: The reviewer may judge how his real self compares with his ideal self, comparison between what he thinks he should be. The reviewer should have a high sense of self – worth in order to be self–worth which in turn results in other – acceptance. Successful reviewing of self – appraisal data is based on a positive approach on the lines of special skills discussed in the foregoing. Finally it should be stated that performance appraisal is most crucial to human resource development.
  • 165 Apartment from the error proneness in the programme we have to note various other factors that influence performance appraisal. There could be invalid and misleading data that is generated in performance appraisal. There are other important outcomes of personnel appraisal. The data can be used to motivate the employees for further improvement. The employees can get valid feed back which they can use for their own benefit. The performance appraisal should be also to provide for betterment of employees and organization. This can be possible of both job activities and results are evaluated. The whole exercise should be done in a scientific atmosphere. There should be a participative method in the appraisal process
  • 166 CHAPTER – IX LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR INTRODUCTION Organizations are composed of individuals. These individuals usually are clustered into groups. These groups are either formal or informal. Individuals ordinarily have to interact with one another to carry on their functions. Any given individual may belong to more than one group. This could be a formal arrangement or informal. This it emphasizes the fact of social nature of work environment. Among members of a group there are individual differences in power and influence. These differences may be an arrangement in formal groups. In informal groups such differences emerge as a result of group dynamics. In formal groups functions are specific as required by policies. Here we are dealing with formal groups and formal functions assigned by the management based on a hierarchical structure. Individuals in supervisory or managerial positions are expected to plan, coordinate, direct and control task relevant activities of those for whom they are responsible. These assignments indicate that they are leaders of the respective groups. These are also called institutional leaders as different from elected leaders. Whichever way the person has come to be in a leadership position he has to have certain attributes to be successful. The attainment of goals of the organization is very much dependent on the leaders of various groups in the organization. This one reason is enough to consider leadership for intensive scrutiny and research. Extensive research is available as on date on leadership in organization.
  • 167 Leadership is an abstract concept. It is also an elusive concept because leadership means different thing to different people. POSITION To some, leadership is a position in an organization. This means, a position is a set of prescribed behaviours for the person assigned to it. Persons in this position of leadership, in addition to whatever is assigned, acquire to certain attributes expected of them. These are called leadership behaviours. In other word how a person in this position carries out what is assigned is what he acquires as he goes on with his work. It is therefore doing something more than what is assigned. For example, a person is given the power and authority over a set of people and how it is up to him how he uses these to meet the goals of the organization. The successful attainment of these goals depends upon how this person in this position uses power and authority vested in him. How he enacts his role in a crucial point. It is a role, and naturally role perception, role expectation, and role enactment are crucial. THE PERSON Leadership is seen as what the person is. The answer to the historical question is leadership qualities. What are these qualities? Abilities, Personality, Interests, and Values have been investigated as possible explanations of differences among effective and ineffective leaders. THE PROCESS Leadership is seen as a process by which leaders lead. Leaders influence others. They must achieve group goals by getting aid and commitment of those under them to contribute time and energy towards the accomplishment of group goals. This influence over their subordinates must be more than routinely exercising their power and authority.
  • 168 Looking at the three perspectives mentioned it looks as though all the three points of view may as well be combined. The view that a leader influences his subordinates is not determinate by his position alone, not entirely any way. Systematic research on leadership has been focused as personal characteristic. This effectiveness is though too related to aggressiveness, intelligence, and other personal characteristics such age, or physical attractiveness. In addition several traits are stated to be associated with effective leadership. A few of them are: Initiative, self-assurance, decisiveness, maturity, occupational achievement, need for self- actualisation, need for help financial reward, need for security. Leadership research shifted its focus from trait approach to behavioural approach. This is largely because progress in trait approach was not forth coming. It appears behavioural approach is easier to grasp than the trait approach. BEHAVIOR DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS Indexes can easily be obtained of leadership effectiveness. Group productivity, group member satisfaction, and grievances are some of the indexes. Studies in this direction brought forth two leader types of leadership behaviour. One of them is concerned with the employees. This is known as employee centred style. The second one is concerned with execution of assigned work. This is called task centred style. Research indicates that employee centred leader behaviour showed better leader behaviour effectiveness which led to improved social and emotional responses on the part of the employees. Major conclusions from these can be that in employee centred leader, behaviour social and emotional responses of the employees showed a desirable trend. Nothing more came out of these studies.
  • 169 Leadership is one of the topics in which there is a systematic flow of research and thought. It is seen how an initial concern with leader traits moved on to the study of leader effectiveness. This happened because there was not much progress in trait theory approach to leader behaviour. This brought situational leadership to focus. This last mentioned appears to have much promise for leadership training as against trait approach. Further research is warranted. Every approach to understand leadership behaviour has its own contribution and as such there is no need to discard any particular approach. Sustained effort to understand leader behaviour is rewarding and productive particularly in developing human resources. TABLE 5 GOOD LEADER POOR LEADER Delegates authority Depend in higher – ups. Fair minded Lack technical knowledge Available to all, employees Interface with work. Discuss problems with Favouritism employees. Resents public expression Recognizes merit Petty, jealous, self- Appreciation of merit contradictions, superficial Patience and understanding dealing, impulsive, emotional Sincerity.
  • 170 Calm, Collected. Note: All individuals have all these qualities. The rating of good or poor is What matters? This set of items can form the bases for scale construction. Every research focus on productivity and employee attitudes has a bearing on leadership. In sum we can say that study of leadership has a wider span than other topics. We recall this time and gain. As we deal with leadership. Leadership behaviour is formalized and defined by the organization. In that sense those in leadership position is a role to perform designed, defined, and described by the management. In such a case there is little or no reason to dwell too much on this area of human resource, i.e., leadership. But leadership behaviour spills very much over and above the prescribed role. Herein come the need for research and training .in this vital area of human resource. Leadership is not a just a function of the demands for effectiveness and it is not function of the demands for behaviour that a social system may demand but it is also a function of the type of individuals involved. There could be individual differences. It has been generally stated that the leader should be able to among other things influence people. Leader behaviour itself is influenced by several factors. For instance the top management may make fresh demands on the leader. The traditional model is the nature of role prescriptions and it has its own role perceptions. McGregor (1960) has set forth certain prescriptions by his well known Theory X and Theory Y
  • 171 Theory X prescriptions Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise –money, materials, equipments, and people in the interest of economic ends. With respect to the personnel this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling actions, and modifying their behaviours to fit into the needs of the organization. Personnel would be passive without the active intervention by management, even resistant to organizational needs, they must therefore be persuaded, punished, controlled, and their activities must be directed. These prescriptions follow certain assumptions of man as propounded in Theory Y. They are: The average worker is indolent; he works as little as possible. He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, and prefers to be led. He is inherently self-centred and indifferent to organizational needs. He is resistant to change He is gullible, not very bright; a charlatan or a demagogue readily dupes him. According McGregor him these views were not supported by research. But the Theory Y was well supported. The assumptions of Theory Y are: TABLE 6 McGregor‟s Theory X and Theory Y
  • 172 THEORY –X THEORY – Y Work is inherently distasteful Work is as natural as play, if to most people. the conditions are favourable. Most people are not ambitious, have little desire Self – control is often for responsibility, and prefer indispensable in achieving to be directed. organizational goals. Most people have little The capacity for creativity in capacity for creativity in solving organizational solving organizational problems is widely problems. distributed in the population. Motivation occurs only at the Motivation occurs at the physiological and safety social, esteem and self- levels. actualisation and security levels. Most people must be closely controlled and often coerced People can be self – directed to achieve organizational and creative at work if objectives. properly motivated.
  • 173 Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive elements of productive enterprise- money, materials, equipment, and people in the interest of economic needs. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs but have become so as a result of experience in organizations The motivation, the potential for development and the capacity for assuming responsibility towards organizational goals are all present in the people. Management does not put it there. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards organizational objectives. The Theory Y assumptions are in agreement with psychologist‟s point of view. There is a contrast between traditional viewpoints which agree with Theory X assumptions, and the modern view points which are in line with Theory Y assumptions. Tannebaum (1966) states that by giving the subordinates an opportunity to exert personal control over their job content and behaviours will increase work motivation and identify themselves with the organization which leads to better communication and understanding. The Effective Leader The three dimensions of behaviour are cognitive, motivational, and personality characteristics. This applies to all. A research issue is how leaders differ from non leaders in regard to these dimensions. This is a research worthy problem. We need to look at this issue closely.
  • 174 Relation ship dimensions Task Dimension Figure 4: 3 – D Management Style Basically this boils down to selecting a person who has the potential to become an effective leader. Two approaches seem o in vogue. One of them is centred on characteristics of the effective leader independent of situational characteristics, the second view is centred the contingency approach. The latter approach contends effectiveness of a leader varies according to the demands of an organization. There is no confirmatory evidence for either view. There are leaders who are effective despite differences in the organizational demand, and there are those who are ineffective even when environment is conducive. This requires scrutiny. The research focus in this regard can take two routes. Both concentrate on personal factors as determiners of effectiveness. But they are different conceptually. One of them is type approach the other is trait approach. For example, leaders may fall into two major types. They are autocratic or democratic types. The second view i.e., trait approach view,
  • 175 says that there certain characteristics such as, self-assurance, initiative, intelligence, creativity sociality, and so on (list can be very long), contribute to leader effectiveness or absence of it. .A research program should examine whether authoritarian leader is more effective or a non authoritarian leader is more effective. And equally in trait approach traits that make an effective leader have to be identified. TABLE 7 Ghiselle‟s Management Success Factors. Personality Traits Motivational Traits Intelligence: General verbal, Need for occupational achievement. Symbolic Initiative: Willingness to strike Need for self- actualisation Off in new directions. Need of power over others. Supervisory Ability: The ability to direct other. Need for high financial incentives. Self – Assurance: The favourability of self – Need for job security. evaluation.
  • 176 Affinity of the working class. Decisiveness Masculinity: femininity Maturity: Conformance to age norms. Note: hierarchy of these two sets together can be arranges by empirical study individually by the concerned organization. Ghisseli (1963, 1971) has made significant contribution in providing a list of managerial traits. The list is comprehensive. There are two parts to this list. PART I Personality Traits Intelligence: verbal and symbolic Initiative: willingness to strike off in new directions Supervisory ability: the ability to direct other Self-assurance: favourable self-evaluation Affinity for working class
  • 177 Decisiveness Masculinity-femininity Maturity: conforms to age norms. PART II MOTIVATION TRAITS Need for occupational achievement. Need for self-actualisation. Need for power over others. Need for with financial rewards. Need for job security. These traits are not independent of each other. Cognitive factors are important for cognitively oriented supervisory functions. “Power over others” is not in the hierarchical power structure and not as important as theory Y would endorse security orientation is not a priority for successful leadership. Fiedler (1966) is associated with contingency theory of leadership. His work consisted of empirical research of both experimental and correlational nature. Fiedler argues the environments can be ordered according to their degree of favourability for the leader and necessary leadership characteristics vary according to this of favourability. He mentions three characteristics as favourable to a leader. They are:
  • 178 Leader – member relations. The task structure Once environments are classified along the dimensions desirable leadership characteristic vary ranging from extreme permissiveness to extreme authoritarianism. Thus the leader behaviour is contingent upon the environment in which he functions. Contingency model has limitations. The approach normally is static and involves fitting together of two parts, i.e., the environment to the person or person to the environment. Then we have problems of knowing before hand the values of Need for Contingency variable. This variable as an attribute should be measurable. Is this possible? This is a difficult question to answer. More recent literature is focused on developing Contingency models for authoritarianism democratic leadership dichotomy. Leader Effectiveness – An Assessment of the Three-dimensional Model Leadership style refers to the behaviour pattern that the person exhibits when attempting to influence the activities of other perceived by those others. This is different from how the leader perceives his own behaviour, which can be defined as self – perception rather than style. A person‟s leadership style involves some combination of either task behaviour or relationship behaviour. The task behaviour and relationship behaviour enters into a combination in leader behaviour. These are central to the vary concept of leadership style. Task behavior, the extent to which leaders are likely to organize and define the roles of the members of their group to explain what activities, each is to do and when, where and how tasks are to be accomplished; characterized by endeavouring to establish well –
  • 179 defined patterns of organization, channels of communication and ways of getting job accomplished. Relationship behaviours the extent to which leader are likely to variation personal relationships between themselves and members of their group of opening channels of communication, providing socio – emotional support, “Psychological strokes” and facilitating behaviour. To repeat leadership style involves these two dimensions in different combinations. There cannot be a rule of the thumb as to relative importance of each dimension and how the two get into a combination in what proportion. Two get into a combination in what proportion. This may depend on a number of factors which may not be varying obvious as first fight. It is believed a reasonable proportion of each in a combination should make leadership effective (R+T=E), Relation +Task = Expectancy how much each should be the leader should decide based on requirements. So far we have seen two-dimensional views. Reddin (1970) formulated a three dimensional view of leadership style. The 3 – D management Style Theory The two dimensions already mentioned are task oriented ness, relationship oriented ness. Now the third dimension is added to make the leadership style a three dimensional one. This adds expectancy dimension. Reddin influenced a great deal in the development of tri – dimensional leader effectiveness model. If a particular style in a given environment yields results it is called effective otherwise it is considered in effective. If effectiveness depends upon the situation and not on the actual behaviour of the leader, then the appropriateness of this behaviour to the environment is to be estimated. It is the interaction between the basic style with the
  • 180 environment that results in a degree of effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The third dimension is called effectiveness because in most organizational settings various performance criteria are used to measure the degree of effectiveness or ineffectiveness of a leader. All in all we can say that there is nothing like the best style of leadership. Successful leaders adapt their style to meet the group and of the particular environment. Effectiveness depends upon the leader, the followers, and situation to be effective. The 3 – Dimensional leader effectiveness model is warranted, as it appears to be more complete than the earlier ones. We are yet to discover the so-called “best” leadership style. Leader effectiveness We need to distinguish between management and leadership. Leadership is a broader concept than management. We consider management as a special type of leadership in which accomplishment is the main goal. All leadership behaviour is not directed towards accomplishing organizational goals. Many times when we are trying to influence some one we are not a part of an organization. When we are influencing some others we are not necessarily managing them. But when managing some people we are influencing them. All managers may not be leaders but all leaders are managers. Effectiveness is not the same thing as efficiency. There could be managers who work efficiently and gain advancement to higher levels. Here the manager is concerned with his own goals of advancement and not of the organization. In some cases this may be at the cost of the organization itself. Therefore effectiveness must be viewed in a broader context of the organization and possibility of personal advancement of the concerned.
