Nutr 132 Chapter 4 Boyle St
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  • 1. Chapter 4: The Lipids Presented by Michelle Loy, MPH, MS, RD
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • At the completion of this section, the students will be able to:
      • Describe the functions of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
      • Differentiate the 3 types of fatty acids
      • Define trans fats and explain their effect on human health
      • Outline the steps involved in fat digestion, absorption, and transportation
  • 3.
      • Discuss the roles of fats in the body and in food
      • Discuss the relationship between lipids and health (cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity)
      • Review a diet and suggest modifications so that it would meet current recommendations for the types and amounts of fat.
    Learning Objectives
  • 4.
      • Define the types of essential fatty acids and their functions
      • Differentiate between visible and invisible fats in food
      • Identify major sources of saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega-6, omega-3, and trans fatty acids and cholesterol in the diet.
    Learning Objectives
  • 5. What Are Fats?
  • 6. Types of Lipids -- Triglycerides
    • Most commonly found in food and in body storage
    • Properties determined by fatty acids they contain
  • 7. Saturated vs Unsaturated Fatty acids
  • 8. Different Unsaturated Fatty Acids: Essential Fatty Acids
    • Must be consumed in the diet
      • Linoleic acid (  -6) and alpha-linolenic acid (  -3)
  • 9. Different Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • The hydrogen atoms at the unsaturated region can be arranged in different positions:
      • Cis
      • Trans
    • Hydrogenation
  • 10. Foods Contain Varying Amounts of Fatty Acids
  • 11. Types of Lipids --
    • Key role in structure of cell membranes
    • Manufactured in our bodies so they are not required in our diet
  • 12. Types of Lipids --
    • Cholesterol:
      • Made only by animals in the liver
      • Component of cell membrane and myelin
      • Needed for synthesis of vitamin D, bile, and some hormones
  • 13.
    • Plant sterols and stanols
      • Naturally found in some vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, legumes, grain products, fruits, and vegetables
      • Have been added to common foods
      • Help lower LDL-cholesterol
        • 2-3 g/d of plant sterols or stanols
    Types of Lipids --
  • 14. Digestion of Fats
  • 15. Roles of fats in the body
    • Energy
    • Insulation
    • Nerve cell transmissions
  • 16. Roles of fat in food
    • Nutrient
    • Transport
    • Appetite
    • Flavor and texture
  • 17. Recommendations
    • The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat:
      • _________% of calories should be from fat
    • Cholesterol <_____ mg/d for a healthy adult population
      • <200 mg/d for adults with elevated blood LDL-cholesterol levels
  • 18. Recommendations
    • The type of fat consumed is important.
      • Saturated fat should be no more than ___% of total calories.
      • Trans fatty acids should be reduced to the absolute minimum .
      • Most fat in our diets should be from monounsaturated fats.
  • 19.
    • Dietary Guidelines
      • When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free.
      • Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils
    Recommendations
  • 20.
      • Mostly found in animal products
        • Fatty cuts of meat
        • Poultry with skin
        • Lard
        • Whole milk dairy products (whole or 2% milk, yogurt, cheese, ice cream)
        • Butter
        • Tropical oils (palm, palm kernel, coconut)
    Food Sources of Fat
  • 21. Food Sources of Fat
      • Found in greatest amounts in food from plants
        • Olive, canola, sunflower, peanut oils
        • Olives
        • Nuts
        • Avocados
      • Found in great amounts in food from plants
        • Safflower, canola, sunflower, corn, soybean, flaxseed, and cottonseed oil
        • Nuts
  • 22. Major sources of trans fats in the diet
  • 23.
      • EPA and DHA
        • Seafood – fatty, coldwater fish
          • Salmon, mackerel, herring
          • 12-14 oz of fish/week
      • ALA
        • Flaxseeds, flaxseed oil
        • Walnuts
        • Soybean and canola oil (small amount)
    Food Sources of Fat
  • 24. Food Sources of Fat
    • Dietary cholesterol
      • Only found in animal foods
      • Sources
        • Egg yolk, beef, poultry, cheese, milk, shellfish, organ meat
  • 25. Food Sources of Fat
      • Fats we can see in our foods or knowingly add to foods
      • Fats hidden in foods
      • Naturally occurring or added during processing
  • 26. Lipids and Health
    • Too little fat:
    • Essential fatty acid deficiency
    • Too much total fat and too much “bad” fat
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Cancer
      • Obesity
  • 27. Dietary Fat and Heart Disease
    • Buildup of fatty material in the artery walls cause atherosclerosis
  • 28. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease
  • 29. Cardiovascular Disease
    • Blood lipids include
      • Triglycerides
      • Chylomicrons
      • VLDLs – very low-density lipoproteins
      • LDLs – low-density lipoproteins
        • “ bad cholesterol”
      • HDLs – high-density lipoproteins
        • “ good cholesterol”
  • 30. Dietary Factors That Promote Heart Disease
    • Dietary Cholesterol
      • Gene-dependent
      • Increases LDL cholesterol in the blood
      • Increases blood LDL cholesterol levels
      • Lower HDL cholesterol levels
    • Excess Energy
      • Increases body fat
  • 31. Dietary Factors That Protect Against Heart Disease
    •  -6 fatty acids
      • Lower both LDL and HDL cholesterol
    •  -3 fatty acids
      • Lower LDL cholesterol
      • Other benefits
    • Monounsaturated fat
      • Decrease LDL cholesterol
    • Plant foods
      • Fiber and antioxidants
    • B vitamins
      • Decrease blood homocysteine level
    • Moderate alcohol consumption
  • 32. Dietary Fat and Cancer
    • Diets high in fat and low in fiber and plant foods are correlated with the incidence of cancer.
      • Breast cancer
      • Colon cancer
  • 33. Dietary Fat and Obesity
    • A high-fat meal contains more kcalories than a low-fat meal of the same volume.
    • Energy from fat is less satiating than energy from carbohydrates.
    • It takes less energy for the body to use fat as an energy source.
    • However , fat content is unlikely the reason for the high obesity rate in the U.S.
  • 34. Reasons to keep fat intake low
    • Diets lower in fat are generally lower in calories and thereby help achieve and maintain healthy body weight
    • Diets low in saturated and trans fats reduce the risk of heart disease
    • Diets lower in fat, particularly saturated fat, may lower the risks of some cancers
    • Diets with fewer calories from fat have more room for health promoting foods
  • 35. Translating recommendations into healthy diets
    • Read food labels
    • Choose added fats carefully
      • Limit amounts
      • Choose healthier fats
    • Choose protein sources wisely
    • Substitute low-fat ingredients for high-fat ingredients in recipes
    • Choose leaner cooking methods
    • Choose smaller portions of higher fat items
    • Reduce frequency of consumption of higher fat items
    • Increase vegetables and fruits
  • 36. How to Choose Fats Wisely
  • 37. Assignment
    • On at least one day this week:
      • Incorporate at least 1 source of healthy fat
      • Reduce at least 1 source of unhealthy fat