  • 181 This argument leads us to recognize the difference between individual goals, organizational goals, leadership, and management. .Leaders exercise power. Etzioni (1961) discusses the difference between position power and personal power. He bases this on the concept of power as the ability to influence behaviour. Power is derived from an office or it may be personal power or both. Managers get their power from the organizational office. It comes from above, not inherent in the office. Managers occupying positions may have more power or less power than the predecessor in the same position and in the same organization. It is not a matter of office having power, but it is office and the man in it. Power in an organization flows down the hierarchy. Personal power is the extent to which followers respect, feel good about and committee to their leader and feel that their goals are satisfied by the goals of their leader. This involves that followers are willing followers and not that a leader is thrust on them. The leader is their leader. There could be instance where managers are equally occupied with the group implying they do have personal power as well. French and Ravens (1960) have traced the source of personal power and position powers. The sources are: Reward power: Stems from the number of positive reward (money, projection, etc) that people perceive that a potential leader can muster. Coercive power: Stems from the perceived expectations of the people that punishment will follow if one does not comply with aims of a potential leader. Legitimate power: Develops from “internalised values” and that one has an obligation to accept owes influence. Referral power: Is based on the identification of people with potential leader and what that leader stands for or symbolizes, and
  • 182 Expert power: Results from a potential leader having expertise or knowledge in an area in which that leader wants to influence others. The very best results are obtained by a leader when he has both personal and position power. Can we equate successful leadership with effective leadership? Do the two mean the something? Or are they supplementary and complementary? An attempted leader is one who makes an effort to influence the behaviour of another person or persons. This behaviour may be successful or unsuccessful. But in the case of a business manager he has to be successful to stay where he is. It is not the attempt that counts but the outcome. This is measurable in terms of the results. Attempted leadership may lead to success or failure. But this is not an all – or – none principle. Success – failure is a continuum. An attempt made may have some success and find a place in the continuum. It can also be that even successful attempt may not always be effective. Success does not guarantee effectiveness. Again here the effectiveness is not an all – or – none affair. It is a continuum. Attempted leadership being successful now finds itself on effective – ineffective continuum. It may occupy any point in the scale denoting the degree of effectiveness. Now we are in a complex situation. We want successful and effective leadership. An unsuccessful attempted leadership that is low on successful – unsuccessful continuum does not come into the picture at the second level. Attempted leadership with success reaches the second level and effectiveness is measured on this dimension. When both criteria are satisfied the outcome will be high production. Organizational Effectiveness
  • 183 Individuals together constitute organizations. Organizations prosper or fail owing to success or failure of individuals and also other resources they command. Most of the time organizational prosperity or otherwise is thought of as a consequence of leadership effectiveness or ineffectiveness. This could be true but does not tell the whole story. Likert (1967) identified three variables, namely, causal, intervening, and end – result which are useful in discussing effectiveness of organizations. Causal Variables As the name indicates causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development with in the organization and its results or accomplishments. These variables are also called independent variables that can be changed or altered by management with in the organization. Leadership strategies, skills, and behaviour, management decisions and policies are a few examples of causal variables. These can contribute to the maintenance and even growth of an organization or can also destroy it. Intervening Variables Leadership strategies, skills, and behaviour, and other causal variables can affect human resources. Human resources are the intervening variables. Human resources may be strengthened and properly utilized or let down which can speak of organizational effectiveness. According Likert (1967) intervening variables represent the current condition of the internal state of the organization. Commitment to objectives, motivation, and morale of members, leadership skills, communications, conflict resolution, decision-making, and problem solving are all reflected by the health of the intervening variables. End – Result Variables
  • 184 These are dependent variables. These reflect the achievement of the organization. Achievement of the organization would vary according to variation in the independent variables, and also through changes that occur in the intervening variables – changes in the intervening variables can only be inferred by the end – result variables which are amenable for measurement and quantification. In organizational development programme our concern will be intervening variables. These variables related to developing the organization. These intervening variables contribute to development of long – term goals. A careful planning of making these intervening variables available and promoting these to higher and higher levels. However, the management cannot overlook the importance of short – term goals, but should emphasize long – term goals and not get carried away by short – term achievement that some times are short lived. Korman (1966) dispels the idea that one can hope far a single best style of behavior. In fact any style can be effective depending upon the situation. We mentioned before that effectiveness of leader depends upon how their leadership style interrelates with the situation in which they operate, an effectiveness dimension should be added to the two dimensional model. This brings to the issue of the tri – dimensional – model, which is built upon the concept that effectiveness results from a leader using a behavioural style that is appropriate to the demands of the environment. Therefore the success and effectiveness of the leader depends upon how he understands his environment. Therefore, a need now arises to identify environment variables. The total environment in an organization consists of the leader, the followers of that leader, superiors, associates, the organization itself and the job demands (Reddin, 1967).
  • 185 Any style of behaviour is based upon expectations. Any role has role perception, role expectation, and role enactment. The last mentioned is dependent upon the first two. Similarly a role has a style and a correlated expectation. Think of the roles of leaders, followers, superiors, associates, organization as having corresponding style of operation, each has correlated expectation. Leader‟s style has a corresponding leader‟s expectation. Job demands are based on job analyses. Style may be defined as “the consistent behaviour patterns that one uses when working with and through other people as perceived by them”. If is the consistency factor that is, predictability holding situation constant. Expectations are the perceptions of appropriate behaviour from one‟s own role and perceptions of roles of others within the organization. Role expectation defines what they should do under various circumstances in their particular job, and how they think about others should behave in relation to their positions. These others include superior associates, followers, and so on in its organization. Each of these persons should perceive accurately and accept their own role and the role of the others. There should share expectations. This requires understanding and empathy. . When this occurs every body‟s effectiveness becomes a reality. All this imply in the context of leader effectiveness, that a leader should be able to appreciate that his role is complex; he is the pivotal point around which all other environmental variables interact. All these variables of the environment are in a sense communicating role expectations to the leader. This may be implied or direct. Style and expectation interaction is generally structured, i.e., some managerial position or roles are structured by expectations, this in a sense prohibits people occupying those roles have little room to express their own style. In some managerial positions such rigorous
  • 186 prescriptions may not express giving room for experimenting, innovating and expressing their own style. This is dependent upon the organizational style. It is possible that followers implicitly alter the leader‟s style, even as the leaders try to alter the follower‟s style. Leaders should have the ability to know the followers‟ style and their expected style so that they apply appropriate skills to get them conform to the expected style. Such a situation occurs when one takes up a new job of a leader. His predecessor may have established a style to which the group has conformed over along period and thus stabilized in that style. The new incumbent may have different ideas. Therefore he may have to make some adjustments in his expectation others and at the same time get they make adjustment to his style thus gain a comfortable relationship with the followers. This kind of adjustment is warranted while dealing with others in the organization. The above illustration is with regards to followers. This has to be extended to other personnel. Appropriate reciprocal adjustments have to be made for a smooth sail and for the sake of effectiveness. Job demands also are constituents of environmental variables. Role style adjustments have to be made to suit the task demands and time factors. The latter relates to time management.
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  • 188 CHAPTER – X PERSONALITY Personality is a fascinating word. It is used in varied senses. Most of these popular usages fall under one of two headings. The first use equates personality to social skills or adroitness. Personality is assessed by the effectiveness with which person is able to elicit reactions from a variety of persons under a variety of situations. It is in this sense the concept of “personality training” came to popularity. Some refer to “personality problem” which only mean that a given person does not have adequate social skills to maintain harmonious relations with others. The second usage considers personality of the individual to consist of most outstanding impression he can create in others. A person may be said to have an aggressive personality, or a submissive personality, etc. In each case the person‟s attribute or quality that is highly typical of the individual and that is assumable as an important part of the overall impression created in others and the personality of that person is identified by that term. In both these usages an element of evaluation is involved. But the psychologists have endowed this term with a variety of meanings... Allport (1937) has made an exhaustive survey of the literature on the subject and has identified fifty different definitions and classified them into certain broad categories... Literature in this area is very extensive. Hall and Lindsey (1978) have written extensively on theories f personality. They have presented fifteen major personality theories. Each theory has a point and a distinct contribution to make. We need to make out from these that there is a general trend in spite of differences though it is necessary for a serious student of personality to know as many theories as possible in the context of this book I would present a brief summary.
  • 189 A discussion of the cotemporary personality theory can bring out the fact that the human being is a striving, seeking, and a purposive creature. The beginning of 20th century saw stalwarts like McDougall, Tolman and other leading personalities who focused their attention on purposive nature of man. This appeared true even a bit later in the second and third quarters of the 20th century. The contribution of Allport, Murray, Rogers (to mention a few), placed a very emphasis on purposive nature of human behaviour. There has been no significant opposition to this type theory even by those like Miller and Donald, Skinner, and Sheldon. But these theorists did make an attempt to emphasize rewards. Importance of self and the centrality of motivation did find a place in all theories. This position is a tacit acceptance of purpose in human behavior. The latter mentioned theorists may not take the concept of purpose explicitly, but do not make it a matter of hot dispute. There is a serious discussion and disagreement on the issue of unconscious determinants of behaviour as opposed to the importance of conscious determinants. This disagreement seems to persist but the exact basis is not clear. I for one would not lean on unconscious determinants of behaviour as these appear to me to be in the realm of conjecture. POSITIVE NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT ENHANCES INHABITS PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE
  • 190 Figure 5: Discretion to use the type of reinforcement rests with the manager. The importance of reward and reinforcement as determinants of behaviour is widely emphasized by Skinner, Miller and Donald. They hold on to reinforcement theories. Cattel, Murray, and Sullivan accept the law of effect as primary for reinforcement. But Rogers, Allport and Goldstein play down the concept of reward to a secondary position. These psychologists view that human behaviour is motivated by conscious effort to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Reward is a determinant of behaviour and there is a growing trend among theorists to lay emphasis on reward as a motivator. But psychologists are not inclined to lose the importance of individual‟s specific behaviour when formulating laws about people in general. Allport calls this formulation as both ideographic and nomothetic A very important feature of personality theories is their numerous and distinctive schemes for representing personality structure. This is an important development. Any theorist who adopts a holistic view is in fact recommending one of two approaches to the representation of human behaviour. The important fact is that a successful theory must be complex, multivariate, and include reference to the situation within which behavioural events occur as well as other behavioural events of the individual has come to prominence. The univariate cannot be holistic. This point of view accepts complexity of behaviour. All theories, whichever approach made by them recognize that the structure of personality can be dislocated or even shattered by anxiety, frustration, and physical trauma. Some individuals cope with these with resilience and maintain balance while some others yield and breakdown.
  • 191 A distinction is made between psychological environment and physical reality. Personality theorists are more impressed with the importance of the psychological environment than the physical environment. Theories of Allport, Cattel, Lewin, and Murray have given full recognition to diversity of human motivation. In each of these theories there is a firm emphasis on the fact that behavior can be understood only with the identification and study of “large number” of motivational variables. It is always a multiplicity of motivation and we are dealing with a complex phenomenon. A simplistic approach is sterile, and unproductive. All personality theories do not make out a case for personality structure. A degree of constancy of behavior is accepted as adequate for theory making. Even a brief scanning an extensive literature in personality we can grasp that there is vast array of theoretical formulations of personality. Among them there are similarities and convergences and equally diversities and divergences. Yet there is a recognizable progress in understanding behavior as a personality phenomenon. We do not classify a theory as right or wrong. A theory is a formulation based on empirical support generated by a school of thought. This has its merit and it automatically involves divergence. Any theory is valid to the extent it helps us in predicting and providing for control of behavior. It is a matter of wonder and appreciation that so many psychologists have toiled intelligently and creatively to create formulations in explanatory constructs. It is for us to derive benefit from their efforts. Personality research is a branch of psychology dealing with personality apart from abilities (Eysenck et al, 1972). All researches as understood with the help of the theories stated above it looks as though that personality theory is a system of suppositions which represent a frame of reference in explaining or describing human behaviour and
  • 192 experience relevant to some definition of personality. Personality traits show a degree of constancy over a period of time. I wish to add brief note here that personality as theorized by some authorities is amenable to measurement and quantification. This is tied up to the theoretical orientation held by the researcher. In Psychometrics the term objectivity of a test refers to certain criteria. They are: Selection of response format, such as YES/NO or multiple response format using a scale for each item Objectivity focuses on the kind of behaviour chosen for measurement Obtained results should be comparable to results already obtained by other researchers Replicability either by oneself or by others Make it possible to predict within certain established probability limits Standardization in the sense of clear instructions and provision for normative data Reliability and validity should be established according to psychometric criteria. Objectivity can be defined in the context of psychological measurement as the extent to which findings are independent of investigator regarding the ways they are obtained and interpreted. There are several tools used in psychological measurement. I will present here a very brief account of questionnaires as tools of psychological measurement. We will have more in a later section
  • 193 The term questionnaire describes a variety of instruments. Often a questionnaire is a printed form containing a structured set of questions. The subject is required to answer all questions. This is done usually in writing and at times questions are presented orally and answers elicited orally. Questionnaires may be opening ended or closed ended with predetermined response format. Many psychological variables including personality are subjected to measurement using questionnaires that are developed based on psychometric criteria and standardized. PERONNEL SELECTION Personnel selection is a systematic choosing among available persons according to certain criteria especially with regard to their fitness for certain vocations, positions, or activities. Such criteria deal almost always with physical or psychological activities and personality characteristics. Personnel selection is matching individuals to jobs. This involves decision making process. It refers to choosing from a number of available candidates one or more according to needs of the organization. The entire process involves a clear knowledge of the job requirements and selecting a person who would be equal to the requirements. The process is directed towards identifying the individuals who possess the qualities job performance requires. Here we have two issues. They are: Job requirements, and Personnel specifications Personnel selection should be directed towards identifying persons who stand the best of chances of success in the job. This implies that we should know the characteristics which
  • 194 are most likely to contribute to job success (job in question). There should be some set of variables that are called personnel specifications or job specifications. This should be based empirical evidence and past experience of the management. These personnel specifications are of two classes. The first is that the specifications are intrinsic to the job which is required for successful performance of the job. The second class refers to specific requirements associated with labour market conditions. Intrinsic requirements vary from job to job. Job requirements are not absolute. They depend upon value judgment of acceptable standards of performance. ESTABLSHING PERSONNEL SPECIFICATIONS Personnel specifications should be valid. They should the power of prediction. Personnel specifications are predictor variables, i.e. they are independent variables of a criterion in our mind. Relevant personnel data can be had from the following: Personnel Tests Application Blank Interviews References There are important considerations of reliability and validity. These psychometric issues will be elaborated in the chapter on Research Methods in Organizational effectiveness – Human Resource Development. For now it is enough to mention that these should have high reliability and validity
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  • 196 CHAPTER XI PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND THEIR USE The concept of individual differences is central to the study of human behaviour. The need for psychological tests is all the more pronounced for this reason. It is a fact of history that systematic measuring instruments made their appearance in the field of abilities prior to spreading to other areas of human behaviour. Tests of intelligence were the first to make their appearance. The attempt to make quantitative assessment of intelligence took the lead. Then aptitudes, learning, and memory tests made their appearance. Subsequently tests of personality, interest, aptitudes, and other non- ability factors came to be quantified and research in all these areas progressed. The advent of computer aided and accelerated the progress of psychological tests in all aspects of human behavior made their appearance. Periodical updating of the tests has been in progress. Psychometric, research methodology, and statistics jointly brought sophistication to psychological research. Construction and standardization of psychological tests came to be easier and more meaningful. We can reap the benefit of such a development for human resource development and organizational effectiveness. Today several organizations are utilizing such a resource. The utility of psychological services is manifold. Psychological testing for personnel selection, placement, personnel training, and employee promotion is only a part of the story. In this section we deal with the use of psychological tests in organizations. Psychological tests are objective and standardized measures of a sample of behaviour (Anastasi, 1961).
  • 197 A psychological test is a systematic procedure for comparing different individuals (Chronbach, 1960). We will start with cognitive process and work related behaviour. Given the best of environment leadership with motivational support we expect performance effectiveness. Nothing can be far from truth and reality. There is yet another constituent, namely ability to do the job. I mentioned earlier that it is a fact of history that ability testing preceded non cognitive aspects of human behaviour. I am bringing cognitive aspects not because of this historical fact, but an emphasis has to be made. Given the above favourable conditions one may perform well, another may fail. Similarly two individuals endowed with equal ability may also differ in their performance effectiveness owing to differences in non-cognitive aspects namely motivation personality, environmental factors, etc. That apart, we will examine a few aspects of cognitive processes. Human Abilities It was Bitnet‟s contribution that started a systematic quantitative study of intelligence. Binet in collaboration Simon developed a test of intelligence that came to be known as Binet- Simon scale. He put into the concept of intelligence a number of components. This scale was able to differentiate between good performers and poor performers among pupils in school. Research on Intelligence... There are close links between researches into intelligence and thought process to prerequisite facility in thought process. The aim of research into intelligence is to use
  • 198 statistics to compare and determine the various conditions underlying various types of performances. They used correlating to estimate the extent of similarity of two different conditions. The beginning of 20th century is significant for contributions emanated from psychological laboratories regarding intelligence took some shape at the hands of Charles Spearman (1927). He was a pioneer, the first to develop on this basis a method of analysing the relations between performances. His statistical method of analysis is the foundation for a very significant and elegant method called factor analysis by subsequent psychologists. He insisted that intelligence consisted of two factors namely a general factor and several specific factors. He designated this as the well known two – factor theory of intelligence. Spearman has brought this out very clearly in his book “Principles of cognition and nature of intelligence”. Thurstone (1948) offered a new factor model of intelligence that does not contemplate a general factor but only specific factors. He defined as primary factors and named seven of them. Guilford went further and carried out extensive factor analysis, suggested a three – dimensional system of one hundred and twenty factors. Guilford‟s model includes convergent thinking ability and divergent thinking ability, Divergent thinking ability conforms to creativity. Intelligence and Personality: Intelligence is considered to be a characteristic, an aspect, or area of personality. This would mean that personality would not be completely characterized if intelligence is not considered. But researches have not shown any significant correlation between performances in intelligence tests and other personality characteristics determined by personality tests. There are several intelligence tests today dating from 1905. Abilities
  • 199 By ability we mean all the psychological conditions needed to perform an activity. Ability may be defined operationally, as the activity with which it is associated. This would imply that there are as many abilities as there are activities. Therefore it does not make much sense if we ask for nature of intelligence and its components. We can at best say that primarily intelligence is an abbreviation for all psychological conditions needed to perform a given activity. The implication is only of the necessary conditions for a given activity. But we may exclude the non – cognitive aspects and insist on how much of these abilities are needed for a given activity. We may also note that activities have a certain specificity of the required abilities. Empirical research in this area has brought to focus the notion of abilities is that abilities are no longer considered as innate uniform and distinct powers as a set of conditions. This attitude has been motivated by research into the relation between abilities using correlational analysis. Factor analysis provided a method of determining and defining conditions and factors common to a set of activities. Correlation coefficient among different abilities varies from very high to very low. This indicates that all abilities are not equally related among themselves, some more intimately, some not so intimately. But correlations do exist among abilities. The concept of abilities is significantly important in applied psychology, to name only two such: Organizational effectiveness (OE) and, Human resources development (HRD)... Ability research is a branch of psychology which classifies the prerequisite for a given type of activities, and to what extent that any one posses the requisite abilities for effective functioning in that given activity.
  • 200 Psychological tests are considered objective and scientific. They are easy to administer, and are economical in terms by money and time in the assessment of individuals for given purposes. Statistical processing and qualification of tests data give a degree of precision in addition to objectivity in the assessment programme. Psychological testing is an important inclusion in employee selection and training programmes (OE & HRD). Blum and Naylor (1968) are of the opinion that psychological tests can be of good use. Job performance is equally dependent on verbal abilities and cognitive skills. There is extensive knowledge in this area that suggested that jobs are pre – arranged in a hierarchical manner. The highly valuable and prestigious job is considered to require high scores on verbal and numerical abilities; all though certain other non-ability factors like interest and personality factors have their role be play. Abilities by themselves do not assure effectiveness performance. McClelland (1973), reports that research evidence of usefulness of psychological tests in predicting real – life behaviour is poor or minimal at best. There is little correlation between general mental abilities measures and job success when they are used to predict behaviour at work. Thorndike and Hager reported 12,000 correlations for 10,000 respondents and very few significant correlations. Others have not been able to establish any significant positive correlations between general mental ability measures in social leadership, arts, science, and police work (Kent and Eisenberg, 1972). Therefore, a different orientation from traditional to novel is the need. Tests and measures should be standardized having a bearing on job success for present future. New approach has to be made. We should develop measures of constellation of interpersonal, cognitive, and additional skills and capacity to symbolize that may be job restaurant. The basis is organizational needs. . The tests could be organization specific.
  • 201 I am of the view that the organizations should institute a research and development wing to develop organization- specific tests. The team effort from the top management and consultant psychologists could constitute R & D team who list the characteristics of each position and develop tests. Continuous updating is very essential to keep with the changing times and attendant changes in the role in these positions. Motors Abilities Cognitive process and social skills are important to work behaviour. In addition to the abilities that are relevant to job that needs them. These are physical manipulation of in an environment, also known as psychomotor abilities. Vehicle operators, mechanics, maintenance personal need psychomotor skills in good measure. Research in this area in the psychological laboratories is found to be extensive and more easily transferable to real life situation than cognitive and personality tests. Researchers have found that there is no support for the idea of general factor in manual or psychomotor abilities that could distinguish some persons as generally good and others generally poor. Various tests of motor abilities generally have low correlations among themselves, i.e., an individual‟s score on one test of motors abilities does not generally predict the score in an other test of motor abilities. The nature of motors skills indicates that specific abilities do not significantly correlate among themselves. In addition we also find that motor skills are numerous. However Fleshman (1962) has attempted based on his research over a decade to present a list which is comprehensive though may not include every thing under the sun. They are: control precision, multi limb coordination, response orientation, and reaction time, speed of arm movement, rate control, manual dexterity, finger dexterity, wrist, finger speed, and aiming.
  • 202 Creativity Interest in creativity dates back to many centuries, the curiosity of man to explore, examine and understand Mother Nature is really ancient. Man‟s curiosity in himself and the environment is based on his ability to reach, compete, discover, and invent. This has contributed to progress. The concept of creativity appears illusive and vague, but in the recent decades it has been brought under empirical investigation. Creativity involves the development of something unique. The steady and rapid growth of literature on cognitive processes brought to the force divergent thinking abilities. Guilford‟s structure of Intellect Model is a point in this direction. Fluency and flexibility in thinking bear special relevance to creativity. Guilford propounded four fluency factors, namely, associational fluency, spontaneous flexibility, adaptive flexibility, redefined and elaboration. The last two item are factors of originality. It has been demonstrated that correlation between creativity and intelligence is strong. Intelligence is needed up to level beyond which it may not have any additional advantage. Many authors contend that intelligence is a cognitive process called convergent, relative, and constructive. These authors suggest that the two processes are so intimately related that it could be impossible to identify individuals who are high in one and not concomitantly high in the other. This contention needs verification. Investigators (Getzels and Jackson, 1962) designed a study by selecting two groups of subjects, one group high in intelligence and not concomitantly with in creativity, the other group high in creativity and not concomitantly high in intelligence. This classification led them to conclude that the conversional 1Q measures are inadequate to account for total variance relating to creative process. They employed correlational analysis. Getzels and Jackson found a small relationship between intelligence and creativity. They do maintain, however, a distinction between creativity and intelligence. Criticism of this study stems from the particular intelligence measure these investigators used, and sampling procedures. In other words there was disagreement regarding methodology. Burt was of the opinion that
  • 203 creativity falls under the broad domain of intelligence. This view was supported by Vernon (1964). Wallach and Kogan (1965) demonstrated distinction of creativity domain from intelligence. They worked on the basis Guilford‟s structure of Intellect Model where divergent productive thinking has a district prominence Wallach and Kogan instrument was independent of intelligence and in that sense is a pure measure of creativity.
  • 204 The Creative Process It can be accepted that a distinct dimension of creativity exists as a human resource. Variables of creativity have to be identified. There are certain principles underlying creative thinking. The data generated by several investigators point out that creative solution to problems are based on true manipulation of symbols and that they are characterized by unpredictability and suddenness of emergence. Number of ideas collide forms into groups in a new combination and result in a creative solutions. That is the existing cognitive structures in the mind enter into new combinations and emergence of a cognitive structure is what we may call creative thinking or solutions. The end product that we call new solution as evidenced by introspective accounts, relates to associate fluency of thought process and uniqueness of response. Creativity can be defined in associative terms. Associative Thinking Maltzman (1960) traced creative thinking can be increased in an individual by manipulating the experimental conditions and creating an attitudinal disposition that is favourable for producing more divergent responses in tests using word association. This not only includes divergent kind of association but also result in uniqueness of response. Word association technique produces a large number of ideas and at the same time makes it possible for uniqueness of ideas which would constitute creative thinking or divergent thinking. Maltzman worked on originality in thinking in terms of associative gradient. Steeper is the associative gradient, the better the emission of original ideas, the flatter the gradient, the higher the original ideas. This can be achieved by manipulating the experimental conditions, by inducing a condition in which the subject is required to respond with
  • 205 associations which possessed a lower degree of probability of occurrence as response. The original thinking occurs less frequently is uncommon under given conditions, and is relevant to those conditions. With this description you may examine the earlier stated associative gradient. We may be content with two indexes of creativity: Number of ideas generated and, Uniqueness of responses The latter may sometimes be a reference to specific situations. Number of responses has the advantage as an index in that a solution to a problem can emerge from out a large number of ideas. In this sense both criteria can be applied as index of creativity. Creativity and Personality It is very interesting to note that creativity and intelligence are correlated up to a point, there onwards increases in the level of intelligence does not provide any additional advantage for creativity. We may now examine of there is relational ship between creativity and personality. Cognitive style seems to have a bearing on creativity. There are different methods in achieving creative solutions. The role of previously learnt methods of approaching problems ad their influence on the probability of creative solutions requires to be stressed. Perceptual and conceptual cognitive styles may partly be responsible for different aptitudes for creative work in differing fields. There is a view which stresses that creativity should be defined and understood in terms of personality. Allport (1937) holds that the creative motive assumes functional autonomy
  • 206 in the individual. Rogers (1959) attributes creativity to the encounter between the uniqueness of the individual and his milieu. Maslow (1945, 1954, and 1962) makes a distinction between “special talent creativeness” and “self actualising creativeness”. Others have mentioned that achievement accomplished by individuals as criteria to identify creative individuals. Research in creativity - personality area is characterized by diversity of interests, motives and approaches. Personality variables play a very important role in creative activity and accomplishments. Literature in creativity is very vast. But do not want to take my readers too far into this eminently important area of human behaviour, but to get back to our main issue of HRD& OE area. Any organization concerned with Human Resources Development Programmes will be deeply interested in developing creative skills in their work force. There are various types of training programmes available to an enlightened management. Brain Storming This involves training and encouraging individuals separate, time wise, the generation of ideas from idea evaluation. The goal is to overcome the implicit censoring mechanisms that prevent participants from being open to new ideas and approaches, as they would like to be. This can be done in groups and also individually. Each has its own advantage and disadvantage. Attribute Listing
  • 207 Attribute listing involves training individuals to itemize the important attributes of a particular social object and to consider how each of the attributes may be changed or improved. Morphological Synthesis This programme is somewhat similar to the previous one, but is different in that the idea is to consider two dimensions of a particular social object at a time. Synthetic Techniques These techniques involve learning to use analogies as ways of developing creative solutions. There are four different types of analogies that can be used as suggested by Gordon (1961) Personal Analogy: This is similar to role – play and empathy. Imagine your self to be X and try to understand how X feels about an issue. Direct Analogy: Imagining and looking for another process that would parallel the process directly under consideration, i.e., comparing the present problem with another one which would parallel your problem. Symbolic Analogy: Using objective and impersonal images to describe a problem all though the image or model developed may be technologically inaccurate Fantasy Analogy: Thinking about how to solve a problem in a fantasy world. All other conditions are ideal for problems solving. These exercises may be elaborated according to resources available in the organization and effective training programme could be evolved.
  • 208 CHAPTER – XII EMPLOYEE SELECTION AND INDUCTION One of the major functions of an organization is a systematic and well planned selection of its work force from shop floor to higher level personnel. Selection operations include calling for applications, interviewing shorted listed candidates, personnel testing and induction of selected candidates. But behind these operations successful organizations would have carried out research to establish selection standards, construct and standardize personnel tests and procure consultancy services of those who are competent in this area. .There is several aspects of personnel selection. The process is not as simple as it may look at first sight. It is a critical function of making lasting decisions to avoid problems such as absenteeism, tardiness, inefficiency, lack of job involvement, and lack of job satisfaction. In a technical sense personnel selection refers to choosing from among the available candidates for employment. Such decisions are not made haphazardly, but based on data obtained related to prospective employees. These data are gathered from various sources. We have referred earlier to concepts of job requirements and personnel specifications. The objective of setting up of personnel specifications is to state those items of personal data that are valid for selection of persons to particular jobs. We have job requirements for the latter. It is as simple as saying “these are the requirements of the job, and does an applicant possess qualities to be equal to these requirements.” Here the term validity gains prominence. The issue is how we establish personnel specifications. There ought to be some standard procedures which satisfy psychometric criteria such as reliability, validity, and norms.
  • 209 Objectivity is the hall mark of quality of these procedures. A reliable standard established will stand test of rigorous scrutiny. The scrutiny is made regarding its stability that means that these measures yield same or nearly same results on repeated applications. It should contain elements that bear significant correlations among themselves. This is known as internal consistency of the measures. All these criteria can be assessed by using coefficient of correlation which is an index of reliability. The three basic approaches for estimating reliability are: Coefficient of stability Coefficient of equivalence Coefficient of internal consistency These will be elaborated in the chapter on research methods in Human Resource Development. Validity is a bit more complex. These criteria should meet the question as to how relevant our measure is. There are three basic types of validity recognized by Psychometric. They are: Criterion – related validity. Construct validity. Content validity The question we are seeking answer for is how valid is our measure. It should satisfy one of these criteria. More of these will be presented later, in the Chapter on Research methods.
  • 210 In the same way of personnel specifications we should have job component validity. The following may be considered in this connection: A few methods of identifying and qualifying the various components of a job: A method of determining human attributes A method of combing the two In personnel selection criterion-related validity is most employed validation procedure. In personnel selection as mentioned earlier job requirements and personal specifications are crucial. Induction and training will follow as a part of human resources development (HRD). Structured job analysis procedure is the basis for personal specifications. In a man – position approach a detailed knowledge, a structured one at that, becomes necessary. Job analysis gives a detailed account of components. The personnel requirements of these components then are established either on the basis of judgments or by way of statistical analysis. The latter can be established for each job and the requirement is the presence of research and development wins in each organization. I feel that this is by far the better method, i.e., establishing a statistical relation between job requirement and personal specifications. Job requirements may not be as simple as the term implies. We should include job – related physical requirements, social requirements, administrative requirements and psychological requirements. It is a complex process indeed.
  • 211 Similarly personnel specifications must be based on objective criteria and statistical analysis. We must establish human characteristics analysis. We must establish human characteristics (predictor variables) using statistical analysis. The uses of statistical analyses are generally regarded as the best for developing personnel specifications. This is recommended. This method is the most defensible. Except for the chance error that may creep in it is objective and quantitative and hence can be defended. Psychological Tests Psychological tests can be useful for personnel selection, as they are in many other areas of organizational behaviour, Human Resources Development. The enthusiast for psychological tests is also having his own reservations. It is never claimed to be infallible. It is not as though they are not error prone. In spite of all psychometric, statistical and methodological support things can still go wrong. A true scientist will not claim that he has said the final word. There is scope of improvement and efforts are always on in that direction. Tests used in employee selection can be classified in several ways. They may be group tests which can be administered to small group at a time, individual tests which have to be given to one person at a time. They may be psychomotor test, aptitude tests, personality, attitude and interest tests to name a few. Almost every attribute of human behaviour has come under measurement and as such tools are developed refined and standardized to meet the rigors of psychometric. On the applied areas tests are in use for corporate enterprises, health care providers, education, etc, almost every applied are is covered be psychological tests. More work needs to be done as fresh additions and continuous updating and fine tuning of the
  • 212 existing ones is a necessity. . It is a continuous process. Test data interpretation in any area is to be done with expert help. Functional value of personnel tests is dependent on reliability and validity. A reliable and valid test is to be put to use. The taste of the pudding is in its testing. So are psychological tests. There are certain directions as to how to use the psychological tests. I would add to this how not to use theses tests. Test norms for a particular job would give us the cutting score in a test above which selection is expected to be successful. Testing present employees who are successful in their jobs will give us the critical score with which a decision can be made. This critical score or the cut off point is subject to variation from time to time. The users of these tests should constantly estimate the cut-off score. It is advisable to use a battery of tests rather than depend on only one tests combining tests into a battery is technical issue and psychologists‟ help may be obtained. Multiple cut of points emerge when we use a battery of tests. Drawing a prosier of scores would help us as where the examinee stands with reference each of these tests of the battery. The battery of tests is not merely an assemblage of discrete tests but a set of interrelated subtests. Each subtest may have its own components either orthogonal or oblique components. Any one administrating psychological tests should adhere to ethical considerations. (See the chapter research methods in HRD). Employee Induction
  • 213 The organizations should follow scientific procedures to get the selected and placed employees to get acclimatized to the organization of which they are going to belong. A sense of belongingness, ego involvement in the job and organization would go a long way for demands of the respective jobs and to the organization where they work. Experts both from management and psychologists are devoting their time, energy, and expertise, to assist the organization to achieve their goals. In this context one of the most predominant efforts has been personnel selection. Questions relating to the question of basis on which the individuals enter right to privacy, right to information about the organization are gaining momentum. Personnel selection procedures have to account for the process, the values, and the individual‟s right to privacy, right to information about the organization and the right of the organization to access job relevant information about the individual. We have to look into the legitimate needs of the individual, the organization, and the society in the process of personnel selection making way for entry into organization. . We can raise queries. How error free is the predictive variables? How objective and trained are those who take decisions on selection? Validity of predictor variables depends up on the criteria chosen for validation of predictor variables. The second query refers to judgmental error which can be summarized as follows: The Halo Error: The tendency to allow one characteristic of a rating object to dominate rating of all dimensions of the object.
  • 214 The Central Tendency Error: The tendency to rate all rating objects around middle or mean of a continuum and not to use the extremes. The Leniency Error refers to the tendency to rate all rating objects in a relatively favourable manner and not to attribute negative aspects to them. There could be several judgmental errors and that list could be long. The three mentioned above are generally recognized. Corrections can be applied only by training the persons involved in decision-making in the selection process. Objective personality tests measure personality traits in a structured format leaving little or no leeway to the test administrator is a step in the right direction. Ethical Issues in Personnel Selection This is a matter of great concern in the area of personal selection. As it is now practiced it relates to persons privacy. This especially is true where personality, attitude, and interest questionnaires are employed. These tests are generally used in the selection or promotion of executive and managerial personal. The questionnaires may ask a person to describe various aspects of his personal life, which may have only tangential relevance to the job in question. The questionnaires responses may be used later after selection is completed, for purposes other than intended. (More about ethical considerations are found in the chapter on “Research Methods” in Human Resource Development). It is incumbent on the part of the organization to give a complete orientation to the selected persons about the organization. The selected individual has a right to such information and this should be done as a part of employee induction process.
  • 215 The individual has to know policies, structure, and functions of the organizations, and future plans should be made known to the selected individual. The person needs to be sensitised.
  • 216 CHAPTER – XIII HUMAN RESOUCE DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION: We have examined the concept of human resource in the earlier chapters. Human resource as an asset or an asset – complex, has utility value both for the person and others, and at the same time has the potential to grow and develop. The present chapter deals with human resource development. Having seen the connotation of human resource we should now try to find out what we mean by development. The term development refers to a sequence of changes in organism, animals, or man. The concept of development was used in psychology to trace the whole life span of the individual. Different theoretical conceptions led to two main areas of definition. On the one hand development is regarded as growth and described as quantitative increases; on the other, it is understood as a qualitative change that are taking place in phases or stages leading to higher developmental forms by way of superimposing on lower layers. Some describe development in terms convergence of natural endowment, environment, activity. This accounts for self- formation and self-realization. This last mentioned can be taken as adequate study human resource development. To repeat development is a convergence of natural endowment, environment and activity.
  • 217 Development Environment Endowment Activity Figure 6: convergence of endowment environment and activity = development. We can adopt this definition of development o human resources development. Whether structured or not this process goes on from cradle to grave. All that the organizations have to do is to harness this natural process to their and to the advantage of other persons concerned. In CHAPTER I introduction we have examined human resource as an asset or a complex of assets. Now we have brought in the concept of development and define it. It remains how this natural process can be harnessed in an organizational set – up. In this context we have individuals who have already attained stage in their development and are moving forward. In this triangular relationship as in the figure the organization has only one area to handle, that is, environment in such a way it triggers suitable or desired activity, thus influencing the endowment so that progress towards development is made possible. In the triangle of endowment, environment and activity environment provides the impetus to activity, activity leads to development which implies that endowment gets stimulated which results in development. Endowment is not a fixed entity, nor is it static, it
  • 218 amenable to change in either direction, i.e., slide down in adverse conditions, or climb up in favourable environmental condition. If sliding down is not acceptable as a possibility we can at least say it does not develop. Within certain constraints placed by hereditary factors behaviour is influenced by environmental factors. We always say in common parlance one has learned to do things that way. Learning takes place within the ambit of one‟s environment. Every individual while joining an organization brings with him his own assessment of already learned behaviours met as, physical skills, knowledge, language skills, templates, temperament, interests, attitudes, motivation, attitudes habits and idiosyncrasies. He is not an empty bag. The organization has its own characteristics. The two have to work for harmonious functions to start with and later plan to fit the new incumbent and the organization. Training and extensive practice helps an individual to reach a state of mental and spiritual capacity or to maintain the same. “Training on the job” is a short but intensive systematic introductory practice at the place of work itself (Eysenck et al, 1972). But human resource development program is not the same thing as raining. Training is involved in it but it is much more than training. The term “development” says it all. Gaining expertise in executing can be part of the story. The human nature is characterizes by a desire for higher levels not only in specific skills of job performance but also develop into a mature a personality with qualities that are both mundane and sublime. In a limited context of organizational effectiveness development includes among other things: Develop appropriate positive attitudes
  • 219 Develop appropriate interests Develop sensitivities Self- actualisation Social skills Self-esteem Enhance potential Resilient ego Assertiveness and a host of other positive qualities It is assumed that all these are present as endowment factors. Only that these have to be stimulated by appropriate environmental factors. An interaction of endowment factors and environmental factors result in activity that in turn results in development. Human resource development program has a goal and methodology to reach the goal. Once the goal is identified method shapes itself. Training is management of the learning process. There cannot be a simple omnibus method. The method varies from level to level of personnel in the organization and the out side environment. Intra organizational and inter organizational factors are also to be addressed. We begin form the beginning. In the context of jobs we can appreciate the range of behaviours that would be optimal, or most appropriate. The goal of training in this sense is to connect job performance and environmental stimuli. This would hold well in simple routine jobs and certainly is a simple proposition. But in complex job performance aspects the process of training programme could be complex. In such jobs developing
  • 220 simple skills would not fulfil the objectives of the training programmes, hence the programme is called human resource development programme than merely personnel training programme. At all levels of such a programme learning is involved. The environment provides facilities for learning and participants learn what they are provided for. Learning is a process. The end product of this process can only be inferred in the nature alteration or modification of behaviour. This can be measured.
  • 221 Learning principles include: Reinforcement Knowledge of results Motivation Distribution of learning sessions Reinforcement relates rewards, material and non – material. These facilitate learning process. Knowledge of results helps to encourage and prompt the learner to continue his efforts. Motivation is partly taken care of by rewards, but intrinsic motivation has profound influence on learning process. Distribution of practice sessions helps in consolidation and strengthens learning process. The programme of training has to be well designed. Training needs are to be identified by the organization. Among methods, most popular ones are Lecture method Use of audio visual aids Conference and workshop methods Simulated role-play methods The last mentioned is gaining popularity in the name of business games or management games. Participants are presented with a management “Problem”. The team organizes
  • 222 itself into small groups and final solution to these problems. These practice in decision making, problem solving and also promote interaction with others in the organization. This method has its limitations. Conditions under simulation are not the same as real – life situation. Many organizations are enthusiastic about these games, but there is no hard evidence of their effectiveness as a management training method. However we need not dismiss this method, but further rigorous evaluation needs be made. Any programme in training is followed by evaluation. The concept of validity applies to training as much as it does in other areas. Goldstein (1984) proposed the following: Training validity is determined by the performance of the trainees on established criteria. Performance validity: Measured by performance in transfer setting or in the job. Intra organizational validity: Performance a new group of trainees within the same organization that developed the programme. Inter organizational validity: Whether a training programme validated in one organization can be utilized in other organization. These issues of training validity proposed by Goldstein clearly indicate internal validity. This has limitation with regard to generalization that can be obtained some external validity criteria are developed. We may take up some special issues for purposes illustration. The major purpose of human resource development is personality. Motivation
  • 223 The construct motivation has empirical anchors. A construct gains a scientific status if we can state how it manifests. This implies predictability of behaviour through a construct satisfies this need. The antecedents of behaviour indicate an intervening variable which can be identified. Such a thing is possible in the construct motivation. The most obvious is the fact that behaviour is variable. It varies from moment to moment in any given individual. This is within subject variability. Behaviour shows inter subject variability. This is called between subject variability makes an eminent possibility for training programme in this area of human behaviour. Variation is behaviour is caused by other constructs as well. They are stimulus, and learning. These two constructs are as important as the construct motivation. Behaviour is multi- determined, but we can concentrate here on three major variables, namely, stimulus variation, prior learning and motivation. Behaviour shows variability and it has is remarkably stable or consistent. It gives character to the person‟s interaction with his environment. A number of researchers in social psychology have focused on motivation variables. Motivation affects attitude change, as far example Festinger‟s cognitive dissonance. Clinical psychologists use the construct motivation extensively in problems diagnosis and treatment. Wherever psychologists deal with behaviour of human beings in real – life situation the construct motivation is extensively used and given with importance. Personality theorists have given a very prominent place for the construct motivation. Psychology of motivation has made use of concepts and points of view from the various specialties in psychology. Personality theories typically describe not only the adult personality but also its development from childhood, thus paving the way for accepting learned motivates.
  • 224 Little wonder therefore, that psychologists lay so such emphasis on the construct motivation in human resources development in organizations. The fact that there are learned motives; the human resource development programme emphatically considers personality development and training in motivation acquisition, or motivation strengthening where it already exists. Making use of expectancy and availability factors of motivation a training programme can enable the personnel to make a reasonably realistic estimation of expectancy, i.e., perceived probability of satisfying a certain need, and realistic estimation of availability which is an environmental variable. Creating an environment that gives a realistic view of both expectancy and availability factors of need satisfaction does this. We are thus enabling the personal to make adjustments. Making adjustments may by itself denote a change in their behaviours. Those at decision making levels like managers should be enabled for a realistic self – perception which can lead to change in accordance with needs of the organization. Leaders should know haw they are perceived by their followers. It does not mean or is it possible to get a feed back by direct confrontation. There is need to help self – perception in an objective manner. This may not be easy. . Sensitivity training helps individuals to learn how others perceive their behavior. This method is called “Sensitivity or T – group training”. The assumption is that a number of individuals meeting in an unstructured situation with open climate will develop working relations with each other and will learn a great deal about them as perceived by others Bennis (1966). Training should include creating awareness in the managers about the cultural background of followers. It should be geared to the level of maturity of the followers.
  • 225 Self – perception of leaders is a significant dimension in human resources development. Feedback and disclosure would constitute other areas of enhancing human resource. Johan window illustration would be beneficial, but caution is that excessive disclosure is detrimental to interpersonal relationship. All these make it clear human resource development programme is a specialty within specialty. Human resource development is a continuous process and omnipresent. People develop their psychological resources wherever they are. Human being is not a static entity, but a dynamic organism. He has the flexibility and adaptability to the environmental demands. No society is static. All societies all over the world keep changing due to various factors; the fauna and flora keep pace with these changes. This is a natural phenomenon. The presence of human being in social contexts is not new. Man is a social animal. He has to keep his place in the society and this call for new adjustments and seemingly new talents. The individual is continually learning and fine tuning his potential. The modern society has many organizations, formal and informal. Every individual has a multiple membership; he is a member of more than one organization and conducts himself in accordance with them and carries on. All these things take place silently and continuously through a process of socialization. Apart from the general process of socialization which human behaviour implicitly the individual voluntarily and or out of necessity, becomes a member of certain other organization. This refers to where he works for a consideration. He holds a job there. He becomes a part of that organization for duration of time that may be short or long and has to subordinate him to the disciplinary requirement of that organization. He serves and is rewarded and he grows and develops in that context.
  • 226 Any given organization institutes a programme for the development of its resources in its own interests that can equally benefit the persons who constitute a resource by themselves. This is what we call development of human resources. We have examined the human element as a resource in the earlier chapter. Now it is our turn to know how it is done. Human resources development is done in an organized way and is research based. Every aspect of psychology of human resource development is a systematic endeavour. Therefore we can consider an autonomous wing in the organization looking after the programme of human resource development. For convenience, let us call it HRD. It should have structure of its own. Members of this department should draw from various specialties, all concerned with human behaviour. It shall be a multi disciplinary structure with an interactive function. It is not appropriate to restrict the scope of this department to develop human resources for better performance. The scope is much wider. It is not a welfare department either though not precluded from the ambit of welfare. In fact it ought to be multifaceted. The visible beneficiaries are the organization, the individual worker, and the nation. A good quality of work – life is a guarantee for all around quality of life of the individual. Quality of life is subjective experience derived from objective realities and personal predilections. Human resource is the dominant resource among all the resources the organization has at its disposal. Taking care of them is not a matter of charity; it is an obligation and a necessity. HRD functions are many. The list cannot be exhaustive. We may mention a few here. Man power planning, performance appraisal, identifying areas of employee counselling, training programmes, communication, research and development plans and projects,
  • 227 initialisation of outside consultancy where needed, a professional approach to all issues concerning employees and the organization, maintaining good human relations, etc. Exercise in self – appraisal The activity is aimed at giving you chance to look at the ways you relate to others. On the basis of this form you may analyse the ways in which you to grow in order to develop more satisfying relationships with others. For each statement underline the number that best identifies your place on the scale. Then go through the exercise again and draw a circle around the number that best expresses where you would like to be.
  • 228 Example: 1 2 3 4 5 Ability to listen to others in an understanding way Not at all able 1 2 3 4 5 completely able Willingness to discuss feelings with others Completely unwilling 1 2 3 4 5 completely willing Awareness of the feeling of other Completely unaware 1 2 3 4 5 completely ware Understanding why I do what I do No understanding 1 2 3 4 5 completely understanding. Tolerance of conflict and antagonism Not tolerant 1 2 3 4 5 tolerant Acceptance of expressions of affection and warmth from others Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 welcome readily Acceptance of comments about my behaviour from others Rejecting 1 2 3 4 5 welcoming. Willingness to trust others Completely suspicious 1 2 3 4 5 completely trusting
  • 229
  • 230 Ability to influence others Completely unable 1 2 3 4 5 completely able Relations with peers Wholly competitive 1 2 3 4 5 whole cooperative Periodically test yourself and see to your improvement self-improvement indices in these regards. CHAPTER – XIV RESEARCH NEEDS IN HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT We now enter into an area of discussion that is difficult to make its presence. Nevertheless it is the most important approach in any field of activity and especially where human element is involved. Organizational effectiveness is no exception.
  • 231 The basic feature of research is to find relationships among a set of variable of interest in the context of human resource development. This is important because it is a scientific approach... Scientific research helps in finding facts. This in turn helps understand various aspects of the problem. In this endeavour we ask questions and seek answers of importance to us. Research is basically a problem-solving endeavour. Establishing relationships among variables does this. These are to be accomplished by empirical observations and systematically gathered data. Research is not a mere fact finding effort. It is a problem solving effort to enrich our knowledge and through this enhance the quality of life of all concerned. Knowledge is not piecemeal. It is cumulative. Research is a process and a disciplined mental activity. The purpose is to continuously add to existing knowledge, and enriching our knowledge. . Science does not believe in saying the final word on any issue and seeks to update knowledge continuously. Research has to produce a report of all details of the process for the benefit of other scholars and stake holders, Research methodology is a sophisticated body of knowledge which when utilized appropriately is capable of rendering benefits and help in developing reliable and valid knowledge. Human resource development area of pursuit has a great potential for utilizing research methodology. In the recent decades psychologists have realized that without human subjects as participants in research would be futile. Research on animal subjects ha limited utility in the area of human behaviour. Logic of the experiment or any measurement process is that something is applied to some body by some body in a given manner. But this is far from
  • 232 truth. Because, the subject has his ways of thinking and acting which are based on his predispositions and his present situations: Therefore, there are possibilities of obtaining dubious results? The researcher has to safeguard proper methodological procedures. Carefully selected research problems, careful planning, and commitment of the researcher will go a long way in reducing the errors if not totally eliminate them. Most behavioural research is aimed at making predictions of behaviour under investigation. In this endeavour we consider a minimum of two variables. They are: The predictor variable, and the dependent variable The first variable is called the independent variable, the second is called criterion variable. In research process we manipulate the independent variable and note its effect on the criterion variable. The criterion is also known as the dependent variable. Research studies are classified into two types, namely experimental research and quasi experimental research. In the area of organizational effectiveness and human resource development research is quasi experimental MEASUREMENT The identified variables are to be measured in quantitative terms. This is for objectivity and easy comprehension. . Quantified data are amenable for statistical for statistical processing. Research strategy involves designing a study, choosing the variables and measuring instruments. Then we may proceed to collect the data from an appropriate sample of subjects. Next stage is data processing using relevant statistical package. Selection of Variables
  • 233 The variables are selected based on theoretical and practical considerations. The term theory implies constructs or attributes. For example some people do not keep punctuality. Punctuality is an attribute. This is to be investigated. We may simply ask a question WHY it is so. This leads to finding out the causes or antecedents. The former is the predicted variable and the latter are the predictor variables. There could be multiple antecedent variables. Then it is natural for us to devise a multivariate research design. Data gathered might reveal the facts we are looking for. Data Processing There are several statistical packages available for data processing. Computers come handy in using these statistical packages. The most widely used statistical package in social sciences is SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Univariate and multivariate analyses can be done with ease and comfort. The research results of behavioural data are amenable for quantitative analyses. These analyzed data can be used for establishing a theoretical view point, or may be used for practical purposes for which research was initiated, or both. However, we have to make sure that we reliable and valid measuring instruments before starting data collection. Reliability Reliability is equivalent to dependability, stability, consistency, predictability, and accuracy. A reliable test has these qualities. This is one of the major psychometric criteria and this has to be statistically established. There are three methods for establishing reliability. If we measure the same set of subjects again and again by the same instrument we should the same results within reasonable deviations. This is stability or dependability, or predictability.
  • 234 Reliability coefficient is computed using correlation method. Significance level of the reliability coefficient is tested against probability value. Often we relay on internal consistency of the test items in the test as an index of reliability. This done by using Chronbach‟s alpha or formula K 420 Validity Validity is more complex to establish and has a particular importance in behaviour research. Validity presents a problem when we are measuring managerial attributes such as, personality, interests, and attitudes to mention only few. Validity is defined as a test or a measuring instrument measures what it is intended to measure. This means the measuring instrument is giving the true picture of that which we are measuring. The American Psychological Association (APA) classified validity into three types .They are: content, criterion related, and construct validity. Content Validity Content validity is the representative ness or sampling adequacy of the criterion measures. This can be obtained by proper sampling of the domain of items related to the object of measurement. Criterion Related Validity This is studied by comparing data obtained by our new test with an already established criterion as being representative of what we want to measure. In this approach we have to compute the coefficient of correlation between our test measures and the criterion
  • 235 measures. This called validity coefficient. To be accepted it has to be statistically significant. Construct Validity. This is a judgmental process. The test favourably compares with the construct, or is a construct based. The simplest example is factorial validity. Variables and Definitions Variable is an alternate term for factor, which has some effect during observation of a phenomenon or measurements. Variance is a measure of variability, which is used to determine the degree of difference from one another of certain value or scores in a test. We will revert back to this later. Variation and the degree of variation refer to change in the item of measurement either intra-individual or inter- individual. In this context we may examine the concept of dispersion. The individual scores mentioned above show a scatter; the usual statistics are the standard deviations from the mean. The things that are observed are called variables. Any particular observation is called a value of the variables. We normally get several values of the same variable by repeated observation or get several values from a number of individuals (sample). These values show dispersion measured in terms of standard deviation. Behavioural variable refers to some response or action of an individual. These responses vary from simple to complex types.
  • 236 Stimulus variable is the one that precedes the behaviour variable. The intensity of behavioural variable depends on stimulus variable or stimulus variables, both simple and complex matching with simple or complex behaviour variables. When a variable lacks continuity we call it a discrete variable. The values do not dovetail into the next or other value. But there are variables, which can be measured and values obtained show continuity. For example, introversion – extraversion is a continuum where values show continuity, though in minor degrees they appear discrete we take it for practical purpose as continuous variable. Quantitative variables are ordered and numbered, in other words numerical values are ascribed to each measurement. The qualitative variable is unordered and is merely descriptive. Psychological research is concerned with methodology to improve the concepts of variability and to devise and develop techniques for precise measurement of these variables. This does not stop here. The next step is to know the relationships among variables. For example, we may like to know the relation been locus of control and career growth. We define these variables, obtain measures and find out the degree and direction of relationship. Suppose we control locus control measures in a quasi-experimental methodology we designate it independent variable, the other career growth the dependent variable. Measurement is basic to scientific enquiry. Measurement consists of rules for assigning numbers or numerical values to object or objects. This cannot be done in an arbitrary manner, but has to follow known definable procedures. This means we relate these procedures to standardization, which is universally accepted. This procedure of quantification tells us how of an attribute is represented in the object of measurement. Quantification and measurements are interwoven. Standardized measures provide a
  • 237 number of advantages. They aid in objectivity, communication including interpretation, economy, and scientific generalization. All these are made possible by yet another factor, i.e., statistics. Statistics has great implication for psychometric theory. Inferential statistics concerns itself with probability in order to relate observed measures of samples to population parameters. In contrast we have descriptive statistics such as mean and correlation of two or more measures. These help us to describe empirical data. Inferential statistics used for testing significance need additional steps in the analysis. In a large sample study descriptive statistics would be adequate, as the obtained values are likely to be close to population values. Evolving a problem of study automatically results in choosing the variables. VARIABLES: A variable is a symbol to which we ascribe numerals or values. A variable may take a justifiable set of values, e.g., intelligence, attitude, etc., where values or numerals can take the form of a scale. Some variables may have only two values, like gender, we can assign 0 and 1. But this also is a variable. Therefore some variables are dichotomies some others are multiple response scale values. Concepts and constructs: A concept expresses an abstraction formed by generalizations from particulars. An idea is what we know of a thing, and a concept is a generalized idea of group of similar things. A construct is a concept and is consciously adopted for some scientific purpose. Definition There are two types of definitions: Constitutive, Operational.
  • 238 Constitutive definition defines a construct using other constructs. For example intelligence can be defined as brightness or as capability to do things with a certain degree of efficiency. If construct are to be scientifically useful they must have constitutive definitions. Assigning meaning to a construct or a variable specifying the operations necessary to measure is called operational definition. A Closer Look at Variables: There are three very important kinds of variables. They are: Independent and dependent variables Active and attribute variables. Continuous and categorical variables It is presumed that the dependent variable varies concomitantly (negatively or positively) with the variation in the independent variable. In experimental research any variable that is manipulated by the experimenter is called active variable. And the measured as a consequence is called attribute variable. A continuous variable is capable of taking on an ordered set of values with in a range. A categorical variable takes a nominal measurement. They are dichotomous values. Constructs are unobservable intervening variables. They are inferred as being in between independent and dependent variables.
  • 239 Examples: Independent and dependent variables Study habits and scholastic achievement. Active and attribute variables. Rate of reading and comprehension (Rate of reading manipulated in an experimental setting.). Continuous and categorical variables Continuous variable can be ascribed values in the form of a scale such as 1 to 5 or 1 to 7 etc., e.g. rigidity-flexibility. Categorical variable has nominal scale such as gender, religion, etc. EXERCISE Write a paragraph for each of the following (in 50 words): Adjustment, Aptitude, Anxiety, Attitude, Authoritarian‟s personality.
  • 240 Bivariate distribution, Causality, Cognitive dissonance, Content analysis, Convergent thinking, Components of variance, Concept, Constitutive definition, Creativity, Dichotomous variable Dependent variable Statement of Problem Exercise – 1 Cognitive dissonance “…that whenever a person engages in some behaviour he does not believe in, he will be uncomfortable because his behaviour is inconsistent with his belief”, (Festinger, 1957).
  • 241 This leads to the possibility of reducing cognitive dissonance by motivation. Persuading them to change what they believe in, and change their attitudes to be consistent with their behavior, thus resolve dissonance or change their behaviour to be consonant with their belief can do this. Persuasion and attitude change Prestige, Credibility of the persuading agent Which aspects are persuadable, which others are not? Effectiveness of communication... Cognitive dissonance exists when there is a dissonant relation between two or more cognitive elements, that is, knowledge, opinion, or attitude concerning any objects, oneself, or one‟s own behaviour. According Festinger, cognitive dissonance is experience as unpleasant by the individuals and creates pressure directed towards, the reduction of dissonance or toward consonance. Strength of this pressure depends upon the strength of existing dissonance, which in turn is a function of the relation between the importance and number of dissonance elements on the one hand and the consonant elements on the others. Fundamentally three possibilities of dissonance reduction are described: Changing one‟s own behaviour as a cognitive elements; The changing of the environmental as a cognitive elements;
  • 242 The addition of new cognitive elements can lesson the weight of the dissonant as compared with that of the consonant models. The motive for action results from the dissonance of two or more cognitive elements. There is a case of dissonance when two or more elements mutually exclude one another. From this disagreement comes pressure to restore harmony, which has been disturbed. Cannon‟s (1932) theory of wisdom of the body described a process of maintaining a certain physiological consistency, e.g., body temperature blood sugar level. etc., Cannon made a distinction between different hierarchical, homeostatic level: Reflex and instinctive levels; Acquired habits and adaptation serve as the self – regulating system intent upon maintaining equilibrium (Bertanfly, 1968). The extension of the concept made it possible to move forward from study of organic need to experimental analysis of psychological requirements within the framework of a motivational and behavioural psychology. Study the above and prepare a statement of a problem. Choose smoking behavior and appropriate variables to be included in the problem of research. You may choose any other aspect of human behaviour you want to change and state a research problem. Exercise - 2 Read the following:
  • 243 The human being is an information system. Experiential time is one aspect of much information input. The individual constantly processes it. Time gives a psychological structure mediating the here – now situation to the expended past and an anticipated future. This helps us in the construction of time perspective. This again implies recovering the past and anticipation of the future, but do not follow a simple arithmetic or a mechanical process. An individual develops a variety of time perspectives related to different facets of his life. These facets may revolve around a variety of variables such as age, gender, socio – economic, status, intellectual capacity, personality, state of mind, physical health, etc., Psychological time is both malleable and illusive, moulded by family, social, religious and cultural traditions on the one hand and personal experience, present moods, immediate circumstances on the other. This is addition to the list given above. We live in the present, take an excursion to the past, and peep into the future for various purposes. This process affects our efficiency or in our living, be it personal, social or occupational. Now you are to evolve a research problem with the theme “Rate of career growth and future time perspective” Organizational effectiveness (OE) Evolving a research problem Exercise – 3 It is the executive by virtue of his position in an organization that is responsible for contribution that materially affects organizational prosperity.
  • 244 Twentieth century saw a rapid growth when it entered the cyber-age and continues to grow at a pace, which is difficult to estimate and adjust. So manger entrusted with the responsibility of administering the firm, its mission and destiny riding on his shoulders has to adapt to the fast changing environment, a large part of it did not exist when he entered the job. The power vested in him has to be used with skill, which is an art by itself if he has to survive in his position as a power holder over the people working under him. Example: Knowledge of the job, powers vested in him, creative intelligence, and innovativeness, and computer literacy may be listed and there could be many more. Use your resources and evolve a suitable research problem to study the effectiveness of middle level managers in a corporate set – up. Use suitable variables for the study. Exercise – 4 (OE) Modern life style has all the potential for experiencing distress. While stress can be either eustress or distress, it is the latter with which many researchers are concerned and naturally so. In the broad area of OE we are concerned with distress at work and consequences. This necessitates the identification of sources of stresses, the stressors, their severity, and their effect on job performance. You are required to study literature on stress at work and experiential aspect of work of the workers. Formulate an appropriate research problem and define the terms.
  • 245 Offer your justification of research in this area. Remember a research problem should be solvable and replicable in similar situation. Get your statement of the problem research scrutinize by experts. Ethics and Responsibilities of Psychologist In the recent decades the use of Psychology tests in India has shown a remarkable rise. It may even be said that it is a phenomenal rise. Schools, colleges, individual establishments, hospital have all been liberally utilizing psychological tests as aids to make appropriate decisions. Besides, individuals are knocking of the doors of counsellors to get them psychologically screened. There is a rapid growth in the “felt need” for psychological testing, and service providers also are on the increase. This expansion is gratifying however psychologically testing requires scrutiny. There is need to know and assess the extent to which both professionalism and ethical considerations coexist. We also should know whether the public welcome this trend, and if they do, we should know whether those who take psychological tests are aware of the implications. It is equally necessary for those administering psychological tests to obtain informed consent. Subsequent to the administering the test or tests debriefing is a necessity. Those who take this tests have right to know all about these. The purpose of my writing all this is to promote healthy and acceptable way of psychological testing in the service of generating new knowledge and also service where it is needed.
  • 246 To this end it is necessary and even mandatory that psychologists follow ethical codes as all other professional do. The American Psychological Association addressed this issue for several years from1968. Professor Stuart Cook as chairman of a committee developed ethical guidelines. Almost 20,000 members of American Psychological Association (APA) contributed to the development of ethical standards. The findings were first published 1973; a revised version came out in 1982. By and large we may follow these guidelines. But it could be necessary we should develop such guide lines which would be suitable to our social and ethical ethos. Broadly they relate to: Planning a research study Proper treatment of the subjects by the investigators and their collaborators and assistants establishment of a fair agreement relating to mutual obligations should be in place as shown below Respect for individual‟s freedom: To participate or not Withdraw from research at any stage of the research process. The participants should be accorded psychical and mental comfort while taking the test and there after too. Provide the participant the results of the tests administered.
  • 247 Any adverse effects detected while taking the test or there after have to be remedied. Strict confidentiality has to be maintained. Other details Psychologist should be aware and hold responsibility to ensure that their services are appropriate to the situation. Professional competence is very essential. Psychologist should stand for high moral and legal standards. Public statements made by the psychologist should enable the public to make their choice of taking tests or not. Confidentiality Protect the integrity and welfare of the subject of research and clients receiving their services. Respect other colleagues and obligation to the organization where they serve. Promote the welfare of the subject whenever any psychological assessment is made of them. Overall psychologists should be recognized by the society as compliment and or capable of promoting the welfare who come into contact with them
  • 248 CHAPTER – XV SUMMARY AND SYNTHESIS According to Webster‟s dictionary (1975) rhetoric is the art of using word effectively in speech and writing. It is an artificial eloquence, showy and elaborate in style. Statements made are categorical. A rhetorical question asked is merely to produce an effect. No spoken or written answer is expected. Doubts are not entertained. Sophistry implies reservation, mystification, and intuitiveness, independent of reasoning style and is closely related to the rhetoric. Science implies accuracy, exactitude, and plain, pure, unvarnished, well defined, authentic, verifiable, reasoned, faithful statements as main characteristics. A versatile and nimble mind with fondness to meditate, readiness to doubt and reconsider characterizes a scientist according to Francis Bacon. Over the centuries we have come a long way in our scientific pursuits in the religious and philosophic backgrounds across the globe. Both have prospered. Scientific pursuit resulted in the emergence of psychology as a natural science.
  • 249 Modernity as we may call it saw the rise of science and rise of psychology as a natural science is not an isolated development. Achievements in science and technology in the last hundred years is the greatest works of reason. In terms of food production and in terms of material production science has made significant contribution to standard of life of citizens across the globe. Changes in food habits, the manner we entertain ourselves and a host of other aspects found in us are based on productive work of organizations which make mass production and labor saving devices possible. We also notice a healthy development in the quality of health care services. While all these are made possible by the development of science and technology it would be naïve to ignore the all pervading human relations component which is a very important link in the chain of progress of mankind in happiness and contentment. In the absence of this we would be reduced to the status of robots The rise and development of science and technology has brought a sea change in socio- economic aspects of the people. This brings into focus a demand for new adjustments by the people who are to benefit from such a progress. In this context the role of psychology is to be emphasized. People have to remake themselves to be able to make proper adjustments to the emerging new environment created by the progress of science and technology. We have to take the rise of modernity as a boon and a challenge. . The emergence of psychology as a natural science in the 19th century should cause no surprise. The emergence and development of science and technology is the result of the creative impulse of man that has the inherent possibility of enslaving the creator himself. It would thenceforth be an irony and a tragedy. This possibility has to be avoided.
  • 250 Scientific endeavour should go beyond the scope of natural science that is beyond physical phenomena. . But the fact that human beings exercise considerable free will human behaviour cannot easily be brought under empirical investigation. Suitable methodology is to be employed. . Modernity has taken its toll. This is the other side of the coin. Loss of community life with related social isolation has made impact on the so called human nature. The modern urban life is a classic example of this and we have to invoke psychological intervention. Urbanization and industrialization have relevance in this regard. Anonymity, bystander apathy is a part of urban life. Father Time dictates daily chores. Stress and strain are a part of life. In order to avoid an all-encompassing amorphous presentation I will focus on one aspect of modern living, namely, organizational behaviour. We have travelled too far from cottage industry to the modern large industrial establishments. This fits into what was said in previous paragraphs. The reference to organizational behaviour is to put both the management of such organizations and the workforce on notice. The days were when industrial organizations thought that by diligent and well-planned efforts can bring all achievements of management can be brought down to quantitative figures. Presentations such as reduction in accidents, reduction in fatigue and enhanced profit to the management and higher wages for the workers were offered as due to the management of diligence and planning. These were in the domain of efficiency experts. These efficiency experts may take note of
  • 251 all these. Produce more by exerting less became a slogan. Management imagined that changing the physical environment, redesigning machines, providing ingenious incentives, giving scientific training to workers could lead to the belief that it is possible to produce more by doing less. By minimum expenditure of energy maximum output of work was thought to be possible. Workers were not impressed by these efforts made by the management. These were too good to be good. These efforts missed out something that was truer, more effective, and more satisfying to both management and concerned personnel. As mentioned earlier urbanization and establishment of large industrial houses employing several hundred people has an unnoticed cause for missing out something that is more precious than other aspects conjectured and attempted in large measure only to find a cull de sac. Workers were considered as an assembly of isolated individuals seeking maximum wage by putting minimum effort. It is interesting to note that those in love or in battle field are propelled to great and even tedious efforts by motives other than those mentioned earlier. These motives may sound eccentric and beyond the scope of scientific enquiry. It probably is thought to be in the domain of poets, artists, and other literary men. However, this has been a matter of curiosity. We may then argue that physical environmental factors do not by themselves account for human endeavour and a deep look at human nature is the need. After the first target, namely, the environmental factors which could not tell the whole story, the efficiency experts located a second target, namely, groups-formal and informal. .The social aspects of work- environment has raised in importance. Enlightened management and enlightened work force have nothing to fight about among themselves,
  • 252 discovered that they both bear the responsibility to the larger society. They together constitute organized servants of the society. We have come a long way from individual oriented industrial psychology to the organization oriented organizational psychology or organizational behaviour. The totality or the configuration of the organization (the gestalt) is the behaviour setting where all levels and all cadres of employees work together and give their best. . One of the major issues is the understanding of all pervading attribute called attitudes. We have to understand the attitudes of both the management and the rest of the work force. This can be a tough task unless we see this from a historical perspective. We speak of human nature which is a very complex attribute. Human nature is culture specific. This is what makes it difficult for wide generalization across the globe. In fact all human behaviour is culture specific. Attitude is one of them. A study of human nature has to be free from a mechanistic outlook and an organismic outlook is the need. It should be accepted that physical environment does have its role in human behaviour, but consideration of these influences to the exclusion of nonmaterial influences can only tell a part of the story and that too a distorted one. This may even result in our missing wood for the trees. We have to take both physical environmental conditions and the more subtle nonmaterial influences as interactive influences. The two cannot separate. It could be emphasized that human nature can best be understood through whatever the trinity of psychology, anthropology, and sociology offer through their concepts. This is so because human nature is a product of human culture. Take for example, “Status” based on birth in medieval times. But today it has to be achieved. We need to understand the whole process of socio-economic change that plays a major role in differentiating human behaviour of the bygone years and of today. Great deal of behaviour emanates from
  • 253 within the group of which the individual is a member. Here I am recalling group dynamics of Kurt Lewin. It should be noted that variability of human behaviour in different behaviour settings follows this premise. All that has been attempted from the days of F.W.Taylor, Gilbreth, Elton Mayo, Herzberg, Atkinson, Maslow and host of others in the field to this day is to change or modify worker behaviour for higher output of work. The basic underlying principle of motivational theories is that all behaviour is caused and no matter what an individual does he does so for good and sufficient reason. What is the outcome of all these attempts? I think I am not sure. Let us accept the fact that all the social skills involved in these aspects are not as advanced as we would like them to be. Two issues emerge out of this discussion. 1. Whether social sciences can claim validity and reliability equivalent to those of physical sciences; 2. Whether the social skills attained as of now are adequately amenable for use. The latter refers to the possibility of bringing about behaviour modification. The aim is therefore twofold: 1. Increase in production, and 2. General well-being. The constraints in both are not wanting. It is not reasonable to think that men are not interested in material gain and comfort affording a high standard of life and that no one is interested in enhancing his quality of life. . .. .. The aim therefore is two fold, namely, increase in production and general well being. But constrains on these are not wanting. All these require a creative approach. If I do not comment at least briefly on “work culture” I would leave a wide gap uncovered. The expression work culture is making rounds in the recent times. I do not wish to elaborate on this, but a mention has to be made. Culture is defined as man made part of the environment. Here we can safely assume work culture is organization specific. The expression organizational culture is also making rounds and gaining wide acceptance. Briefly stated it refers to both physical and social environment in a given
  • 254 organization. The demands that an organization makes on its work force are a significant aspect of work culture. The modern hi-tech, high profile organizations using state of the art standards make new types of demands which are not only required to enhance performance repertoire but have also to make several new adjustments sacrificing their earlier habits of work. This means giving up their existing work culture and adopting new work culture. This initially is confronted as a tough proposition. These have to be made any way. It is not for nothing the employer pays high wages. The employer expects the employees to deliver the way the employer wants. High wages are not only needed but even welcomed by employees. It is moot question as to how do the employees accept and adopt the new work culture. It is also an issue as to how such an exercise impacts on the quality of life of the employees notwithstanding the fact that there is a significant enhancement in the standard of life of these workers and their families. This brings into focus a demand for an in-depth research study. It may be suggested that the employer enables the employees to develop new skills and add them to the already existing human resource, and the employees give the best they can. If this is done either party makes no sacrifice. We thus recognize both technical efficiency and psychological factors as equally important. But we have to take note of the fact that there is a disparity in the pace of development of psychosocial efficiency and technical efficiency. Technical efficiency develops at a faster rate for obvious reasons. The human element is complex and has an important factor of variability both in terms of intra-individual and inter-individual factors. The gap has to be narrowed if not eliminated.
  • 255 There is a need for a concerted effort by organizational human resource specialists and organizational behaviour specialists. They need to sit together, work in collaboration as equal partners to enhance production and high quality of life of all concerned. Employee –Employer relations as key to success of any business organization is not a new idea. It is a psycho-socio-economic interpersonal interactional process among all those who constitute a business organization. The significant key to good employee – employer relations is effective communication within the entire organization involving all cadres from the very top to the shop floor. Growth of social values like democracy has their influence in this regard. Trade unions have an important role to play in this process, as they are themselves based on democratic values. Middle level management is the pivot in employee- employer relations. Leadership style is the key factor. Managers are institutional leaders and to be effective they should exhibit certain positive qualities. Levels of Management 1. Top level management – the big boss, 2. Middle level management – the boss, 3. The front line management – foremen/supervisors. Leaders at different levels do come into contact with all others in different degrees related to different levels of functioning of the employees. Leadership is an interactive process. Qualities of a good leader
  • 256 A few of the salient qualities may be listed. The list cannot be exhaustive. 1. Intelligence, good judgements, insight, imagination, sense of humour, sense of justice, a balanced personality, flexibility, open-mindedness. 2. Sound health, energy, and enthusiasm. 3. Sound technical / connected knowledge / expertise in his specific area of function. Good leaders delegate authority and equally handle authority delegated to them efficiently. They are fair minded and are available to all employees irrespective of cadre and hierarchy. They discuss problems with concerned personnel to find solutions. They appreciate and recognize merit. They sincerely exhibit patience and understanding. Leaders who are not efficient depend on higher ups as an easy way to problem solution. They are not adequately equipped with technical knowledge or knowledge specific to their function that is necessary for efficient functioning. They do not hesitate interfering in the on going work of an employee. They are often self-contradictory, impulsive, and emotional. Efficient management is dependent on the quality 0f harmonious relations within all the personnel of the total organization. Management and Leadership Leadership is a broader concept. Management is organization specific. Planning, organizing, and motivating are the three pillars of organizational management. Planning implies goal setting with specific objectives. Organization implies bringing people together and handling human resources development and utilization. Motivating employees implies the ability to bring out the best of the available human resource.
  • 257 Motivation Among the three pillars mentioned above motivation an abstract attribute needs a special mention. There are two aspects of motivation requiring our attention. They are: motivating behaviour, and motivating environment. Motivating behaviour 1. Behaviour is goal seeking, goal oriented. Every individual has a desired to attain some goal or other or even multiplicity of goals. 2. This desire may be rooted in intrinsic or extrinsic factors. 3. An effective leader identifies and strengthens the intrinsic factors and thus enhances the possibility to act or not to act in a direction that the manager desires. 4. An effective leader provides external situations that stimulate or triggers intrinsic factors. 5. Whenever a worker shows inadequacy the leader should make efforts to strengthen the desire of the worker to realize the goal by suitable encouragements. 6. Leaders should recognize multiplicity of needs of workers. Need system is more complex than what can be represented in a single write up. 7. High level goals stretch the individuals too far and may diminish motivation. Realistic goal setting appears meaning full. Motivating environment
  • 258 This has been an issue of intense research studies in the past. The issue raised was the extent to which environmental manipulation could positively affect employee performance. If any of the environmental factors were thought to influence employee performance one could go after it. The extensive studies carried out did not provide any clue. The corporate organization The management decides on policy and adopts a procedure, structures a job and introduces a specific technology for the execution of the same. In effect it utilizes procedures for motivation. These may support status quo in employee – employer relations. The cognisance of this possibility promotes a fresh thinking for innovation. Management starts thinking methods of introducing change in as many aspects of its functioning. Corporate planning has to reckon with external influences supportive or otherwise and adjust accordingly. Utilization of available human resource coupled with human resource development programme goes a long way in registering organizational success in its own progress and in equal measure keep the employee-employer relations in good shape. This contributes to national benefit as well. . Interpersonal communication is as old as mankind. In the not so recent decades World War II bestowed on it an immense importance largely because of necessity and possibility. Communication received attention in many fields such as, technology, psychology, sociology, international relations, epistemology, art, advertising, and labour relations. Such a development perhaps made it necessary by the reality of international interdependence in trade, defence, science, travel, broadcasting, televising, education, and a large number of other institutional activities,
  • 259 In a discussion on communication we have to consider the issues such as telecommunication, electronic media, automation, etc., which have developed to a great extent. Equally concerns of people, their thoughts, knowledge, and their individual and social behaviour are to be given prominence. These concerns are to be united. Communication is by signs and symbols. Communication is always social whether between people or within the individual as in the case of thinking. In other words communication involves relationships. Observation is the basic of communication. We can distinguish between two types of observations. They are social and non-social, but observing humans is social and observing a rock or a tree is non-social. All knowledge of the world is based on these. Let us have brief look at social observation and knowledge thus derived. Society and the individual are so intertwined as to be inseparable. It is for this reason we see through the society to which we belong. Society sets the norms for our perceptions based on person – society interactions. This interaction is mediated through communication. .We are taught through various social agencies such as family, the school, places of worship, neighbourhood and through peers. The theory of knowledge, which came into being from the early empiricists, has developed into a science called “Semiotics.” This has three related branches. They are: 1. Syntactic: This refers to arrangement of words in a sentence. It has reference to grammar dealing with usages of grammatical construction. It is the orderliness without reference to meaning. 2. Semantics: The formal relations between signs and their designates have significance to logic and linguistic theory. 3. Pragmatism: This refers to signs and their varied usage by specific persons in specific situations.
  • 260 DIALECTICS IN COMMUNICATION Observation leads to perception, retrospection leads to thinking, data production leads to feeling, and verbalization leads to communication such as speaking, and writing. The dialects occur imperceptibly. Total observable universe is too vast and we can grapple only with a limited area of this observable universe. All communications are retrospective. Changes can occur between observation and communication. Therefore we have to take note of what happens in between observation and communication. This can only be inferred and not directly observed... They however play a major role in bringing about changes between observation and reporting. These are called intervening variables. Communication prepares the ground for forming impression about ourselves and others. Communication takes place under different frameworks, namely, pre-scientific frame work and scientific frame work. These sometimes are not easily distinguished. Beliefs and knowledge of people in every day life situation are not necessarily based on scientific and systematic observation. They can be pre-scientific beliefs as well. But they need not be always wrong and sometimes we cannot act without such impression forming process. Impression formation that is the basis for person-perception results in personication. Errors in this process can be traced to both the person who personicates and the person personicated. To personicate is to attribute some quality to a person or group of persons and refer to them by the name of that quality. Communication involves relationships that may be real, implied, or imaginary.
  • 261 Effective communication is a matter of skills. Effective communication depends upon communicator, the message, medium, and the receiver. Inadequacy in any one of these may render communication ineffective and even lead to unexpected consequences. Communication is bi-dimensional. It is both giving information or message and receiving information. Communication involves listening. Listening is an art. It is not it the same thing .as hearing. Listening has two levels. They are: 1. the level of words, 2. the level of feeling. It is the same thing as saying getting to know what may be there behind the spoken or written message. It is grasping the feeling tone behind the spoken or written message. Listening is as much an art as delivering the message or information. In spoken communication body language provides the cue to what is behind the spoken word or spoken message delivered. We started with our excursion with a brief recollection of the past history of psychology. I have mentioned in a separate occasion that we have to make “Past meaningful and future purposeful”. I hold to that thought of mine even here while attempting to picturise human resource development. I am a trained psychologist and an academic one at that. Naturally I have my predilections leaning more towards academic narration than displaying any practical wisdom. I have no regrets. Psychology has a long past and short history. Similarly is management science and human resource development. There is nothing new about this field that human abilities and skills have to be developed and utilized for the benefit all concerned. Be it agricultural operations, or urban activities in terms of various organizations human element stands up as the most prominent component. Little wonder that modern man has devised well cultivated, fine turned methods of developing and using human resources. The employer looks for the best available talent to meet his needs. A business enterprise is naturally and rightly seeking to make as much profit as possible and increases its
  • 262 market share in a severely competitive world of business. They need the best of material resources and the best of human resources. In our ramblings in this book our focus is human resources. The historical perspective and even the later developments indicate that the social scientists are acting more as technical support to management for furthering the goals of the latter with a slogan as it were minimum input and maximum output. Those scientists were an intelligent lot. They devised work methods and training to suit this interest. There was F.W Taylor, there was Gilbreth, there was Elton Mayo, and just look at the work of all these personalities. They are impressive and well directed towards the goal of work effectiveness. Disenchantment was felt later. Later motivational experts arrived. These experts were not concerned with changing the work methods but operated on motivation as related to work – or work motivation. Then a group of scientists came on the scene that did recognize the higher reaches of human activity. To this group belong Atkinson, Maslow, Carl Rogers, and a few others. Today things stand there. I am not touching on other developments such as labor movement, trade unionism, collective bargaining, etc; these also have added their share of interest in the area of organizational effectiveness. My focus as the title of the book indicates is on human resource development and organizational effectiveness. The two are intimately inter- woven. One cannot exist with out the other. Any attempt to put across ideas about organizational effectiveness normally overlaps on human resource development and vice – versa. We can put it as OE in HRD or HRD in OE.
  • 263 Several areas have been examined and I do not claim to have examined all that is there. . Literature in this area is very vast, several authors have certain predilection of their own and at the same time overlap is not altogether avoidable... Starting with what is meant by a resource and how human being is treasure of many resources, some pronounced, some not so pronounced I have gone through a fair sample of human behavior in a few roles and factors that given these behaviours. Shop floor workers, middle level managers, top management positions all call forth for certain resourcefulness. These are cultivated in a proper environment endowment interaction resulting in activity paving the way for development. My question is whether human resource development is the goal or a medium for serving some other goal or goals. If it is the latter whose goal or goals human resource development serves? My next question is at whose initiative this concept and subsequent programme is developed? Did the worker want it? If so why does he want it? Does the management want it, then why? Are we not in a new avatar serving as technicians of the personnel department of the organization as Taylor did, or Gilbert did or any one else including motivational psychologists? To put it in a nutshell locate the motive behind the programme of human resource development (HRD). All these questions can be put to rest when we think of lager interest of the economic growth of the nation. In these days of globalise economy these measures may have to be taken. Some of these ethical issues have been dealt with in the Chapter XIV RESEARCH NEEDS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT. I have traced several areas where human resource concepts are directly applicable. They are mainly personality, performance appraisal, attitudes and job satisfaction, abilities and so on. An enlightened management does not stop with recruitment, but continues to
  • 264 follow up towards enriching the employee all around. This serves both the employee and the organization. Research is a continuous process. The organization has the obligation to conduct research as much as if not more than they generally do on material resources. The philosophy should be that an organization is known more by the people in it than any thing else. Appropriate human resource is not as easily replaceable as material resources because of the very nature and complexity of this most valuable component of the total organization. It is obligatory on the part of the organization to carry out a well-planned comprehensive employee induction process to acclimatize them to the ethos of the organization. This should not be left to the natural process that any way takes place, but to be sure this takes a long time and in addition can be disturbing. A prosperous organization is one that has happy and prosperous work force. I have tried simplicity in my exposition with out sacrificing professional approach to the al important area of human behaviour. I have taken a stand that human resource development does not exist in a vacuum. It has to anchor in organizational effectiveness. Human resource develops by itself and by the support of others. This is a general aspect. But in the context of writing this book I have necessarily confined to organizations, that is the work place where we all spend a major part of each working day in particular and major part of our life span n general. Organizations have a role to play in human resource development for multiple reasons. . The philosophy is not merely to grow, but to develop, and to contribute. Take the road to success and happiness and prosperity.
  • 265 Employee –employer relations as key to success of any business organization is not a new idea. It is a psycho-socio-economic interpersonal interactional process among all those who constitute a business organization. The significant key to good employee – employer relations is effective communication within the entire organization involving all cadres from the very top to the shop floor. Growth of social values like democracy has their influence in this regard. Trade unions have an important role to play in this process, as they are themselves based on democratic values. Middle level management is the pivot in employee- employer relations. Leadership style is the key factor. Managers are institutional leaders and to be effective they should exhibit certain positive qualities. Levels of Management 1. Top level management – the big boss, 2. Middle level management – the boss, 3. The front line management – foremen/supervisors. Leaders at different levels do come into contact with all others in different degrees related to different levels of functioning of the employees. Leadership is an interactive process. Qualities of a good leader
  • 266 A few of the salient qualities may be listed. The list cannot be exhaustive. 1. Intelligence, good judgment, insight, imagination, sense of humour, sense of justice, a balanced personality, flexibility, open-mindedness. 2. Sound health, energy, and enthusiasm. 3. Sound technical / connected knowledge / expertise in his specific area of function. Good leaders delegate authority and equally handle authority to them efficiently. They are fair minded and are available to all employees irrespective of cadre and hierarchy. They discuss problems with concerned personnel to find solutions. They appreciate and recognize merit. They sincerely exhibit patience and understanding. Leaders who are not efficient depend on higher ups as an easy way to problem solution. They are not adequately equipped with technical knowledge or knowledge specific to their function that is necessary for efficient functioning. They do not hesitate interfering in the on going work of an employee. They are often self-contradictory, impulsive, and emotional. Efficient management is dependent on the quality 0f harmonious relations within all the personnel of the total organization. Management and Leadership Leadership is a broader concept. Management is organization specific. Planning, organizing, and motivating are the three pillars of organizational management. Planning implies goal setting with specific objectives. Organization implies bringing people together and handling human resources development and utilization. Motivating employees implies the ability to bring out the best of the available human resource.
  • 267 Motivation Among the three pillars mentioned above motivation an abstract attribute needs a special mention. There are two aspects of motivation requiring our attention. They are: motivating behaviour, and motivating environment. Motivating behaviour 1. Behaviour is goal seeking, goal oriented. Every individual has a desired to attain some goal or other or even multiplicity of goals. 2. This desire may be rooted in intrinsic or extrinsic factors. 3. An effective leader identifies and strengthens the intrinsic factors and thus enhances the possibility to act or not to act in a direction that the manager desires. 4. An effective leader provides external situations that stimulate or triggers intrinsic factors. 5. Whenever a worker shows inadequacy the leader should make efforts to strengthen the desire of the worker to realize the goal by suitable encouragements. 6. Leaders should recognize multiplicity of needs of workers. Need system is more complex than what can be represented in a single write up. 7. High level goals stretch the individuals too far and may diminish motivation. Realistic goal setting appears meaning full. Motivating environment This has been an issue of intense research studies in the past. The issue raised was the extent to which environmental manipulation could positively affect employee performance. If any of the environmental factors were thought to influence employee performance one could go after it. The extensive studies carried out did not provide any clue. The corporate organization
  • 268 The management decides on policy and adopts a procedure, structures a job and introduces a specific technology for the execution of the same. In effect it utilizes procedures for motivation. These may support status quo in employee – employer relations. The cognisance of this possibility promotes a fresh thinking for innovation. Management starts thinking methods of introducing change in as many aspects of its functioning. Corporate planning has to reckon with external influences supportive or otherwise and adjust accordingly. Utilization of available human resource coupled with human resource development programme goes a long way in registering organizational success in its own progress and in equal measure keep the employee-employer relations in good shape. This contributes national benefit as well.
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  • 270 ATKINSON, J.W: Motivational determinants of risk taking behaviour, Psychological Review, 64, 359-372, 1959. BAKAN, P. Effect of set and work speed on estimation of time, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 5, 147-148, 1955, in Psychological Abstracts, 30, 5567, 1956. BARTITZ, L: The servant of power, Middletown, Conan. Wesleyan University Press: 1960; in Organizational Behaviour, Abraham K Korman, Prentice Hall, inc. 1971. BEUCE, M. R.: The effects of behavioural expectations scale and graphic rating scales on employee attitude, behaviour and motivation, Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 64 – 69, 1977. BHATIA, O. P.: Participative approach to performance appraisal design, Indian Manager, 5, 415 – 423, 1974. BINGHAM, W. V.: Halo, invalid and valid... Journal of Applied Psychology: 23, 221 – 228, 1939. BINNEY R. C., BURDICK. H and TEEVAN R.C. Fear of failure, Princeton N. J. Van Nostrand – Rein Hold, 1969.BLUM, M. L., and NAYLOR, J. C.: Industrial Psychology: Its Theoretical and Social Foundations, Harper and Row Publishers, 1948. BORING, E. G.: A Study of Experimental Psychology, New York, Appleton – century crafts, 1950. BORMAN, W. C.,; Effects of instructions to avoid halo error on reliability and validity of performance evaluation ratings, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 556, 560, 1975.
  • 271 BORMAN, W.C., and VALLON, W.R. A view of what can happen when behavioural expectations scales are developed in one setting and used in another. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974, 59, 307 – 312. BRAUDON, S.G.F.: Time consciousness as the basic factor in human culture. Documenta Geigy, 4-5, 1970 BRUNER, J.S., GOODNOW, J.J., and AWASTIN, G.A. A study of thinking: Wily, New York, 1956. BURT, C.: The psychology of creative ability, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 32, 292 – 298, 1962. BYRD, R.E., A Guide too personal risk – taking, American Management Association publication AMACOM, 1974 CARTWRIGHT, D, ZANDER, (1960) (cited in Leonard Weller), the effect of anxiety on cohesiveness and rejection, Human Relations 16(2), 189-198, 1985, Chronback, and L. J.: Essential of Psychological Testing, Harper and Row, New York, 1960. COTTLE, T. J.: Perceiving time: John Wily and Sons, 1976. DECI, E. L. The effects of contingent and non contingent rewards and controls on contingent rewards and controls on institute motivation, organizational behaviour and Human Performance, 8, 217 – 229, 1972, in Organizational Behaviour Abraham K. Korman, Practice Hall, 1971. DUFFY, E.: The Concept of Energy Mobilization. Psychological Reviews, 58, 30 – 40, 1951 ETIZIONI A: Modern organizations. Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New 1964
  • 272 ETIZIONI AMITAI: A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations in Power, Involvement and their correlates. New York: The Free Press, 1961, in Hersey, P., and Blanchew, K. H.: Management of organizational behaviour, Practice Hall, India, 1977. EYSENCK, H. J., ARNOLD. W. AND MEILI, R.: Encyclopaedia of psychology, Fontana/Collins in association with search press. 1972 FRENCH, J.R.P.: The conceptualisation and management of mental health in terms of self-identity theory, in Sells, S.B. (Ed), 136-169, 1966. FESTINGER, L.: A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, New York, Harper, and Row, 1957. FESTINGER, L: The theory of cognitive dissonance, Evanston, III Row Patterson, 1959. FESTINGER, L; SGHACHTER, S and BACK KURTEN, Social pressure in informal groups, New York, Harper & Row Publishers, 1950. FIEDLER, F. E., The effect of leadership and cultural heterogeneity on group performance: A test of contingency model, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 2, 237 – 264, 1966. FLYNN, J.P. The mental basis of aggression in cats, in D. C.Glass (Ed). Neuropsychology and emotion, New York Rockefeller University press, 40 – 60, 1967 in motivation. An experimental approach, E. D. Ferguson Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976 FRAISE, P. The psychology of time, Harper and Row, 1963 FRANK, L.: Time Perspectives, Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 293 – 312, 1939.
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  • 275 HERZBERG, F. B. MAUSNER, PETERSON, R.O. and CAPWELL, D. F. Job attitudes, review of research and opinion. Psychol. service of Pittsburgh, 1957, in Organizational Behaviour, Abraham K. Korman, Practice Hall. 1971. HOLZBECH, R. L.: Rater bias in performance ratings, Superior, self, and peer rating Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 579 – 585, 1978. HORNER, M.S. “Sex differences in achievement motivation and performance in competitive and non – competitive situations” PhD. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1968. In Organizational Psychology, Abraham K. Korman, Practice Hall, inc. USA, in Abraham Korman Organizational Behaviour, Prentice Hall, 1971 HOUSE, R. J., and KERR, S.: Organizational independence, Reader Behaviour and managerial practices; A replication study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 579 – 585, 1973 KASTENBAUN, R The structure of time perspective Journal of psychological Researches, 8, 1- 11, 1964. KEITH DAVIS: Human Behaviour at work, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 1977. KENT, D. A. and EISENBERG, T.: The selection and promotion of police officers, Police Chief, 20 – 29, 1972. KOHN, M. L. and SCHOOLER, C.: Occupational experience and psychological functioning, An Assessment of reciprocal effects. American Sociological, 38, 97 – 118, 1973 KOHN, M. L., and SCHOOLER, C.: Class occupation and orientation. American Sociological Reviewer, 34, 659 – 678, 1969
  • 276 KORMAN, A. K.: “Consideration, Initiating Structure and Organizational Criteria – A Review” Personnel Psychology, A journal Applied Research XIX, no. 4, 349-361, 1966. KORNHAUSER, A.: Mental health of the automobile worker. New York: John Wiley, 1965. LAMM, H, SCHMIOT, W.R, and TROMM SDROFF, G.: Sex and social class as determinants of future orientation (Time Perspective) in adolescence. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 34(3), 1974 LANDY, F. J., AND FRARR, J. L.: Performance rating Psychological bulletin, 87, 72 – 107, 1980. LANDY, F. J., BARNES, and MURPHY, K., correlates of perceived fairness and accuracy in performance appraisal, Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 751 – 754, 1978. LAWLER, E. and PORTER, L. W. Antecedent attitudes of effective managerial performance, Organizational behaviour and Human Performance, 2, 122 – 142, 1967 in Organizational Behaviour, Abraham K. Korman. LEWIN K. “Frontiers in group dynamics” Human Relations, 1, 5 – 41, 1947. LEWIN, K. Resolving social conflicts – Selected Papers in Group Dynamics, New York, Harper, 1948. LEWIN, K.: Field theory and social science. Harper, New York, 1951 LIKERT, R. The Human Organization, New York: Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1967. LOCKE, E. A.: “What is job satisfaction?” Organizational behaviour and human performance IV, 309 – 336, 1969
  • 277 LOEHLIN, J.C: The influence of different activities in the apparent length of time, Psychological Monographs, 73, Whole number, 474, 1959. MALTZMAN, I.: On the training of orientation Psychological Review, 67, 219 – 242, 1960. MASLOW, A. H. Motivation and Personality, New York, Harper and Row, Publishers, 1954 Mc CLELLAND, D. C. The Achieving Society Princeton N. J Van Nostrand, 1961 Mc CLELLAND, D. C.: Testing for competence rather than “Intelligence” American Psychologist. Mc CLELLAND, D. C.: The achieving society, Van Nestrand, New York, 1961. Mc GREGOR, D.: The Human side of enterprise, New York, Mc Graw Hill, Book Company, 1960 Mc GREGOR, D.: The human Side of Enterprises, New York, Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1960. Mc GUIRE, W. J.: The nature attitude and attitude research in Lindzey. G. and Aronson. E (Ed) Hand book of social psychology, 2nd (Ed) volume 3, London, 1969. MEADE, R.O.: Psychological time in India and America. Journal of Social Psychology, 76 (2), 169 – 174, 1968. MEYER, H. H., and WALKER, W. B.: A study of factors relating to the effectiveness of a performance appraisal programmes, Personnel Psychology, 14, 291 – 298, 1961.
  • 278 MILGRAM, S. Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority Current Studies in social psychology, in Organizational Behaviour Abraham K. Korman, Practice Hall, 1971 MILGRAM, S.: Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. In G. Steiner and M. Fishbein (Eds), Current studies in social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965, pp. 243 – 261. MILGRAM. S.: Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human Relations, 1965, 18, 57 – 65. NILES, M.C. Middle Management; The job of the junior administrator, Harper, New York, 1944 PARAMESH C.R..: Creativity and personality, 1st Edition, Janatha Printing and Publishing Company, Madras, 102-113, 1972. PARAMESH, C. R.: Creativity and personality, Janatha Printing and Publishing co. Private Ltd. 1972. PARAVATHI, S. Motivation, time prospecting and managerial behavior among middle management personnel, unpublished Ph. D., Thesis, University of Madras, 1985. PIFFNER, J. M. and SHERWOOD, F.P Administrative Organization, Eagle wood Cliffs, N – 3, Practice Hall, 1960 PORTER, L. W. and LAWLER, E.., III Managerial attitude and performance, House Wood, III Dorsey press, 1968. PORTER, L. W. and STEERS, R. M.: Organizational, work and personal factors in employee turn over and abstraction, Psychological Bulletin, 80, 154 – 176, 1973.
  • 279 PORTER, L.W. and LAWLER, E.: Properties of organizational structure in relation to job attitudes and job behaviour, Psychological Bulletin, 64, 23-51, 1965. PRIEN, E. P., and LISKE, R. E.: Assessment of high level personnel. III Rating Criteria: Comparative analysis of supervisory ratings and incumbent self – ratings of job performance. Personnel Psychology, 15, 187 – 194, 1962 RAMA RAO, P and SAI PRASAD, A: An experimental study of comparative judgment elapsed time since past events to now. Journal of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 10 (i), 1-14, 1973 RAMA RAO, P. and SAI PRASAD, A.: A study of relation shop between amount of work done and estimation of elapsed time, Indian Journal of experimental psychology, 7(1), 34 – 36, 1973. RAMA RAO, P. Studies in Time Perception, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1978. RAMA RAO, P: Studies in Time Perception, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1978. REDDIN, W. J.: The 3 – D Management Style Theory, “Training and Development Journal”, 1967 REDDIN, W. J: Management Effectiveness:, New York, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1970. SCHWAB, D. P., HENEMAN, H. G. IV, and DECOTTIS: Behaviourally anchored rating scales. A review of literature:. Personnel Psychology, 28, 249 – 262, 1975: .SCOTT, W. R.: Organization Rational – national and open system, Practice Hall, 1981.
  • 280 SHAH, P.: Need importance and need fulfilment in managerial levels, Indian Management, 29-45, May, 1976. SINGH, S.: Effect of motivation, values, cognitive factors and child rearing attitudes on productivity among Punjab farmers. Journal of Social Psychology, 120, 273 – 278, 1967. SIVA PRASAD REDDY, M: Personality and creativity as correlates of job success among middle level managers in industrial establishments, unpublished Ph.D., Thesis, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, 1967 SMITH, P. C., KENDALL, L. M.: Retranslation of expectations approach to the construction of unambiguous anchors for rating scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47, 149 – 155, 1963 SPEARMAN, C. E.: The Abilities of man, New York, Macmillan, 1927. SUBHA, V. Job attitudes at work – a study among different managerial level, unpublished M Phil. Dissertation: University of Madras, 1979. SZILAGY, A. D. Jr., and WALLACE, M. J. Jr., Organizational Behaviour and performance Santa Monica, Good Year 1980, in Organization Behaviour Abraham K. Korman, Practice Hall, 1971. TANNENBAUM, A.S.: Social psychology of the work Organization, Belmont Calf, Work Organization, Wadsworth Publishing co., 1966. THURSTONE, L. L.: Primary Mental Abilities, Chicago: Psychometric Laboratory, University of Chicago, Report no. 50, 1948. UNNI, K. A.: The new managers, Indian management, 1976.
  • 281 VERNON, P.E.: Creativity and intelligence Educational research, 6, 163 – 196, 1964. VIJAYALAKSHMI, H: Risk taking behaviour, future time perspective and job performance of managerial personnel, Unpublished Ph. D, Thesis, University of Madras, 1982. VROOM, V. H.: Work and motivation, Wiley New York, 1964. WALLACH, M. A., and KOGAN, N: Modes of thinking in young children: A study of creativity – intelligence distinction, New York; Holt Rinehart and Wisdom, 1965. WARKE, D. L., BILLINGS, R. S.: Comparison of training methods for improving the psychometric quality of experimental and performance rating. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 124 – 131, 1979 WEBER, M: The theory of social and economic organization, Trans and... T Princeton and A.M. Henderson, New York, Oxford University Press, 1947, WOFFORD, J. C.: Factor analysis or managerial behaviour variables. Journal of Applied Psychology: 54, 169 – 173, 1970. ZEDECK,S., KAFFY, D., and JACOBS, R., format and scoring variations in behavioural expectation evaluations, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 17, 171- 184, 1976, in organization behaviour Abraham K. Korman, Practice Hall, 1971.
  • 282 RECOMMENDED READING ABRAHAM, K. KORMAN: Organizational Behaviour, Practice Hall, inc., 1971. BLUM M, NAYLOR J: Industrial Psychology: Its theoretical and social foundations, Third Edition, New York, Harper and Row, 1968. BROWN, JAC; Social Psychology of Industry, Penguin Books Ltd., 1954 CHAKRABORTY, S.K; Management by Objectives, McMillan Company, India, 1976 GIRISHBALA MOHANTY; Text Book of Industrial Psychology, OXFORD & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1983 MICHAEL M GRUNEBERG: (Ed) Job satisfaction, A Reader, MCMILLN PRESS Ltd. 1976. PAUL HERSEY, KENNETH AB, and BHANCHARD: Management of Organizational Behaviour, Prentice Hall of India, 1977.
  • 283 Name Index Ahmed, A. A. Eisenberg, T. Allport, G. W. Eltizioni, A. Argyris, C. Etzione Amitai, A. Asch, S. Atkinson, J. W. Farr, J. L. Festinger, L. Back Kurtin Fiedler, F. E. Bakan, P. Flynn, J. P. Baritz, L. Frank, L. Barnes, J. French John, R. P. Barret, G. V. Frey, R. L. Jr. Beuce, M. R. Bhatia, D. P. Getzeis, J. W. Billings, R. S. Ghiselli , E. Bingham, W. V. Gilckerman, A.S. Binne, R. C. Giles, B. A. Blum, M. L. Gilmer, V. B. H. Boring. E. G. Goldstein, I. L. Borman, W. C. Goodman, P. S. Burdick, H. Goodstart, B. E. Burt, C. Gordon, W. J. J. Grishbala Mohanty Cartwright, D. Guilford, J. P. Chronbach, L. J. Guion, R. M. Cottle, J. J. Haas, J. A. Deci,E. L. Heneman, H. J. Decottis, D.P. Herzberg, V. B.
  • 284 Holzbech, R. C. McGuire, W. J. Horner, M. S. McLelland, D. C. House, R. J. Meade, R. O. Houstan, J. P. Mednick,S. A. Meyer, H. H. Jackson, P. W. Michon, J. A. Jacobs, R. Milgram, P. Murphy, K. Kaffy, D. Keith Davis Naylor, J. C. Kendal, L. M. Kendirth, R. Paramesh, C. R. Kent, D. A. Parvathi, S. Kerr, S. Porter, L. W. Kogan, N. Prien, E. P. Kohn, M. C. Korman, A. K Rama Rao, P. Raven, B. Lamm, H. Redden, W. J. Landy, F. J. Romanzuk, A. P. Lawler, E. Lewin, K. Schachter, S. Likert, R. Schmiot, W. R. Liska, R. E. Schooler, C. Locke, E. A. Schwab, D. P. Loehlin,J. C. Scott, W. R. Shaw, P. Maltzman, I. Shiva Prasad Reddy, M. Maslow, A. H. Singh, S. McGregor, D. Smith, P. C.
  • 285 Spearman, C. E. Vijayalakshmi, H. Steers, R. M. Vroom, M. H. Subha, V. Szilagyc, A. D. Jr. Walker, W. B. Tannebaum, A. S. Wallace, M. J. Jr. Teevan, R. C. Wallach, M. A. Thurstone, L. L. Warmke, D. L. Trommscdroff, G. Weber, M. Wofford, J. C. Unni, K. A. Zander, R Vernon, P. E. Zedeck, S
  • 286 SUBJECT INDEX Achievement motivation Fear of failure Affection Fear of success Aptitude tests Attitude Goal activity Attitude change Goal directed behaviour Group cohesiveness Behaviour dimensions of Group dynamics leadership Hawthorne studies Causal beliefs HRD functions Classical theory Human Resource Cognition Human resource Cognitive dissonance development Conation Creative process Industrial psychology Creativity Job satisfaction Definition KAP Economic man Emotion motivation Leader – Three- relation dimensional model Employee induction Leader effectiveness Employee selection Leader personality traits Ethics and responsibilities Leadership behaviour of Leadership style psychologists Level of aspiration Level of expectation
  • 287 Motivation Research into intelligence Motivation: and abilities environmental factors Research needs in HRD Risk – taking Organizational effectiveness Scientific Principles Self – actualisation Performance appraisal Self – appraisal Personal specifications Social Learning Theory of Personality Personality Personality and job Systems approach performance Personality research Temporal perspective Personality theories Theory X and theory Y Personnel selection Training program validity Psychoanalytic approach Psychological tests Validity Variables Reinforcement Reliability Wofford‟s managerial style ***** Feedback to email: Palamandrr@yahoo.com